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E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.r.hist.soo. 


fT. E. PAGE, o.h., litt.d. tE. CAPPS, ph.d., ll.d. 

fW. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. L. A. POST, l.h.d. 




W. R. M. LAMB, M.A. 







First printed 1930 
Reprinted 1943, 1957, I960, 1987 

Printed in Great Britain 



Preface vii 

Select Bibliography ..... viii 

General Introduction ix 

Chronological Summary .... xxi 

I. On the Murder of Eratosthenes . 2 

II. Funeral Oration .... 28 

III. Against Simon ..... 70 

IV. On a Wound by Premeditation . . 94 
V. For Callias : Defence on a Charge of 

Sacrilege . . . . .106 

VI. Against Andocides : For Impiety . 112 
VII. Before the Areopagus : Defence in the 

Matter of the Olive-stump . .144 

VIII. Accusation of Calumny against Fellow- 
members of a Society . . .168 
IX. For the Soldier . . . .182 
X. Against Theomnestus, I. . .196 
XI. Against Theomnestus, II. . . . 214 
XII. Against Eratosthenes . . . 221 

XIII. Against Agoratus : In Pursuance of a 

Writ 278 

XIV. Against Alcibiades, I. : For Deserting 

the Ranks ..... 334 
XV. Against Alcibiades, II. : For Refusal 

of Military Service . . 364 



\XVI. Before the Council : In Defence 
of Mantitheus at his Scrutiny . 372 
LVII. On the Property of Eraton : 

Against the Treasury . . 388 

XVIII. On the Confiscation of the Prop- 
erty of the Brother of Nicias : 
Peroration .... 398 

XIX. On the Property of Aristophanes : 

Against the Treasury . .415 

XX. For Polystratus .... 452 
XXI. Defence against a Charge of taking 

Bribes ..... 474 

XXII. Against the Corn-dealers . . 490 

XXIII. Against Pancleon .... 504 

XXIV. On the Refusal of a Pension to 

the Invalid . . . .516 
XXV. Defence against a Charge of sub- 
verting the Democracy . . 534 
XXVI. On the Scrutiny of Evandros . 558 
XXVII. Against Epicrates and his Fellow- 
envoys ..... 576 
XXVIII. Against Ergocles .... 586 
XXIX. Against Philocrates . . . 599 
XXX. Against Nicomachus . . . 609 
XXXI. Against Philon, on his Scrutiny . 634 
XXXII. Against Diogeiton . . . 656 

XXXIII. Olympic Oration . . . .680 

XXXIV. Against the Subversion of the An- 

cestral Constitution of Athens. 691 
Index 703 


The Greek text in this volume is based on the edition 
of Thalheim (Teubner, 1901) : the emendations which 
have been accepted from him and other scholars are 
indicated in the notes as they occur. 

The translation is intended to show something of 
the structure as well as the full sense of the original, 
so far as English speech will permit, in order to give 
some impression of the versatile tact with which 
Lysias adapted his style to the various characters of 
his clients. The introductions, notes and translations 
in the excellent edition of MM. Gernet and Bizos 
(" Les Belles Lettres," 1924) have been helpful at 
many points of difficulty or doubt. For more detailed 
information and discussion than the scope of this 
volume allows the English reader is referred to Jebb's 
Attic Orators (Macmillan, 1876) and Shuckburgh's 
edition of sixteen of the speeches (Macmillan, 1895). 

W. R. M. LAMB. 

a 2 vii 


I. Editions 

Oratores Attici : G. S. Dobson, with commentaries of 
H. Stephanus, J. J. Scaliger, J. Taylor, J. Markland. 
J. J. Reiske, etc. 1828, vol. ii. 

i. Bekker, 1822. 

J. G. Baiter and H. Sauppe, 1839. 

C. M. Francken, 1865. 

C. Scheibe (Teubner), 2nd ed. 1876. 

H. Frohberger, revised by T. Thalheim, 1892. 

E. S. Shuckburgh (select speeches), 1895. 

R. Rauchenstein (selections), revised by Fuhr, 1897. 

M. H. Morgan (eight orations), 1897. 

R. C. Jebb (selections), 2nd ed. 1899. 

T. Thalheim (Teubner), 1901. 

C. G. Cobet, revised by Hartmann, 1905. 

C. D. Adams (select speeches), 1905. 

C. Hude (Oxford text), 1912. 

L. Gernet and M. Bizos (" Les Belles Lettres "), 1924. 

II. Discussions 

J. Franz, Dissertatio, 1830. 

H. Sauppe, Epistola critica ad O. Hermannum, 1841. 

F. Blass, Die attische Beredsamkeit, 1868: 2nd ed. 1887, 

vol i. 
R. C. Jebb, The Attic Orators, 2nd ed. 1893. 
M. Erdmann, De Pseudo-Lysiae Epitaphii codicibus, 1881. 
Lysiaca, 1891 



Our surest information concerning the life of Lysias 
is derived from his own statements in the speeches 
Against Eratosthenes and Against Hippotherses, a and 
also, in a more general way, from Plato's account of 
him in the Phaedrus. These indications, together 
with the most probable among the statements of later 
tradition, 5 enable us to construct a fairly definite out- 
line of his character and career. His father, Cephalus, 
was a wealthy shield-maker of Syracuse who, on the 
invitation of Pericles, had settled as a resident alien in 
the Peiraeus about 470 B.C. The opening pages of 
Plato's Republic give us a pleasant glimpse of Cephalus 
in extreme old age : he is in full possession of his 
faculties, and his cheerfulness, good sense and love of 
intelligent discussion evoke the warm admiration of 
Socrates, who meets him in the house of Cephalus 's 
eldest son, Polemarchus, in the Peiraeus ; Lysias and a 
third son, Euthydemus, are also present. It is clear 
that the house was a favourite meeting-place of the 
most cultivated men who lived or stayed in Athens. 
The date of Lysias 's birth cannot be fixed with any 
certainty. Tradition places it in 458-457 b.c There is 

a Of the latter only a few fragments have survived {Oxy- 
rhynchus Papyri, xiii., Grenfell and Hunt, 1919) ; see p. xviii. 

6 Collected in the Lives of the Ten Orators, a work formerly 
attributed to Plutarch. 



no serious difficulty in accepting this date, and with it 
the story that he went in early youth, after his father's 
death, a tothe new colony of Thurii in the south of Italy 
about 440 b.c. In this settlement, which was intended 
to promote Athenian interests in Italy, he lived with 
his brother Polemarchus till 412 B.C., studying for a 
while under the Sicilian rhetorician Tisias, and then, 
as a man of ample means and leisure, exercising a 
natural gift for a clear and impressive prose-style, and 
taking an active part in public affairs.* His sym- 
pathies were wholly and strongly on the side of the 
democrats in the town, who were just able to hold 
their own against the oligarchs : that the latter had 
at times the upper hand is shown by their reception of 
Alcibiades when he was in disgrace after the affair of 
the Hermae (41 5 b.c). But two years later they were 
overpowered and banished by the democrats ; and 
Demosthenes, in command of the second Sicilian 
expedition sent from Athens, obtained useful support 
from the people of Thurii. The disastrous failure of 
the Athenians at Syracuse (413) produced an oli- 
garchical revolution in the colony, and Lysias's turn 
came to be banished (412). He betook himself to 
Athens, which he had left about thirty years before 
in the height of her power and splendour. 

It is probable that during his long absence he had 
kept in touch with literary movements and triumphs 

For the purpose of his scene in the Republic Plato seems 
to have imagined Cephalus to be alive as late as 430, or even 
410 b.c. 

6 Although he represents himself at the beginning of the 
speech Against Eratosthenes (XII. 3) as inexperienced in 
oratory, the fluency and force of that performance suggest 
that he had had considerable practice in public speaking at 


in that brilliant epoch of Athenian culture. Sophocles, 
Euripides and Aristophanes had led dramatic poetry 
along their several paths to unexplored heights of 
beauty and power, while on a humbler level Antiphon 
had been stimulated by the teachings of Protagoras 
and Prodicus to evolve an effective prose-form for the 
use of pleaders in the law-courts. Moreover, the 
arrival of Gorgias from Sicily in 427 had awakened the 
ears and minds of the Athenians to the potent 
charms of antithetical and ornamental speech. And 
when Lysias returned to Athens, the young Plato was 
listening spell-bound to the talk of Socrates, who was 
now fifty-eight years old, and who, since the produc- 
tion of Aristophanes' Clouds (423), had become famous 
in the city for the sly humour with which he inveigled 
young men into perturbing arguments on the prin- 
ciples of their conduct and thought. 

Lysias and Polemarchus (who definitely joined the 
Socratic circle) were doubtless delighted to escape 
from the petty politics of Thurii : but affairs in 
Athens were by no means tranquil. The occupation 
of a part of Attica by the Spartans resulted in the loss 
of a main source of Athenian revenue, the silver mines 
of Laurion ; and everywhere the allies were revolting. 
A deep weariness under the protracted struggle of the 
Peloponnesian War was expressed by Aristophanes in 
his Lysistrata (411), and the oligarchic party began to 
rear its head amid the general discontent. Making 
use of the menace of a Persian alliance with Sparta, a 
number of conspirators induced the democracy to 
restrict its executive to a Council of four hundred 
representatives of the ten tribes, and this body was in 
power for a few months. But, as Thucydides observed, 
° viii. 68. 



although the new government had been contrived 
by such able men as Antiphon, Phrynichus and 
Theramenes, " it was a difficult thing to deprive 
the Athenian people of liberty, when they were not 
only subject to none, but had been accustomed for 
over half a century to govern others." A strong 
democratic movement arose among the soldiers and 
sailors in the Athenian fleet at Samos, where Thrasy- 
bulus was arranging terms with Alcibiades and 
courting the support of Persia ; and the democrats 
found that the more moderate oligarchs led by 
Theramenes were ready to join hands with them. The 
Spartans defeated the Athenians in a sea-fight at 
Eretria, and the whole of Euboea, on which Athens 
was dependent for food-supplies since the hostile 
occupation of Attica, was immediately lost to her. 
The Four Hundred were deposed, and on the motion 
of Theramenes a limited democracy of Five Thousand 
was established. Successes against Sparta at sea 
(Cynossema, 411 ; Cyzicus, 410) led to a restoration of 
the old democracy, and a new temple of Athena 
Polias (the " Erechtheum ") arose near the Parthenon 
on the Acropolis. It was not long, however, before 
Persia began to weight the scales heavily in favour 
of Sparta, which had, moreover, a great advantage in 
the extraordinary abilities of Lysander. Athens had 
perforce to entrust her fortunes to the gifted but 
unstable Alcibiades, and gained a few successes ; but 
the defeat of a naval contingent through his careless- 
ness at Notion near Ephesus (407) finally discredited 
him, and he took refuge in a castle on the Hellespont. 
Next year came the Athenian victory at Arginusae, 
near Lesbos, and the democracy showed its wayward 
ill-humour by passing a death-sentence on the eight 


Athenian commanders for neglecting to rescue the 
men from the disabled vessels. Lysander obtained 
fresh support from Cyrus, and dealt the final blow to 
Athenian power at Aegospotami (405). Starvation 
and submission quickly followed ; Attica and Salamis 
were all that remained of the wide Athenian Empire, 
and the Long Walls were demolished (404). With 
Lysander 's aid the oligarchs formed a small govern- 
ment of thirty men, who held absolute and ruthless 
sway over the unhappy city for about eight months. 
During these perilous and disastrous times Lysias 
and Polemarchus were apparently carrying on a 
lucrative manufacture of arms in the Peiraeus. As 
resident aliens, they had no share in public life, except 
in the discharge of those public services which were 
required of wealthy persons ; as householders, they 
paid taxes like citizens. For some of these years 
Lysias seems to have kept a rhetorical school, and he 
certainly became noted for his skill in prose composi- 
tion. But trouble soon overtook the brothers. After 
taking vengeance on their political opponents, the 
Thirty proceeded to strip citizens and aliens alike of 
their possessions. In many cases the process was 
hastened by imprisonment and execution. Lysias 
and Polemarchus were arrested : we read in the 
single speech b that Lysias delivered in person at 
Athens the grim story of Polemarchus 's summary 
execution and Lysias 's escape to Megara. There, and 
at Corinth and Thebes, many others had sought 
refuge : the three cities were willing now to lay aside 
old enmities and help the homeless democrats, so 
sharply had the cruel excesses of the Thirty under 

This status was that of an " isoteles." 
b XII. Against Eratosthenes. 



Spartan protection revealed the horrors of unrestricted 
oligarchy. When Thrasybulus marched with seventy 
Athenian exiles from Thebes in the autumn of 404, 
and seized the fort Phyle, Lysias, who probably had 
some property outside Attica, assisted them with 
personal gifts of money and arms, and procured 
recruits and further funds through his friends. At 
length Thrasybulus was strong enough to seize the 
Peiraeus (403) and, after anxious negotiations with 
Sparta, to restore the old democracy in Athens. On 
his proposal the citizenship was conferred on Lysias, 
who at once impeached Eratosthenes, one of the 
Thirty, for the murder of Polemarchus. Shortly after- 
wards, owing to a technical irregularity in Thrasy- 
bulus 's procedure, Lysias lost his citizenship and had to 
content himself thenceforth with his previous status 
of " isoteles." This meant that, while he could write 
speeches for others, he could deliver none in public 
himself. For the time there was little to be done by 
the manufacture of arms ; and he decided to make a 
regular profession of speech-writing for lawsuits, after 
the example set by Antiphon. His aptitude for this 
work soon brought him a busy practice : we learn 
from Dionysius that his genuine works numbered 
230. Isocrates, and later Isaeus, were for some years 
his rivals in this business. From 394 B.C. he had the 
satisfaction of seeing Athens arise from her humilia- 
tion, rebuild the Long Walls, and gradually recover 
something of her former prestige in the Greek world. 
In 388 we find him addressing the great congress of 
Greeks at the Olympic festival : in grave yet fervent 
tones of personal authority he warns the Greeks 
against their two chief enemies, Dionysius, tyrant of 
Syracuse, and Artaxerxes, King of Persia, and he 


deprecates the harsh, disruptive policy of Sparta. He 
seems to have died some eight years later, having 
lived to the age of eighty. 

Of the thirty-five pieces which have been handed 
down under his name, four — the Love Speech apparently 
quoted by Plato in the Phaedrus, a the Funeral and 
Olympic Orations, and the speech Against the Subversion 
of the Ancestral Constitution — are show-pieces of no 
particular distinction : they have an interest, how- 
ever, as examples of the formal style which was 
cultivated in the sophistic schools of the fifth century ; 
and they may serve to indicate the character of his 
numerous rhetorical treatises and public addresses 
which have perished. Of the thirty-one other extant 
pieces, five are almost certainly by other writers. 
Yet there remains a goodly collection of authentic 
works, which is rich in sterling material for the history 
of human life and manners, and which marks an 
important stage in the development of literary art. 
As each plea unfolds its defence or accusation, we 
become acquainted with many details of domestic, 
commercial and civic life which the Greek historians 
have passed over as too familiar or insignificant for 
notice in their memorials. We get frequent and 
valuable glimpses of the workings of Athenian law in 
regard both to the body politic and to the every-day 
relations between man and man. Besides the dark 
pictures of murder and depredation under the rule of 
the Thirty (XII., XIII.), we see orphans in distress 
claiming their stolen or sequestrated property (XVIII., 
XIX., XXXII.) ; young citizens of spirit and ambition 
making their way in public life (XVI., XXI.) ; an 

a 230 e-234 c. More probably a Platonic parody of 
sophistic disquisition than an actual work of Lysias. 


adulterer's intrigue in a citizen's house, and amorous 
rivals brawling in the streets (I., III., IV.) ; the pro- 
fligacy of the young Alcibiades (XIV., XV.) ; and 
quiet, industrious persons resisting the attacks of 
venal slanderers (VII., XXIV.). These and many 
other notable additions to our knowledge of the 
ordinary life of the ancient world are the outcome of 
the peculiar gifts and principles which Lysias brought 
to the practice of his profession. 

In his highest achievement, the speech Against 
Eratosthenes, we feel the deliberate balance and 
elevation of phrase which are noticeable in the formal 
pieces already mentioned, and which remind us of the 
stately manner of Protagoras, Antiphon and Thucy- 
dides.° But here, in demanding vengeance for the mur- 
der of his brother, he allows neither formal artifice nor 
personal passion to obtrude, except for some specially 
calculated effects in his opening and his closing words. 
We may well believe that he found little or no use for 
the jingling epigrams of Gorgias, and taught himself 
and his pupils to admire only the precision and euphony 
which were certainly to be remarked in some works of 
the brilliant Sicilian. But it is rather in his regular 
writing for the courts that he shows his distinctive 
qualities. The mere limitation of the time allowed to 
the speaker, and the constant endeavour to produce an 
impression of sincerity, would naturally preclude any 
scholastic pomp of words or phrases. Lysias, at any 
rate, had the good sense to see that a plain, close- 
fitting style was the safest vehicle for his expositions 
and demonstrations, which must be not only clear, 

° In some speeches and disquisitions of the History. For 
a full discussion of this element in Attic prose see my Clio 
Enthroned (Camb. Univ. Press, 1914). 


concise and vigorous, but also appropriate to the 
character of his client. Thus the language is generally 
simple ; yet it is chosen and applied with a peculiar 
grace which gradually asserts its presence, though it 
may not be easily analysed or described. These 
pleadings show no convolution of periods, no rarity of 
idiom, no great complication or resonance of phrase. 
Their only formal artifice is the steady poise imparted 
by antithesis, which gives way, as in Thucydides, a to a 
more rapid and looser system for the vivid present- 
ment of scenes and characters. The arrangement of 
subject matter is orderly and lucid : we have usually 
a preface, a narrative, an argued proof, and a conclu- 
sion, and we are led by easy steps from one section to 

In the centuries succeeding his own Lysias was 
highly esteemed for his resource in devising always a 
different preface for each case that he undertook, and 
his narratives were regarded as models of conciseness 
and clarity. Although considered strong in point of 
reasoning, he was felt to be deficient in pathetic 
appeal and in the emotional heightening of his proofs 
and conclusions. b For us his artistic interest and 
distinction mainly reside in the masterly restraint 
with which he presents the facts or points in the exact 
relief that the importance of each requires, endowing 
them with just enough life to work their own effect on 
the minds of the audience. This subtle tact, allied to 
a ready grasp of his client's circumstances and claims, 
and a strong dramatic instinct for their impressive 
mobilization in court, easily kept him at the head of 

a See preceding note. 

b These and other criticisms of Lysias are set forth by 
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, De Lysia. 



his profession. If some of his lesser speeches seem 
now to be lacking in emphasis and life, we should 
recall the story told by Plutarch ° of a litigant who 
received from Lysias a speech that he had composed 
for him, and who, after reading it a number of times, 
came to him in despondent mood, saying that on his 
iirst perusal it seemed admirable, but that on going 
over it a second and a third time he found it utterly 
flat and ineffective. Whereupon Lysias laughed and 
said : " Why, to be sure, you are only going to speak 
it once before the judges ! " But happily he has 
given more than the vitality of the moment to the 
greater part of his extant writings. Throughout his 
fife he was a determined supporter of absolute demo- 
cracy ; and wherever there is a question of the 
people's rights and liberties, we feel the fervour of the 
man beneath the discretion of the advocate. 

Many fragments of his writings survive in the 
quotations of later authors and compilers, and also in 
papers which have been unpacked from the coffins of 
Egypt. One piece, from a speech Against Hippo- 
therses, b shows Lysias asserting his right to some 
property of which he had been dispossessed by the 
Thirty. He describes himself as " the wealthiest 
resident alien in the times of your prosperity, but one 
who was staunch to you in your calamity " : he gives 
details of his activities in support of the popular cause, 
and alludes to his frustrated hope of receiving the 
citizenship as his reward. Another piece, quoted by 
Athenaeus, d tells how Cinesias, the poetaster, poltroon 
and slander-monger, e feasted with three companions 

a De Garrulitate, 5. 
6 Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Grenfell and Hunt, 1919. 
See above, p. xiv. d xii. 551. ■ Cf. XXI. 20 n., p. 487. 


on a " forbidden day," and how they called them- 
selves the Society, not of the New Moon, but of the 
Evil Genius. The blasphemers have all perished 
except Cinesias, who lives in such a state of misery 
that his enemies wish him rather alive than dead, and 
his example shows that in such extreme cases of out- 
rage the gods do not visit their vengeance upon the 
children, but bring a dire perdition on the guilty 
themselves, smiting them with greater and more 
grievous calamities than other people. A passage of 
some length, quoted by Dionysius, 6 relates how Teisis, 
after a quarrel with Archippus in a wrestling-school, 
was persuaded by Pytheas, his guardian and lover, to 
simulate friendship towards Archippus and invite him 
to a wine-party one night. There Archippus was 
tied to a pillar and whipped by Teisis ; he was then 
shut up in a room, and next day he was whipped again 
in the same manner. His injuries aroused general 
indignation when his brothers showed him in public. 
Another piece given by Athenaeus c describes how 
Aeschines, the disciple of Socrates, obtained capital 
for starting a scent shop, the lender assuming that one 
who talked so finely about justice and virtue would 
never stoop to the basest villainy and wrong. 
Aeschines had so many creditors hanging about his 
shop that passers-by thought it must be a funeral ; 
while the Peiraeus folk considered it far safer to 
voyage on the Adriatic d than to have dealings with 
him. He also seduced the seventy-year-old wife of 
the perfumer Hermaeus — " ravishing the bloom of 
this little miss, whose teeth are easier to count than 
the ringers on her hand. So that is our professor's 

• Cf. VI. 20, p. 127. b Be Demosthene, 11. 

• xiii. 611. * Cf. XXXII. 24, p. 675. 



way of life ! " This extract suggests that the ignorant 
or wanton destruction of all but about an eighth of the 
work of Lysias has deprived us, not only of numerous 
scenes and portraits as vivid as those that have been 
preserved, but also of occasional comic thrusts at the 
prominent characters and reputations of the time. In 
his private humours, at least, as well as in his artistic 
handling of common affairs, we may fairly claim for 
him some kinship with his great contemporary, 


415-380 b.c. 

415 Mutilation of the Hermae in Athens, and banish- 
ment of Andocides, after he had laid informa- 
tion, under the decree of Isotimides. The first 
Sicilian Expedition sets out under Nicias, Al- 
cibiades and Lamachus. Alcibiades is recalled 
to stand his trial for impiety, but escapes at 
Thurii and is condemned to death in his 
absence. He urges Sparta to intervene in 

414 Siege of Syracuse by the Athenians. Death of 
Lamachus. Gylippus the Spartan comes to 
the support of the Syracusans. 

41 3 Fortification of Decelea in Attica by the Spartans, 
depriving Athens of the silver mines of 
Laurium. Second Sicilian Expedition under 
Eurymedon and Demosthenes. Great battle 
in the harbour of Syracuse, in which the 
Athenians are utterly defeated. Ten " Pro- 
buli " or Commissioners are appointed to direct 
affairs in Athens. 

412 Revolt of Athenian allies — Chios, Miletus, etc. — 
and treaty between Sparta and Persia (Tissa- 
phernes). Alcibiades leaves Sparta and seeks 
friendship with Tissaphernes. Lysias and 



Polemarchus are driven by oligarchs from 
Thurii and come to Athens. 

41 1 Democracy overthrown in Athens by an oligarchy 
of Four Hundred, promoted by Theramenes 
and effected by Antiphon, Peisander and 
Phrynichus in co-operation with the Probuli : 
in this new Council of Four Hundred, each 
of the 10 tribes is represented by 40 
members. The army and fleet at Samos, 
under Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus, remain 
loyal to democracy, and receive Alcibiades 
as a general. Division at Athens between 
the extremists Antiphon and Phrynichus 
and the moderate Theramenes. Murder of 
Phrynichus. Battle of Eretria and revolt 
of Euboea. The Assembly deposes the Four 
Hundred : execution of Antiphon. Govern- 
ment of Five Thousand formed by Thera- 
menes. Athenians under Thrasybulus and 
Thrasyllus defeat the Peloponnesian fleet at 
Cynossema, north of Rhodes. 

410 Athenians under Alcibiades, Theramenes and 
Thrasybulus destroy the Peloponnesian fleet 
at Cyzicus in the Propontis : democracy is 
restored in Athens. (Speech XX. For Poly- 

408 Gorgias at Olympia protests against the tendency 
of Greeks to solicit the aid of Persia against 

407 Lysander arranges with Cyrus, son of King 
Darius, that Sparta shall be supported by 
Persia. Alcibiades returns to Athens and is 
re-appointed general. Lysander defeats the 



Athenian fleet at Notium, near Ephesus. Al- 
cibiades, discredited, retires to a castle on the 
Hellespont. Callicratidas the Spartan defeats 
Conon and an Athenian fleet off Mytilene. 

406 A fresh Athenian fleet defeats the Spartans at 
Arginusae, south of Lesbos. On the motion 
of Archedemus, eight Athenian generals are 
condemned to death by a single sentence, 
and six of them are executed, for neglecting 
to save men from disabled ships. 

405 The Athenian fleet is surprised and destroyed 
by Lysander at Aegospotami in the Hellespont, 
despite the warnings of Alcibiades. Athens 
is blockaded by Lysander at sea and Pau- 
sanias on land. Theramenes visits Lysander 
to arrange terms of surrender, and stays with 
him three months. 

404 Theramenes is sent with full powers to Sparta, 
and agrees to the destruction of the Long 
Walls and the fortifications of the Peiraeus, 
and the surrender of all foreign possessions 
and the fleet. Exiles are recalled. Thera- 
menes works for another overthrow of demo- 
cracy and establishment of oligarchy, and the 
scheme is taken up by oligarchs returned 
from exile. With the aid of Lysander, a 
government of thirty oligarchs is set up, 
including Critias, Theramenes and Dracontides 
(September). Lysander goes to Samos and Agis 
evacuates Decelea, leaving Attica in peace. 
The Thirty appoint a subservient Council 
of Five Hundred, which usurps the judicial 
powers of the people. Protected by a Spartan 



guard, they limit the citizenship to 3000, 
and condemn and execute democrats and 
moderate law-abiding oligarchs like Niceratus, 
son of Nicias. Rich resident aliens (" metics ") 
are arrested and condemned to death, and 
their property is confiscated. Arrest of 
Polemarchus and Lysias, and escape of 
Lysias to Megara. Critias and the extreme 
oligarchs overpower and execute Theramenes. 
Flight of proscribed citizens to Peiraeus, 
Megara, Argos, Thebes, etc. Thrasybulus with 
a small party leaves Thebes and seizes Phyle, 
on the road to Athens, where he rallies exiled 
democrats. The Thirty seize Eleusis and hold 
it as a future place of refuge (November). 

403 Thrasybulus at Munychia, near Peiraeus, defeats 
the oligarchs, and Critias is killed (May). 
The Thirty are deposed by the Three Thousand 
and ten chief magistrates are appointed (one 
from each tribe), who obtain the intervention 
of Sparta. Pausanias, superseding Lysander, 
sets up ten other magistrates of more moderate 
views, and reconciles the parties of the town 
and of Peiraeus. General amnesty (Septem- 
ber), except for the Thirty and their special 
agents, who retire to Eleusis. Restoration 
of democracy in Athens. Lysias delivers 
his Speech XII. Against Eratosthenes, and is 
deprived of the citizenship which he had just 
obtained. (Speech XXXIV. Against the Sub- 
version of the Ancestral Constitution.) 

401 (Speeches XXXII. Against Diogeiton and XXXI. 

Against Philon.) 


400 The Athenians capture Eleusis and finally crush 
the oligarchs. (Speech XXV. Against a Charge 
of subverting the Democracy.) 

399 (Speeches VI. Against Andocides and XXX. 
Against Nicomachus.) 

398 (Speech XIII. Against Agoratus.) 

396 (Speech XVIII. On the Confiscation of the 
Property of the Brother of Nicias.) 

395 Lysander is defeated and killed by the Boeotians 
at Haliartus. (Speeches XIV. and XV. Against 

394 The Spartans defeat the Corinthians and their 
allies (including the Athenians) at Nemea, 
near Corinth. Pharnabazus and Conon with 
a Persian fleet defeat the Spartans under 
Peisander off Cnidus, and the Greek cities 
of Asia acknowledge the sovereignty of Persia. 
Agesilaus defeats the Athenians and Boeotians 
at Coronea, but evacuates Boeotia. 

393 The Long Walls are restored at Athens by Conon 
through the aid of Persians under Pharna- 

392 Union of Corinth and Argos. The Spartans 

gain control of the Isthmus of Corinth. 
391 (Speech XVI. In Defence of Mantitheus.) 
390 Athens sends assistance to Evagoras of Cyprus 

against Persia. 
389 Thrasybulus recovers Thasos, the Chersonese, 

Byzantium and Chalcedon for Athens. 
388 Thrasybulus is killed at Aspendus in Pamphylia. 

(Speeches XXVIII. Against Ergocles, XXIX. 



Against Philocrates, and XXXIII. Olympic 

387 Antalcidas of Sparta gains the goodwill of 
Artaxerxes, King of Persia, and of Dionysius, 
despot of Syracuse. (Speech XIX. On the 
Property of Aristophanes.) 

386 Athens is compelled to submit to the King's 
Peace, or Peace of Antalcidas : by its terms 
the cities of Asia are to belong to Persia, 
while all other Greek cities are to be inde- 
pendent, except Lemnos, Imbros and Scyrus, 
which are to belong to Athens. 

382 The Spartans seize the citadel of Thebes and 
restore Plataea. (Speech XXVI. On the Scrutiny 
of Evandros.) 

c. 380 Death of Lysias. 

A full account of the events of this period from 
411 B.C. onwards is given by Xenophon, Hellenica, 






This able and interesting speech was written for 
Euphiletus, an Athenian who had killed Eratosthenes, 
of Oe in Attica, after surprising him in the act of 
adultery with his wife, and who was being prosecuted 
for murder by the dead man's relatives. In the 
prefatory part (1-5) Euphiletus, after appealing to 
the universal detestation of the offence of seduc- 
tion, claims that Eratosthenes seduced his wife, 
and that in taking the extreme course of killing him 
he had no motive of enmity or of gain, but only that 
of fulfilling the injunction of the law. The narrative 
(6-26) then describes how, after his marriage, he at 
first kept a watch on his wife, but after the birth of 
a child he trusted her entirely, and she gave him every 
satisfaction. At his mother's funeral, however, she 
is seen by Eratosthenes ; who, aided by her servant- 
girl, and her husband's unsuspecting nature, seduces 
her and carries on the intrigue in the house. At 
length Euphiletus' eyes are opened by an old 
woman sent by one of Eratosthenes' neglected 
mistresses ; he takes the servant-girl to the house 
of a friend, and frightens her into confessing the 
whole story of the intrigue. She agrees to betray 
the offender to him in the very act, and tells him one 
evening that Eratosthenes is in the house. He slips 
out quietly, collects some of his friends, returns and 
enters the house with them. Eratosthenes is caught 


in the act ; he admits his guilt, and begs that his life 
be spared and compensation accepted in the form of 
money. Euphiletus, after stating that his action is 
taken in the name of the law, kills him. The whole 
story is told with masterly clearness and force, and 
presents us by the way with some striking details 
of Athenian family life. 

The argument (27-46) shows that Eratosthenes was 
taken by surprise in the act of adultery, not hunted 
down in pursuance of a feud ; that he owned his guilt, 
and met with the punishment allowed, nay, enjoined by 
the law; that restriction of this penalty, and consequent 
disregard of the law, will encourage thieves to call 
themselves adulterers ; that all the circumstances tell 
against the suggestion that Euphiletus set a trap for 
his wife's lover; andthatthe evidence shows that he was 
not actuated by personal spite against Eratosthenes. 

The conclusion (47-50) insists that the public 
interest is involved in his justification. If he is con- 
victed of murder, he will have been entrapped by 
the law, which he trusted and obeyed. 

The law of Dracon — and possibly also of Solon — 
to which Euphiletus appeals allowed the husband to 
kill his wife's seducer, if taken in the act suddenly 
and not by premeditation. In most cases, apparently, 
this extreme penalty was commuted by consent to 
a payment of money. This speech was delivered 
before a court of fifty-one judges at the Delphinium, 
outside the walls on the east side of Athens ; it was the 
special court for cases in which the accused admitted 
homicide, but pleaded that it was justified under the 
law. If convicted, he would be sentenced to death, 
and if he got away before sentence was passed, he 
would suffer exile and confiscation of all his property. 


p. 92. 




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2 €7nrrjS€v6vra)V ras J^/xia? piiKpas rjyoiade. Kal 
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?} pLiKp&s fypilas d£Lovs r^yelrai rovs rtov tolovtcov 



I should be only too pleased, sirs, to have you so 
disposed towards me in judging this case as you 
would be to yourselves, if you found yourselves in 
my plight. For I am sure that, if you had the same 
feelings about others as about yourselves, not one of 
you but would be indignant at what has been done ; 
you would all regard the penalties appointed for those 
who resort to such practices as too mild. And these 
feelings would be found, not only amongst you, but 
in the whole of Greece : for in the case of this crime 
alone, under both democracy and oligarchy, the same 
requital is accorded to the weakest against the 
strongest, so that the lowest gets the same treat- 
ment as the highest. Thus you see, sirs, how all 
men abominate this outrage. Well, I conceive that, 
in regard to the severity of the penalty, you are all 
of the same mind, and that not one of you is so easy- 
going as to think it right that men who are guilty of 
such acts should obtain pardon, or to presume that 

° The general statement in these last words shows that the 
full sense of the preceding is : " the same requital is accorded 
to the weakest against, the strongest as to the strongest 
against the weakest." 

r 5 


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9 ojAeoev aur^. rrpdrov pXv ovv, a) dvSpes", (Set 

1 dyad)] del. Dobree. 



slight penalties suffice for their deserts. But I take 
it, sirs, that what I have to show is that Eratosthenes 
had an intrigue with my wife, and not only corrupted 
her but inflicted disgrace upon my children and an 
outrage on myself by entering my house ; that this 
was the one and only enmity between him and me ; 
that I have not acted thus for the sake of money, 
so as to raise myself from poverty to wealth ; and 
that all I seek to gain is the requital accorded by 
our laws. I shall therefore set forth to you the whole 
of my story from the beginning ; I shall omit nothing, 
but will tell the truth. For I consider that my own 
sole deliverance rests on my telling you, if I am able, 
the whole of what has occurred. 

When I, Athenians, decided to marry, and brought 
a wife into my house, for some time I was disposed 
neither to vex her nor to leave her too free to do 
just as she pleased ; I kept a watch on her as far as 
possible, with such observation of her as was reason- 
able. But when a child was born to me, thence- 
forward I began to trust her, and placed all my 
affairs in her hands, presuming that we were now in 
perfect intimacy. It is true that in the early days, 
Athenians, she was the most excellent of wives ; she 
was a clever, frugal housekeeper, and kept every- 
thing in the nicest order. But as soon as I lost my 
mother, her death became the cause of all my 
troubles. For it was in attending her funeral that 
my wife was seen by this man, who in time corrupted 
her. He looked out for the servant-girl who went to 
market, and so paid addresses to her mistress by 
which he wrought her ruin. Now in the first place 



yap /cat ravd* vpZv hirjyrjoaodaL) olklSlov eon pot 
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/cat irporepov he pedvatv ctA/ce? avrrjv." Kayd> pev 

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14 tjkojv it; dypov. irreLhr) he rjv rrpos rjpepav, r)Kev 
[93] iKeuvrj /cat ttjv Ovpav dveco^ev. ipopevov he pov 

Tt at Ovpat vvKTOjp i/jofioTev , e<f)acjKe tov Xvyvov 


I must tell you, sirs (for I am obliged to give you 
these particulars), my dwelling is on two floors, the 
upper being equal in space to the lower, with the 
women's quarters above and the men's below. When 
the child was born to us, its mother suckled it ; and 
in order that, each time that it had to be washed, 
she might avoid the risk of descending by the stairs, 
I used to live above, and the women below. By this 
time it had become such an habitual thing that my 
wife would often leave me and go down to sleep with 
the child, so as to be able to give it the breast and 
stop its crying. Things went on in this way for a 
long time, and I never suspected, but was simple- 
minded enough to suppose that my own was the 
chastest wife in the city. Time went on, sirs ; I 
came home unexpectedly from the country, and after 
dinner the child started crying in a peevish way, as 
the servant-girl was annoying it on purpose to make 
it so behave ; for the man was in the house, — I learnt 
it all later. So I bade my wife go and give the child 
her breast, to stop its howling. At first she refused, 
as though delighted to see me home again after so 
long ; but when I began to be angry and bade her go, 
— " Yes, so that you," she said, " may have a try here 
at the little maid. Once before, too, when you were 
drunk, you pulled her about." At that I laughed, 
while she got up, went out of the room, and closed 
the door, feigning to make fun, and she turned the 
key in the lock. I, without giving a thought to the 
matter, or having any suspicion, went to sleep in all 
content after my return from the country. 1'owards 
daytime she came and opened the door. I asked 
why the doors made a noise in the night ; she told 



aTTOo^eudrjvai rov rrapa rco 77at8ta>, etra e/c rcov 
yeirovtov evdipaodaL. eaicorttov eyco /cat ravra 
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1 tt]i> del. Bckker. 


me that the child's lamp had gone out, and she had 
lit it again at our neighbour's. I was silent and 
believed it was so. But it struck me, sirs, that she 
had powdered her face, though her brother had died 
not thirty days before ; even so, however, I made 
no remark on the fact, but left the house in silence. 
After this, sirs, an interval occurred in which I 
was left quite unaware of my own injuries ; I was 
then accosted by a certain old female, who was 
secretly sent by a woman with whom that man was 
having an intrigue, as I heard later. This woman 
was angry with him and felt herself wronged, because 
he no longer visited her so regularly, and she kept a 
close watch on him until she discovered what 
was the cause. So the old creature accosted me 
where she was on the look-out, near my house, and 
said, — " Euphiletus, do not think it is from any 
meddlesomeness that I have approached you ; for 
the man who is working both your and your wife's 
dishonour happens to be our enemy. If, therefore, 
you take the servant-girl who goes to market and 
waits on you, and torture her, you will learn all. 
It is," she said, " Eratosthenes of Oe who is doing this ; 
he has debauched not only your wife, but many others 
besides ; he makes an art of it." With these words, 
sirs, she took herself off ; I was at once perturbed ; 
all that had happened came into my mind, and I was 
filled with suspicion, — reflecting first how I was shut 
up in my chamber, and then remembering how on 
that night the inner and outer doors made a noise, 
which had never occurred before, and how it struck 
me that my wife had put on powder. All these things 

° Athenian women used white lead to give an artificial 
delicacy to their complexion; cf. Aristoph. Eccles. 878, 929. 



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22 <f>avepov yeveodai, elirep ovroos %X €l " oop-oXoyei 

1 Trpocrioiro Kayser: irpoaioL mss. 


came into my mind, and I was filled with suspicion. 
Returning home, I bade the servant-girl follow me 
to the market, and taking her to the house of an 
intimate friend, I told her I was fully informed of 
what was going on in my house : " So it is open to 
you," I said, " to choose as you please between two 
things, — either to be whipped and thrown into a mill, 
never to have any rest from miseries of that sort, 
or else to speak out the whole truth and, instead of 
suffering any harm, obtain my pardon for your trans- 
gressions. Tell no lies, but speak the whole truth." 
The girl at first denied it, and bade me do what I 
pleased, for she knew nothing : but when I mentioned 
Eratosthenes to her, and said that he was the man 
who visited my wife, she was dismayed, supposing 
that I had exact knowledge of everything. At once 
she threw herself down at my knees, and having got 
my pledge that she should suffer no harm, she accused 
him, first, of approaching her after the funeral, and 
then told how at last she became his messenger ; 
how my wife in time was persuaded, and by what 
means she procured his entrances, and how at the 
Thesmophoria, a while I was in the country, she went 
off to the temple with his mother. And the girl gave 
an exact account of everything else that had occurred. 
When her tale was all told, I said, — " Well now, see 
that nobody in the world gets knowledge of this ; 
otherwise, nothing in your arrangement with me will 
hold good. And I require that you show me their 
guilt in the very act ; I want no words, but mani- 
festation of the fact, if it really is so." She agreed 

a A festival in honour of Demeter, celebrated by Athenian 
matrons in October. 

b2 13 


ravra rtovqoeiv. /cat /xera. ravra hieyevovro -qfiepai 
reooapes r) irevre, . . . cos eyco fieyaXois vplv 
reKfirjploLS eiriheit;a). rrpdrov Se hi-qyqoauQai ftov- 
Aouat rd irpayQevTa rfj reXevraia rjfiepa. Sa>- 
urparos r\v jjlol emrrjheios /cat (frlXos. rovrcp 

23 r/Atou SeSu/coros' toVrt ef dypov aTr-qvrrjGa. ct'Soj? 
8' eya> ort riqvLKavra d^tyfievos ovSeva 1 KaraXrj- 
i/jolto ot/cot rcov eTTLTrjhelwv, eKeXevov ovvhenrvelv 
/cat eXBovres ot/caSe obs e'/Lte, dvafidvres els to 

V7T€p(x)OV e8€l7TVOVfJL€V. €77€L$r) 8e /CaAaj? aUTOJ 

[94] et^ev, e/cetvos" /xev a.7Ttcov ar^eTO, ^Y 6 ^ ^' €Ka9ev$ov. 
6 8' ^paroaOevqs, c5 avhpes, elo*epyerai y /cat ?5 
Qepdiraiva eTreyeipaod fie evOvs </>pd£et ort eVSov 
eVrt. /cdycb elircov e/cetVry eVt/xeAetcr#at ttJ? dvpas, 

KOLTdftds OKDTTTJ €^6p^O/Xat, /Cat d(f)LKVOVfiaL COS 

rdv /cat roV, /cat tows' /xev evhov KareXafiov , rovs 

24 8e ou/c ernS-qpLovvras iqvpov. napaXaficov 8' oj? 
otoV T6 t^v TrXeiarovs e/c raw irapovrtov iftdSt^ov. 
/cat SaSas" Xafiovres €/c rou eyyuraTa KaTT-qXeiov 
eioepxdjJLeOa, dvecpypLevqs rrjs Ovpas /cat U7ro t^? 
avOpoonov irapeoKevaGpLevqs . too-avres" 8e r^v dvpav 
rod ocojjLariov ol fiev Trpdroi elatovres cri et'8o/zev 
avrov KaraK€i/Jievov rrapa rfj yvvaiKi, ol 8' vurepov 

25 €i/ t^ kXIvtj yvpivov ecrr-qKora. eyoh 8', cS dvhpes, 
irard^as KarafidXAto avrov, /cat toj X € ^P € Trepi- 
ayayoov els rovirioQev /cat S^oa? "qpooroov 8ta rt 
vftpi^ei els rrjv oiKiav r-qv epb-qv elcrioov. /cd/cetvos* 
dhiKelv fxev ojfxoXoyei, -qvrefioXei he /cat iKereve 
pLTj diroKTeZvai 2 dXX dpyvpiov rtpd^aadai. eyd> 8' 

26 elnov on " ou/c eyoj oe ^o/crevoj, dAA' o tt^s 
77-oAeoJS" vdfios, ov av TTapafiaivcov nepl eXdrrovos 
tlov rjhovoov eTToaqoco, /cat jitaAAov etAou toiovtov 


to do this. Then came an interval of four or five 
days . . .° as I shall bring strong evidence to show. 
But first I wish to relate what took place on the last 
day. I had an intimate friend named Sostratus. 
After sunset I met him as he came from the country. 
As I knew that, arriving at that hour, he would find 
none of his circle at home, I invited him to dine with 
me ; we came to my house, mounted to the upper 
room, and had dinner. When he had made a good 
meal, he left me and departed ; then I went to bed. 
Eratosthenes, sirs, entered, and the maid-servant 
roused me at once, and told me that he was in the 
house. Bidding her look after the door, I descended 
and went out in silence ; I called on one friend and 
another, and found some of them at home, while 
others were out of town. I took with me as many 
as I could among those who were there, and so came 
along. Then we got torches from the nearest shop, 
and went in ; the door was open, as the girl had it in 
readiness. We pushed open the door of the bed- 
room, and the first of us to enter were in time to see 
him lying down by my wife ; those who followed saw 
him standing naked on the bed. I gave him a blow, 
sirs, which knocked him down, and pulling round his 
two hands behind his back, and tying them, I asked 
him why he had the insolence to enter my house. He 
admitted his guilt ; then he besought and implored 
me not to kill him, but to exact a sum of money. To 
this I replied, — " It is not I who am going to kill you, 
but our city's law, which you have transgressed and 
regarded as of less account than your pleasures, 

a Some words are missing here in the text. 

1 ovoeva Bekker : ovdeu av MS3. 
* a.TTOK.Teiva.1 Hertlein : avrbv KTelvou irss. 



afiapTT] fxa e^afiaprdveiv els ttjv yvvaiKa rrjv lfir)v 
Kal els rovs rraloas rovs epiovs 7} rot? vofio is 

27 rreideoOai i<al Koopaos elvai." ovrojs, cL av&pes, 
eKelvos rovrcov kWvyev cLvirep ol vopLOL KeXevovcn 
rovs rd roiavra irpdrrovras, ovk eloapnaoOels e/c 
rrjs oSov, ov& errl rrjv eoriav Kara^vychv , aionep 
ovtol Xeyovoi' rrcos yap dv, 60ns ev rep Seo/xario) 
TrX-qyels Kareireoev evdvs, rrepieorpeifja 8' avrov 
rcb X € ^P € > £ p $ ov $£ rjoav dvdpOJTTOl rooovroi, ovs 


ovre dXXo ovSev ex^ov, V TOV S eloeXdovras dv 

28 rjfAVvaro. aAA', to dvSpes, ot/xat Kal vpids elSevai 
on ol fir] rd StVata rrpdrrovres oi>x opioXoyovoi 
rovs ix^povs Xeyeiv dXr]6fj, dAA' avrol ifjevhopievoi 
Kal rd roiavra /xr^avto^evoi opyds rols aKovovcri 
Kara rCov rd SiAccua rtparrovrojv rrapaoKevd^ovoi. 
7rpu)TOV [lev ovv dvdyvojQi rov vojjlov. 


29 Ovk rjpufieofiijrei, a> dvSpes, dAA' copioXoyei 
dhiK€iv, Kal ottojs fiev fxrj aTroddvr] rqvre^oXei Kal 
Ik<et€V€v, airoriveiv S' eroi/xo? tjv xPVI J - ara " ^7^ 

8e TW fl€V €K€LVOV ripLr/fiari OV OVV€X<JOpOV V> TOV 

he. rrjs TroXeojs vojjlov tj^lovv etvai Kvpiojrepov, 
Kal ravrr\v eXafiov rr]v Slktjv, rjv Vfiels SiKaiordrrjv 
etvau rjyr)odp,evoi rols rd roiavra eirir-qhevovoiv 
erdfare. /cat /xot dvdfiiqre rovrojv fidprvpeg. 


choosing rather to commit this foul offence against my 
wife and my children than to obey the laws like a 
decent person." 

Thus it was, sirs, that this man incurred the fate 
that the laws ordain for those who do such things ; 
he had not been dragged in there from the street, 
nor had he taken refuge at my hearth, as these 
people say. For how could it be so, when it was 
in the bedroom that he was struck and fell down 
then and there, and I pinioned his arms, and so 
many persons were in the house that he could not 
escape them, as he had neither steel nor wood nor 
anything else with which he might have beaten off 
those who had entered ? But, sirs, I think you know 
as well as I that those whose acts are against justice 
do not acknowledge that their enemies speak the 
truth, but lie themselves and use other such devices 
to foment anger in their hearers against those whose 
acts are just. So, first read the law. 


He did not dispute it, sirs : he acknowledged his 
guilt, and besought and implored that he might not 
be killed, and was ready to pay compensation in 
money. But I would not agree to his estimate, as I 
held that our city's law should have higher authority ; 
and I obtained that satisfaction which you deemed 
most just when you imposed it on those who adopt 
such courses. Now, let my witnesses come forward 
in support of these statements. 

The hearth in a Greek house retained its primitive 
sanctity as a centre of the family religion, and it would be 
sacrilege to kill anyone there. 




30 'AvdyvojOi 8e /xot /cat tovtov rov vojxov <rov> 1 
en rrjs (JTijXrjs ttjs i£ 'Apet'ou irdyov. 


'A/couere, to dvSpes, ore avra> rep St/cacrr^otaj 
raj i£ 'Apetou rrdyov, to /cat irdrpiov eort /cat e'</>' 
rjjjLcov a77oSeSorat tou cf)6vov rds St/ca? St/cdfetv, 
$Lappr)$r)v eip-qrai tovtov (jltj KarayiyvcboKeiv 
<j>6vov t 2 os dv errl Sd/xa/rrt rfj eavrov /xot^dv Aa/Stuv 

31 ravrrjv ttjv Tt/xoj/)tav 770 1 77 en] rat. /cat oi'Va; o<f>6hpa 
6 vofjLoOeTTjs eVt rat? ya/xerat? yvvat^l St/cata 
ravra rjyqoaro etVat, chore /cat em rat? TraAAa/cat? 
rat? cAarrovos" d^tats t^v olvttjv olktjv iTredrjKe. 
/catrot SrjAov 6Vt, et Ttva et^e ravriqs /xet^a> 
TL/jLoopiav inl rat? ya/xerats', irroirjGev dv. vvv 
Se o^ oto? re toy ravr-qs luyyporepav hr e'/cetVats 1 
i^evpeZv, ttjv avrrjv /cat eVt Tat? TraAAa/cats" rj^lojcxe 
yiyveuOai. dvdyvojdi Se /xot /cat tovtov tov 



32 'A/codere, dVSpe?, on /ceAedet, eav rt? dvOpcorrov 
iXevOepov rj TraZSa alo)(vvr) fiiq, SnrXrjv ttjv 
fiAdfirjv d</>et'Aetv idv Se yvvcuKa, i<f) alo-rrep 
aTTOKTeiveiv e^eoTiv, iv toZs awrot? eVe^eo^ar 
ovtojs, to dvSpes, tovs jStafo/teVous" e'AaTToyos' 
f^/xta? d£lovs rjyrjoaTO elvcu rj tovs TreiOovTas' 
rtJov [iev yap ddvaTov KaTeyvco, toZs Se StTrA^y 
eVot^oe ttjv fiAdfirjv, rjyovfievos tovs /xev Sta- 

1 tov add. Westermann. 
2 roi''Toi> . . . (pbvov Reiske : tovtov . . . <povov mss. 



Read out also, please, that law from the pillar in 
the Areopagus. 


You hear, sirs, how the Court of the Areopagus 
itself, to which has been assigned, in our own as in 
our fathers' time, the trial of suits for murder, has 
expressly stated that whoever takes this vengeance 
on an adulterer caught in the act with his spouse 
shall not be convicted of murder. And so strongly 
was the lawgiver convinced of the justice of this in the 
case of wedded wives, that he even applied the same 
penalty in the case of mistresses, who are of less 
account. Now surely it is clear that, if he had had 
any heavier punishment than this for the case of 
married women, he would have imposed it. But 
in fact, as he was unable to devise a severer one for 
wives, he ordained that it should be the same for 
that of mistresses also. Please read this law besides. 


You hear, sirs, how it directs that, if anyone 
forcibly debauches a free adult or child, he shall be 
liable to double damages ; while if he so debauches 
a woman, in any of the cases where it is permitted 
to kill him, he is subject to the same rule. Thus the 
lawgiver, sirs, considered that those who use force 
deserve a less penalty than those who use persuasion ; 
for the latter he condemned to death, whereas for 
the former he doubled the damages, considering that 

° i.e. y double the amount laid down for violating a slave. 



33 nparropievovs fila vtto rwv ficaodevrajv piaeZoQai, 
rovs 8e Trelaavras our cos" avrojv ras ipv%as oua- 
(f)9eLp€Lv } loot otKeiorepas avrols rrotelv ras aA- 

[95] Xorplas yvvcuKas rj rols avSpdac, koll rrdc/av err 


dorjXovs elvai oTrorepojv rvyydvovoiv ovres, rdov 
dvopcov rj rd)v p,oiyG)V. dv6' cLv 6 rov vojjlov 

34 riOels ddvarov avrols eTronjcre rrjv tpq^xiav. ep,ov 
roivvv, co dvopes, ol ptev vo/jlol ov jjlovov oltt- 
eyvojKores elal pur) doiKelv, dAAa Kal KeKeXevKores 

TCLVT7]V TTJV OtKr]V XapLJ3dv€LV iv VpUV 8' €OTt 

rrorepov XPV tovtovs loxypovs i) pL7]Sevos d^lovs 

35 elvai. iyd> pev yap ot/xat Trdcras ras rroXeis olol 
rovro rovs vopiovs TidecrOaL, Iva rrepl wv dv rrpay- 
pidrojv a7Topcbp,€v, Trapa rovrovs eXOovres OKeiJja)- 
pueda 6 rt r)p,lv TTOvryriov eariv. ovtol roivvv Trepl 


3G Xap.f3dveLV TrapaKeXevovrai . ols vpids d^tco rr)v 
avrrjv yv<lipa]v eyeiv el Se /X77, rocavrrjv doeiav 

ToZs pLOLXols 7TOirjCr€T€, CJGT€ l Kal TOVS KXeTTraS 

errapelre cf)doKeiv potxovs elvai, ev elooras on, 
edv ravrrjv rr)v alriav Trepl eavrdw Xeyojcn Kal 

€771 TOVTO) <j)doKOJOlV els TCt? dXXorplaS OLKiaS 

eloievai, ovSels avrwv aiperat. rrdvres yap etcrov- 
rai otl rovs p<ev vopiovs rrjs pioixeias ^atpetv edv 
oel, rr)v Se ifjrjcf>ov rr)v vperepav oehievai' avrrj 
yap eon Trdvrojv ra>v ev rfj iroXei Kvpiajrdrrj. 
37 Hi<€ipao9e he, c5 dvhpes' Karrjyopovat yap jxov 
d>s eyd> ttjv depdnaivav ev eKeivrj rfj i)jiepq 
piereXBelv et<eXevoa rov veavioKov. eyto Se, a> 
dvopes, otKaiov /mev dv iroielv rjyovpLrjv cprivtovv 
rpoTTLp rov rr)v yvvatKa rrpf i/jurjv oia<f)9elpavra 


those who achieve their ends by force are hated by 
the persons forced ; while those who used persuasion 
corrupted thereby their victims' souls, thus making 
the wives of others more closely attached to them- 
selves than to their husbands, and got the whole 
house into their hands, and caused uncertainty as 
to whose the children really were, the husbands' or 
the adulterers'. In view of all this the author of 
the law made death their penalty. Wherefore I, sirs, 
not only stand acquitted of wrongdoing by the laws, 
but am also directed by them to take this satis- 
faction : it is for you to decide whether they are 
to be valid or of no account. For to my thinking 
every city makes its laws in order that on any matter 
which perplexes us we may resort to them and inquire 
what we have to do. And so it is they who, in cases 
like the present, exhort the wronged parties to 
obtain this kind of satisfaction. I call upon you 
to support their opinion : otherwise, you will be 
giving adulterers such licence that you will encourage 
thieves as well to call themselves adulterers ; since 
they will feel assured that, if they plead this reason 
in their defence, and allege that they enter other 
men's houses for this purpose, nobody will touch 
them. For everyone will know that the laws on 
adultery are to be dismissed, and that it is your vote 
that one has to fear, because this has supreme 
authority over all the city's affairs. 

Do not consider, sirs, what they say : they accuse 
me of ordering the maid-servant on that day to go and 
fetch the young man. Now I, sirs, could have held 
myself justified in using any possible means to catch 
the corrupter of my wife. For if I had bidden the 

1 ojore Baiter et Sauppe : d>s mss. 



38 Xapi^dvcov el jxev yap Xoycov elpiqpLevcjv epyov oe 
firjoevog yeyeviqpLevov pLereXdelv eKeXevov eKelvov, 
rjhiKovv dv el Se 77S77 ttolvtcov hiaTreirpaypLevajv 
/cat TToXXaKis elcreXrjXvOorog els rrjv oiklglv ttjv 
ipLTjv cotlvlovv rpoTrco eXaptfiavov avroVy acoc^povetv 

39 <av> 1 ifxavrov -qyovpaqv crKei/jaode Se otl /cat 
ravra xjjevhovrai- paoiojs oe e/c rcovSe yvcocreoOe. 
i/jLOt yap, cL dvSpes, direp /cat nporepov elnov, 
(f)[Xos d)v SojoTparos" /cat ot/cetoj? Sta/cetuevos" 
a77avT^cjas' e£ dypov Trepl TjXiov hvGjxds ovveheiTrvei, 
/cat eVetS?) /caAai? et^e^ avrto, a77tajv tpx €TO ' 

40 /catVot TTpcorov puev, to dvSpes, evdvpb^drjre- [otl] 2 
el ev €.K€Lvrj rfj vvktl eyd> eirefiovXevov 'EoaTO- 
adevei, TTorepov rjv jjlol Kpelrrov avrtp erepcodi 
henrvelv t) 7W owSet77V77C70i>Td pioi eloayayelv; 
ovtci) ydp dv tjttov eroXpaqaev e/cetvos" eloeXdelv 
els rrjv olklclv. etra Sokco dv Vjxlv rov o~uv- 
Sei7Tvovvra dcfrels jjlovos KaraXeL(f>6rjvaL /cat ep-qpios 
yeveaOai, 7) KeXevetv eKelvov puelvai, 3 Iva /act* ifiov 

41 rov fjLOixov eTLfjicopeLTo; eneura, co dVSpes, ou/c dv 
So/ca) u/xtv rots iirirrfieiois p,ed* rjpLepav irapay- 
yetAat, /cat KeXevoai avrovs GvXXeyrjvai els ot/ctW 
<rov> x tojv (frcXcov tcov eyyvrdra), pcdXXov 7} eVctSr) 
ra^tora f]cr96pL7]v rrjs vvktos irepirpexeiv, ovk 
etScos" ovTwa ot/cot /caraAr^o/xat /cat ovriva e^co; 
/cat a*? 'Ap/xdStov /xev /cat tov Serosa t^A^o^ oi)/c 
€TTL07)novvTas (ov yap 77077), erepovs Se ou/c eVSov 
ovtcls KareXafiov, ovs 8' otd? re 77 Xafidiv efidhit.ov. 

J A^ add. Taylor. 2 6'rt del. Reiske. 

3 /xetrou Fuhr : /if? elcai, fiiveiv mss. 

* roi; add. Gernet et Bizor. 



girl fetch him, when words alone had been spoken 
and no act had been committed, I should have been 
in the wrong : but if, when once he had compassed 
all his ends, and had frequently entered my house, I 
had then used any possible means to catch him, I 
should have considered myself quite in order. And 
observe how on this point also they are lying : you 
will perceive it easily in this way. As I told you, 
sirs, before, Sostratus was a friend of mine, on 
intimate terms with me ; he met me as he came from 
the country about sunset, and had dinner with me, 
and when he had made a good meal he left me and 
departed. Now in the first place, sirs, you must 
bear this in mind : if on that night I had designs 
on Eratosthenes, which was more to my advantage, — 
to go and take my dinner elsewhere, or to bring 
in my guest to dinner with me ? For in the latter 
case that man would have been less likely to venture 
on entering my house. And in the second place, do 
you suppose that I should have let my dinner-guest go 
and leave me there alone and unsupported, and not 
rather have bidden him stay, in order that he might 
stand by me in taking vengeance upon the adulterer ? 
Then again, sirs, do you not think that I should have 
sent word to my intimate acquaintances in the day- 
time, and bidden them assemble at the house of one 
of my friends living nearest to me, rather than 
have waited till the moment of making my discovery 
to run round in the night, without knowing whom 
I should find at home, and who were away ? Thus I 
called on Harmodius, and one other, who were 
not in town — of this I was not aware — and others, 
I found, were not in ; but those whom I could I 
took along with me. Yet if I had foreknown this, 



42 /catVotye et TTporjSr), ovk av Sokco vpuv /cat 0€pd~ 
7TOVTas 7Tapa<jK€vaoao9ai /cat rols (jyiXois nap- 
ayyetAat, lv* d>s acr^aAeWara p.ev avros eto^a (rl 
yap rjSr) et Tt kolk eivos ef^e GiSrjpLov;), ojs pbera 
TrXeioTtov 8e fxaprvpajv rrjv rifiajplav iTrotov/JL-qv ; 
vvv V ovSev elScbs rwv iaofJLevojv eKelvrj rfj WKrl, 
ovs olos re rj TrapeXafiov. /cat ftot dvdprjre 
rovrojv [idpTVpes. 


43 Ttov fxev fiapTvpajv a/c^/coare, c5 avSpes' c/ce- 
tfjaade Se Trap' vpuv avrols ovrcos rrepl rovrov rod 
irpdyixaros, ^rjrovvres et rt? e'/xot /cat 'EparoafleVet 
e^^pa 7T(x)7tot€ yeyevryrai ttXtjv ravrrjs. ovSefxlav 

44 yap evprjoere. ovre yap GVKofiavrcov ypaSds fxe 
iypdifjCLTO, ovre ehcfidXXeiv e/c ttJ? 7roAea>s' eVe- 
Xelprjoev, ovre IS las St/ca? e'St/ca^ero, ouVe crun^Set 
KaKov ovSev o eytb SeStcus" /X7^ rt? TTvQrjrai eiredv- 
fxovv avrov aVoAe'aat, ovre el ravra Starr pa^aljjiiqv , l 
rjXm^ov TToOev 2 xprjpLara Xrjipeodai' evioi yap 
rocovrojv 7rpay\xaT(jov eVe/ca ddvarov dAA^Aots" 

4 ^ eTufiovXevovGi. rooovrov toIvvv Set 7} XouSopla 
[96] ^ Trapoivla r) a'AAry rts" Siacfiopd rjpilv yeyovevai, 
o)GT€ ovSe icopaKcbs rj rov avOpumov Trajrrore ttXtjv 
ev eKelvrj rfj vvktI. rl av ovv ftovXofievos eycb 
roiovrov kIvSvvov eKivSvvevov , et fir) ro fieyiGrov 
46 Ttbv dSu<r)fidra)v rj vtt > avrov rjSiKrjfievos ; eVetra 
irapaKaXeGas avros fidprvpas rjoeftovv, e£6v fiot, 
e'lrrep aSt/ca)? erreOvfiovv avrov drroXeGat, firjSeva 
fioi rovrojv GweiSevai; 

1 5caTrpa^aifxriu Lipsius : 8t€Trpa^d/xr]v MSS. 
* Trodev Emperius: fiiv codd. plerique, om. duo. 


do you not think that I should have called up 
servants and passed the word to my friends, in order 
that I might have gone in myself with all possible 
safety, — for how could I tell whether he too had 
some weapon ? — and so I might have had as many 
witnesses as possible with me when I took my ven- 
geance ? But as in fact I knew nothing of what 
was to befall on that night, I took with me those 
whom I could. Now let my witnesses come forward 
in support of all this. 


You have heard the witnesses, sirs ; and consider 
this affair thus in your own minds, nsking your- 
selves whether any enmity has ever arisen before 
this between me and Eratosthenes. I say you will 
discover none. For he had neither subjected me to 
slanderous impeachment, nor attempted to expel me 
from the city, nor brought any private suit against 
me, nor was he privy to any wrongdoing which 
I was so afraid of being divulged that I was intent on 
his destruction, nor, should I accomplish this, had I any 
hope of getting money from anywhere : for there are 
people who plot each other's death for such purposes. 
So far, indeed, from either abuse or a drunken brawl 
or any other quarrel having occurred between us, 
I had never even seen the man before that night. 
For what object, then, should I run so grave a risk, 
unless I had received from him the greatest of 
injuries ? Why, again, did I choose to summon 
witnesses for my wicked act, when it was open to me, 
if I was thus criminally intent on his destruction, 
to have none of them privy to it ? 



47 'Eyco fiev ovv, to dvopes, ovk loiav vnep epuavTOV 
vofJLL^co tolvttjv yeveadai ttjv TLfJicopiaVy dAA' vnep 
rrjs iroXetos aTrdcrr]?' ol yap roiavra TrparrovTes, 
opcovTes ota to. aOXa TrpoKeirai tcov toiovtlov 
dfiapT7]jjL(iTcov, tJttov els tovs dXXovs i^afiap- 
TijaovTai, idv /cat vpL&s opcoui ttjv avrrjv yvto\ir\v 

48 exovras. et Se p,-q, ttoXv k&XXlov tovs fi€v /cet- 
puevovs vopiovs i£aXeZijjai, eripovs Se Oelvai, oiTtves 
tovs pLtv (frvXarrovras rag iavTcov yvvaiKas rats 
1,-qpiiais X s i]p,i(x>(Jovuiy toIs Se fiovXopiivois ft? auras 

49 dpLaprdveiv TroXXrjv dSetav TTOitfcrovai. noXv yap 
ovtlo hiKaiorepov 7) vtto tcov vopicov tovs iroXiras 
ivehpeveudaiy ol KeXevovoi pciv, idv tls /xot^ov 
Xafir), 6 rt dv ovv fiovXrjraL ^p^cr^at, ol 8' dycoves 


Trapd tovs vopiovs ras dXXorpuas KaraiO)(yvovoi 

50 yvvaiKas. iyco yap vvv koX nepl rod oxo/xaros" /cat 
TTepl tcov xprjpLarwv /cat Trepl tcov dXXojv dirdvTcov 

KLv8vV€VCO, OTL TOLS TtJ? 7t6X€OJS VOpLOLS irreidopuqv . 



I therefore, sirs, do not regard this requital as 
having been exacted in my own private interest, 
but in that of the whole city. For those who behave 
in that way, when they see the sort of prizes offered 
for such transgressions, will be less inclined to 
trespass against their neighbours, if they see that 
you also take the same view. Otherwise it were 
better far to erase our established laws, and ordain 
others which will inflict the penalties on men who 
keep watch on their own wives, and will allow full 
immunity to those who would debauch them. This 
would be a far juster way than to let the citizens 
be entrapped by the laws ; these may bid a man, on 
catching an adulterer, to deal with him in whatever 
way he pleases, but the trials are found to be more 
dangerous to the wronged parties than to those who, 
in defiance of the laws, dishonour the wives of others. 
For I am now risking the loss of life, property and 
all else that I have, because I obeyed the city's laws. 




Tins speech appears to be a rhetorical exercise in 
the manner of the eulogies which were delivered by 
persons of recognized distinction at the public 
funerals of Athenian citizens who had fallen in war : 
the whole ceremony on these occasions was arranged 
and conducted by the State, and it usually included 
games and competitions. The most famous of such 
orations — that spoken by Pericles in 431 B.C. — has 
been preserved for us, with some modulation of 
form, in the History of Thucydides (ii. 35-46), and 
we possess one, as it was originally composed, by 
Hypereides (323 b.c). The Corinthian War, during 
which the present oration purports to have been 
delivered, was a struggle in which Athens ranged 
herself with Thebes, Corinth and Argos against 
Sparta (395-380 b.c), when the latter had exasperated 
Greece by her illiberal use of the power that she 
acquired after Aegospotami (105 b.c). Defeated 
by Sparta at Corinth and Coronea in 394, the Con- 
federates yet succeeded in holding Corinth and 
confining the Spartans for a while within the Pelo- 
ponnese. In 394 also the Persian fleet under the 
Athenian Conon defeated the fleet assembled by 
the Spartan Peisander at Cnidus ; and the support of 


this Persian force enabled Athens in 393 to rebuild 
her Long Walls and fortify the Peiraeus. After 
some Spartan successes at Corinth in 392-391, the 
scale was again turned by the skilful tactics of the 
Athenian Iphicrates. In 386 both sides, weary of 
sharp fighting with no decisive result, submitted to 
the Peace of Antalcidas, dictated by the Persian 
king Artaxerxes. 

The particular occasion for which this oration 
might be supposed to have been designed cannot be 
specified with any certainty : it might be just after 
a defeat at Corinth in 392, or some later action. 
The attribution of the oration to Lysias has been 
much disputed. Aristotle (Rhet. iii. 10) quotes 
some words of it as though it were famous, but 
does not name its author. Dionysius of Hali- 
carnassus makes no mention of it in his essay on 
Lysias, or in discussing the similar oration in the 
Platonic Menexenus J ebb (Attic Orators, ix) found 
the internal evidence " overwhelmingly against 
the authorship of Lysias," noting the absence of his 
characteristic simplicity, grace, clearness and sense 
of symmetry. Yet it may well be that Lysias, when 
asked to produce an example of his skill in this type 
of composition, — possibly for actual use by a person 
whose distinctions did not include eminence in oratory, 
— found himself somewhat embarrassed by the tradi- 
tional theme of ancestral valour, and showed a certain 
awkwardness of experiment in an attempt to rival the 
sententious formality of the sophists. 



1 Et jiev rjyovfJLTjv olov re etvac, a> Trapovres im 
90] ro>8e tw Ta^>o>, Xoyco SrjXcooaL rrjv tcov ivOdoe 

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2 avrovs Trapd tcov aKovodvTCOv Tvyydveiv . opuos 
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tol tovtcov epya dXXd Trpos tovs rrpoTepov €7r' 
avTols elprjKOTas. ToaavTTfv yap d^doviav irape- 

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€K€lvols napaXeXeicfidaL, iKavd Se Kal tols im- 
ytyvofievois e^elvai eiVeiy ovtc yap yrjs artzipoi 
ovt€ OaXaTTTjs ovSefjitas, rravTaxfj oe Kal Trapd 
Traaiv avdpdmois ol to, avTcov TTevdovvTes KaKa 
Tas tovtcov dpeTas vjxvovcn. 

3 UpcoTov fiev ovv tovs TraXaLovs klvSvvovs rcov 


If I believed it possible, friends who are attending 
this burial, to set forth in speech the valour of the men 
who he here, I should have reproved those who gave 
me but a few days' notice of having to speak over 
them. But as all mankind would find all time insuffi- 
cient for preparing a speech to match their deeds, 
the city itself therefore, as I think, taking fore- 
thought for those who speak here, makes the appoint- 
ment at short notice, in the belief that on such terms 
they will most readily obtain indulgence from their 
hearers. However, while my speech is about these 
men, my contest is not with their deeds, but with the 
speakers who have preceded me in praising them. 
For their valour has provided matter in such abun- 
dance, alike for those who are able to compose in 
verse and for those who have chosen to make a speech, 
that, although many fair things have been spoken by 
those who preceded me, there are many that even 
they have omitted, and plenty more remain to be 
said by those who succeed them ; since nowhere is 
there any land or sea on which they did not venture, 
and in every place and every nation the people, 
in lamenting their own disasters, glorify the valorous 
deeds of these men. 

So now, in the first place, I shall recount the ancient 



rtpoyovcov Stetut, jj,vqfjLr)v rrapa rrjs <f>rjjJLrjs Xaficov 
d^iov yap rraaiv dvQpoorrois KaKeivcov pLepLvrjadat, 
vpcvouvr as fiev iv tolls whals, Xeyovras 8' iv rals 
rcov dyaOcov yvcopbais, npicovras 8 iv rots' Kaipols 


tojv epyois rovs l,covras. 

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ouotas" eKT-qaavro rds ipvxds rrj <f>voei, Kal evav- 
riav rrjv ho^av rrjs nporepas Xafiovaai uaAAov £k 
rcov Ktvhvvcov r) e/c rcov acofidrcov eho£av etvai 
yvvaiKes. /xoVats* 8* aurats* ovk itjeyevero e/c rcov 

*■ ^ rjp,aprr)p,evojv piadovaais rrepl rcov Xoincov dpieivov 
fiovXevaaadai, ovh* o'iKahe d7reA#ouo-atS' drray- 
yeiXai rr\v re crcfrerepav avrcov hvarvx^v Kal rrjv 
rcov rjp.ere.pcov rrpoyovcov dperrjv avrov yap 
aTToOavovaaiy Kal hovaai hiK-qv rrjs dvoias, rrjahe 

1 8i del. Markland. 



ordeals of our ancestors, drawing remembrance 
thereof from their renown. For they also are events 
which all men ought to remember, glorifying them 
in their songs, and describing them in the sage sayings 
of worthy minds ; honouring them on such occasions 
as this, and finding in the achievements of the dead 
so many lessons for the living. 

Well, of old there were Amazons, daughters oi 
Ares, dwelling beside the river Thermodon a ; they 
alone of the people round about were armed with 
iron, and they were first of all to mount horses, with 
which, owing to the inexperience of their foes, they 
surprised them and either caught those who fled, or 
outstripped those who pursued. They were ac- 
counted as men for their high courage, rather than 
as women for their sex ; so much more did they seem 
to excel men in their spirit than to be at a disadvan- 
tage in their form. Ruling over many nations, they 
had in fact achieved the enslavement of those around 
them ; yet, hearing by report concerning this our 
country how great was its renown, they were moved 
by increase of glory and high ambition to muster 
the most warlike of the nations and march with 
them against this city. But having met with valiant 
men they found their spirit now was like to their sex ; 
the repute that they got was the reverse of the 
former, and by their perils rather than by their 
bodies they were deemed to be women. They stood 
alone in failing to learn from their mistakes, and so 
to be better advised in their future actions ; they 
would not return home and report their own mis- 
fortune and our ancestors' valour : for they perished 
on the spot, and were punished for their folly, thus 

a In Pontus, flowing into the Euxine. 



p,ev rrjs TroXecos 8td ttjv dperrjv adavarov <tt)v> x 
fjLvqfJLrjv iiroir^oav , a ttjv 8e iavTCOV TrarptSa 8td ttjv 
ivddhe uvfjL(f)opdv olvcovvjjlov Kariarrjaav . e/ceiVat 
iiev ovv rrjs dXXorpias olSlkojs iiriBvpLrjcraoai tt)v 
iavrcov St/catoj? dirajXeoav . 

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KrjpvKas iheovTO avrcbv hovvai r<hv veKpaJv dv- 

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9 £a>crtv 'Apyetojv xapi^opievoL, dXXd rovs redveajras 
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10 rjpiapTrjKOTes. ravra Biavorjdevres, /cat ra? iv rep 
xroAeua) Tir^a? KOLvds dirdvrcov dvdpcoircov vofiu- 


1 rr\v add. Sauppe. * e-rrol^aav Bekker : 4iroir)<ra.vTo mss. 
° King of Argos, and father-in-law of Polyneices, who 


making our city's memory imperishable for its 
valour ; while owing to their disaster in this region 
they rendered their own country nameless. And 
so those women, by their unjust greed for others' 
land, justly lost their own. 

When Adrastus a and Polyneices had marched 
against Thebes and had been vanquished in battle, and 
the Cadmeans would not allow the corpses to be buried, 
the Athenians decided that, if those men had done 
some wrong, they had paid by their death the heaviest 
penalty, while the gods below were not obtaining 
their dues, and by the pollution of the shrines the 
gods above were being treated with impiety : so first 
they sent heralds and requested permission to take up 
the corpses, considering it to be the duty of brave 
men to take vengeance on their enemies while they 
lived, but a mark of self-distrust to display their 
valour over the bodies of the dead. When they 
failed to obtain them, they marched against them : 
no previous quarrel subsisted between them and the 
Cadmeans, nor did they wish to gratify the Argives 
who were yet living ; but thinking it right that those 
who had died in the war should receive the customary 
treatment, they risked combat with one of the parties 
in the interest of both, that on the one side they should 
cease from grossly outraging the gods by their trespass 
against the dead, and that on the other they should 
not hasten away to their own land frustrated of an 
ancestral honour, cut off from Hellenic custom, and 
disappointed in a common hope. With these thoughts 
in their minds, and holding that the fortunes of war 
are shared by all men in common, they found a 

went with him on the expedition against Thebes, the city 
of the Cadmeans, to claim the throne. 



oiKaiov e^ovres crv/JLfiaxov iviKOJV puaxopievoi. /cat 
oi>X vtto T"^? tvx?)S irrapdevres piel^ovos rrapd 
KaS/x€ta)V Ttuojptas* iTredvpaqaav, dXX e/cetVot? 
fjiev dvrl rrjs acre/betas' tt^v eaurojv dperrjv eVeSet- 
£avro, avrol 8e Xafiovres rd d6Xa wvrrep eVe/ca 
d^iKovro, rovs 'Apyelcov veKpovs, edoajjav iv rfj 
avrojv 'EAeuatyt. Trepl pcev ovv rovs diroBavovras 
ra)v irrrd €7tl ©-r^Sas" tolovtol yeyovaaiv . 

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rrjvhe rrjv ttoXlv t/ceVat em rcov ficopLQJv eKa04t,ovro' 

12 i^aLTOVjJLevov Se avrovs JLvpvoOeojs 'Adrjvaioi ovk 
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irpoKeipievov ttXtjv $6£r)s dyaOrjs, roGovrov Kivhvvov 

According to the usual story all the seven were slain. 
6 The sons of Heracles (Heracleidae ; cf. Euripides' play 


numerous enemy, but had justice as their ally, and 
they fought and conquered. And they did not allow 
themselves to be so elated by their fortune as to seek 
a heavier punishment of the Cadmeans, but in con- 
trast to their impiety showed them their own virtue, 
and obtaining for themselves the prize for which they 
had come — the corpses of the Argives — they buried 
them in their own land of Eleusis. Such, then, is the 
character that they have evinced in regard to those of 
the Seven against Thebes who were slain. a 

In a later time, when Heracles had vanished from 
amongst men, and his children were fleeing from 
Eurystheus and were expelled by all the Greeks, who 
were ashamed of these acts but afraid of Eurystheus' 
power, they came to this city, and seated themselves 
as suppliants at our altars. 6 And when Eurystheus 
demanded them, the Athenians refused to give them 
up, but revered the virtue of Heracles more than they 
feared their own danger, and preferred to do battle 
for the weaker on the side of right, rather than favour 
the powerful by giving up to them the men whom 
they had wronged. Eurystheus marched against 
them with the people who held the Peloponnese at 
that time ; yet they did not falter at the approach of 
the danger, but maintained the same resolve as before, 
though they had received no particular benefit at the 
father's hands, and could not tell what manner of men 
the sons would grow to be. Acting on what they held 
to be just, on no grounds of former enmity against 
Eurystheus, with no gain in view but good repute, 
they made this perilous venture on behalf of those 

of this name) were protected by the Athenians against their 
father's oppressor, Eurystheus, king of Argos, before their 
conquest of the Peloponnese. 

c 37 


vnep avrcov r\pavro y rovs p,ev dhiKovpcevovs eXeovv- 
res, rovs 8' vfiplc^ovras pucrovvres, Kal rovs uev 
KcoXveuv eTTi^ipovvreSy rots hi* eiriKovpelv d^covvres, 
rjyovfiepoi eXevOepias p-ev o-qpeZov etvau parjhev 
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fio-qQelv, eviftvxias 8' virep rovrojv dpL(f>OTepu)v , el 

15 Seot, /JLCLXOfievovs diroQvQOKeiv. rouovrov 8' e\/>po- 
vovv dpcf)6repoL, wad* ol jxev p,er* Evpvadetos ovhev 

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ovk r)^iovv YLvpvodea avrov LKerevovra rovs 
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iraihajv rd pbev acopuara els dheiav Karecrrrjaav, 
dnaXXd^avres he rod heovs Kal rds ijjvxds rjXev- 
depcoaav, 8td Se rr)v rod Trarpos dperrjv eKeivovs 

16 roZs avrcov Kivhvvois ecrrecpdvcoaav . rouovrov he 
evrvxecrrepoL rraZhes ovres eyevovro rov rrarpos' 
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dXXovs dhiKovvras eKoXaaev, TLvpvodea he Kal 
ex^pov ovra /cat els avrov e^apiaprdvovra ovx olos 
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rr)v ttoXlv rfj avrfj ethov rjpLepa rrjv 6* eavrcov 
acoriqpiav Kal rrjv rcov ex^pcov rcpLcoplav. 

17 IloAAd puev ovv VTrrjpxe rots rjpLerepots npoyovois 
/xta yvcoprj xpajpcevois Trepl rov htKaiov hiapidx^uOai' 
r\ re ydp dpx'r) rov /St'ou 8t/cata - ov yap, cocrnep ol 
ttoXXol, iravraxodev ovveiXeypevoi Kal erepovs 
eK^aXovres rrjv dXXorpiav cpKrjoav, dXX* avro- 
xOoves ovres rrjv avrrjv eKeKrrjvro pnqrepa Kal 


children, pitying the wronged and hating the op- 
pressor ; attempting to check the one, and deigning 
to assist the other ; conceiving it a sign of freedom to 
do nothing against one's will, of justice to succour the 
wronged, and of courage to die, if need be, in fighting 
for those two things at once. So high was the spirit of 
both sides that Eurystheus and his forces sought no 
advantage from any offer of the Athenians, while 
the Athenians would not suffer Eurystheus, even at 
his own supplication, to take away their suppliants. 
Having arrayed their own sole force against the 
host assembled from the whole Peloponnese, they 
conquered them in battle, rescued the sons of Heracles 
from bodily peril, liberating also their souls by ridding 
them of fear, and by their own daring crowned the 
sons with the meed of their father's valour. So much 
happier in the event were these, the children, than the 
father ; for he, though author of many benefits to 
all mankind, devoting his life to a laborious quest of 
victory and honour, did indeed chastise those who 
wronged others, but was unable to punish Eurystheus, 
who was both his enemy and his oppressor. Whereas 
his sons, thanks to this city, saw on the same day both 
their own deliverance and the punishment of their 

Now in many ways it was natural to our ancestors, 
moved by a single resolve, to fight the battles of 
justice : for the very beginning of their life was just. 
They had not been collected, like most nations, from 
every quarter, and had not settled in a foreign land 
after driving out its people : they were born of the 
soil, and possessed in one and the same country their 
mother and their fatherland. They were the first 



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XPOVCO €.K^a\6vT€S TO.S TTapd <J(f)L(JLV CLVTois hwa- 

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rravroiv eXevdepiav opiovoiav elvai pLeytarrjv, kolvols 
8' aXArjXois ra? e/c T&v klvSvvojv iXncSas ttoit]- 

19 oavres eXevOepais rats i/w^ats eTroXirevovro, vopco 
rovs dyadovs ripLcovres /cat rovs /ca/cou? /coAa- 
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v6p,a) fxev opioai to Slkollov, Xoyco he ireloai, epyto 
Se tovtols VTTTjpereLV, vtto vojjlov jxev fiaouXevo- 
fxevovs, vtto Xoyov Se 8t8aa/co/xeVous'. 

20 Kat yap rot /cat (f)vvres kolXcos /cat yvovres 
o/xota, 77oAAa puev /caAa /cat davpbaora ol irpoyovoi 
rwv ivOdSe Keifxevcxjv elpydoavro, deLfivrjcrTa Se 
/cat jLteyaAa /cat Travraypv ol e£ eKetvoov yeyovores 
Tpo-naia 8ta rr)v avrcjv dperrjv KareXiTrov . fiovot 
yap vrrep aTrdcrrjs rr)s 'EAAaSo? 77pos- 77oAAa? 

21 fJivpidSas rcov fiapfidpajv SieKLvSvvevoav. 6 yap 
rrjs 'Acrta? paaiXevs ovk ayarrojv rot? VTrdpypvoiv 
dyadols, aAA' eXTri^cov /cat rrjv EupaW^y SovXw- 
oeaOai, eoreiXe 7Tevrf^Kovra puvpidSas orparidv. 
y]yj]ud\xevoi 8e, et rr\vSe rrjv ttoXlv rj eKovoav 
(j>lXr}v TTOirjcraiVTO rj aKovaav Karao-rpeipaivro, 
pqSiws ro)v ttoXXcjv 'EAA^coy ap^eiv, aTTefirjaav 
els Mapa6d>va, vopLioavres ovtojs dv ep-qpuordrovs 
elvai avpLpidxcov [rovs "EAA^va?], 1 el en crracrta- 
^ovarjs rrjs 'EAAaSo? a> tlvl xprj Tpdrrcp rovs 
emovras dpivvaoOai, rov kivSvvov 7roir)oaivTO . 

22 ert 8* avrols e/c tcjv rrporepajv epya>v rrepl rrjs 
TToXeoos ToiavTt) 8o£a 7rapeiOTr)Kei, d>s el p,ev 

1 Tous"E\\r)pas del. Emperius. 


and the only people in that time to drive out the 
ruling classes a of their state and to establish a de- 
mocracy, believing the liberty of all to be the strongest 
bond of agreement ; by sharing with each other the 
hopes born of their perils they had freedom of soul in 
their civic life, and used law for honouring the good 
and punishing the evil. For they deemed that it was 
the way of wild beasts to be held subject to one 
another by force, but the duty of men to delimit justice 
by law, to convince by reason, and to serve these two 
in act by submitting to the sovereignty of law and the 
instruction of reason. 

For indeed, being of noble stock and having minds 
as noble, the ancestors of those who lie here achieved 
many noble and admirable things ; but ever memor- 
able and mighty are the trophies that their descend- 
ants have everywhere left behind them owing to 
their valour. For they alone risked their all in 
defending the whole of Greece against many myriads 
of the barbarians. For the King of Asia, not content 
with the wealth that he had already, but hoping to 
enslave Europe as well, dispatched an army of five 
hundred thousand. These, supposing that, if they 
obtained the willing friendship of this city or over- 
whelmed its resistance, they would easily dominate 
the rest of the Greeks, landed at Marathon, thinking 
that we should be most destitute of allies if they made 
their venture at a moment when Greece was in dis- 
sension as to the best means of repelling the invaders. 
Besides, from the former actions of our city they had 
conceived a particular opinion of her : they thought 

° dvpaareia was a small ruling class or narrow oligarchy, 
opposed to a iroXirela or constitutional rule ; cf. Thucydides, 
iii. 62, iv. 78. 



rrporepov in 9 dAXrjv ttoAlv tacriv, eKeivois Kal 
*A6r)vaLOLS TroXefjLTJaovori' irpoOvpuaJS yap rols 
aSiKOVfievoLs rj^ovau fiorjOrjOOvres' el 8' evddoe 
rrptorov d^ltjovrai, ovSevas dXAovs rdjv 'EAAt^vojv 
roAp,r\veiv erepovs acp^ovras (f>avepav ex^pav irpos 

23 eKeivovs virep avrcov Karadeodai. ol puev roivvv 
ravra hievoovvro' ol 8' r)pierepoi rrpoyovoi ov 
AoyKJfJLU) elSores rovs ev rep rroAepup Kivhvvovs, 
dAAa vopLL^ovres rov evKAea Odvarov dOdvarov 
irepl rdv dyaOcov KaraAeiireiv Aoyov, ovk e<f)o- 
ftrjOrjaav ro ttAtjOos rcov evavrlajv, dAAd rfj avrojv 
dperfj pidXAov eTriorevuav. koll alaxvvopLevou on 
rjaav ol fidpfiapoi avrojv ev rfj ^oj/>a, ovk dvepietvav 
irvOecrOai ovSe fiorjdfjcraL tovs avp,pidxovs, ov& 
(prjOrjaav Selv erepois rrjs crajrrjplas X^P iV ftSeVat, 

24 dAAa or(f)LOLV avrols tovs dAXovs "EAA^vas'. ravra 
fjLLa yvci)fJL7] ndvres yvovres anr\vr(x)v oAlyoi irpbs 
noXAovs' ivopui^ov yap dnoOavelv p,ev avrols pier a 
Trdvrwv rs poaijKeiv , dyaOovs 8' etvai pier* oAiya>j>, 

[193] xal ras /xev ifjvxds dAAorplas 8id rov Odvarov 
KeKrrjcrdai, rrjv 8' e/c rwv klvSvvojv pLvrjpLrjv IStav 
KaraAelipetv. rjtjlovv Se, ovs ptr) puovoi, viKtpev, 
oi5S' dv puer a rcjv ovp,pidx<^v hvvaaQai' Kal rjrrr)- 
Oevres p-ev oAiyco ra>v dAAa>v rrpoaTroAelodai, 
viKTjoavres 8e Kal rovs d'AAovs eAevOepcuaeiv. 

25 dvhpes 8' dyadol yev6p,evoi, Kal rcov p,ev ocopidrcov 
d^eihrjuavres, VTrep 8e rrjs dperrjs ov c^lAoi/jvx^)- 
cravres, Kal puaAAov rovs nap' avrols vopiovs 
alaxvvopievoL rj rov Trpds rovs rroAepiLovs klvSvvov 
(j>ofiovp,evoi t eorrjoav p,ev rpoiraiov vtrep rrjs 

EAAdSos rcov fiapftdpcov iv rfj avrcov } VTrep XP1" 



that if they attacked another city first, they would be 
at war with it and Athens as well, for she would be 
zealous in coming to succour her injured neighbours ; 
but if they made their way here first, no Greeks else- 
where would dare attempt the deliverance of others, 
and for their sake incur the open hostility of the 
foreigners. These, then, were the motives of the foe. 
But our ancestors, without stopping to calculate the 
hazards of the war, but holding that a glorious death 
leaves behind it a deathless account of deeds well 
done, had no fear of the multitude of their adversaries, 
but rather had confidence in their own valour. And 
feeling ashamed that the barbarians were in their 
country, they did not wait till their allies should be 
informed and come to their support ; rather than 
have to thank others for their salvation, they chose 
that the rest of the Greeks should have to thank them. 
With this one resolve in the minds of all, they marched 
to the encounter, though few against many : for 
death, in their opinion, was a thing for them to share 
with all men, but prowess with a few ; and while they 
possessed their lives, because of mortality, as alien 
things, they would leave behind something of their 
own in the memory attached to their perils. And 
they deemed that a victory which they could not win 
alone would be as impossible with the aid of their 
allies. If vanquished, they would perish a little before 
the others ; if victorious, they would liberate the 
others with themselves. They proved their worth 
as men, neither sparing their limbs nor cherishing 
their lives when valour called, and had more rever- 
ence for their city's laws than fear of their perils 
in face of the enemy ; and so in their own land they 
set up on behalf of Greece a trophy of victory over the 



26 pdrwv els rr)v dXXorplav epfiaXovrwv, rrapd rovs 
opovs rrjs %a)pas, ovtco he Std rayewv rov Kivhvvov 
eTTonjcravTO, ware ol avrol rols d'AAot? arnqyye iXav 
rr\v r evddhe d(f)it;iv rwv fiapfidpwv /cat rrjv i'lktjv 
rwv rrpoyovwv. /cat yap rot ovhels rwv dXXojv 
ehetaev vrrep rod pieXXovros Kivhvvov, aXX olkov- 
aavres vrrep rrjs avrwv eXevdepias rjadrjaav. 
ware ovhev Oavpuaarov, rrdXat 1 rwv epywv yeyevrj- 
p,evwv, warrep Kaivwv ovrwv en /cat vvv rrjv 
dperrjv avrwv vtto rrdvrwv avdpwrrwv ^rjXovadai. 

27 Merd ravra he Hep£r]s 6 rrjs 'Acrta? ftaoiXevs, 
Kara<j>povf)oas p-ev rrjs 'EAAdSos", eifjevap,evos he 
rrjs eXrrihos, dripLa£,6pLevos oe rep yeyevrjpLevw, 
axOoptevos oe rfj avpi^opa, opyt^opievos he rols 
alrtois, drradr)s §' wv KaKwv /cat arreipos dvhpwv 
ayaOcov, heKarw erei rrapaaKevaadp^evos Sta/cocrtat? 
piev /cat ^iXiais vavalv d<f>LKero, rrjs oe ire^rjs 
arparids ovrws drreipov rd rrXrjdos r)yev } ware 
/cat rd edvrj rd pier* avrov aKoXovdrjaavra rroXv 

28 av epyov elrj KaraXe^ar o he pieyiarov a-qptelov 
rov rrXrjdovs" e£6v yap avrw ^tAiat? vaval ota- 
jSt^dcrat Kara ro arevorarov rod ^XX-qanovrov 
rrjv TTet.TjV arparidv e/c rrjs 'Acta? els rr)v ^vpcon-qv, 
ovk rjOeX-qaev, r)yovpievos rr)v hiarpifir)v aural 

29 ttoXXtjv eoeodai' dXX vrrepihwv /cat rd <f>voei 
Tre^vKora /cat rd Beta rrpdyaara /cat rds avdpw- 
rrivas hiavoias ohov piev hid rrjs daXdrrrjs eTroir]- 
aaro, rrXovv he hid rrjs yrjs r)vdyKaae yeveodai, 
tyev^as p>ev rov 'E.XX-qanovrov , hiopv^as he rov 
"Ada), v(j>LorapLevov ovhevos, dXXd rwv p,ev aKovrwv 
vrraKovovrwv , rwv he eKovrwv rrpohihovrajv. ol 

1 7rd\cu Reiske: 7raXcuwi' MSS. 



barbarians, who had invaded others' territory for 
money, past the frontiers of their land ; and so swiftly 
did they surmount their ordeal that by the same 
messengers information reached the other Greeks 
both of the barbarians' arrival here and of our 
ancestors' triumph. For indeed none of the other 
Greeks knew fear for the peril to come ; they only 
heard the news and rejoiced over their own liberation. 
No wonder, then, that these deeds performed long ago 
should be as though they were new, and that even to 
this day the valour of that band should be envied by 
all mankind. 

Thereafter Xerxes, King of Asia, who had held 
Greece in contempt, but had been deceived in his 
hopes, who was dishonoured by the event, galled by 
the disaster, and angered against its authors, and who 
was unused to ill-hap and unacquainted with true 
men, in ten years' time prepared for war and came 
with twelve hundred ships ; and the land army that 
he brought was so immense in numbers that to 
enumerate even the nations that followed in his train 
would be a lengthy task. But the surest evidence of 
their numbers is this : although he had a thousand 
ships to spare for transporting his land army over the 
narrowest part of the Hellespont from Asia to Europe 
he decided against it, for he judged that it would 
cause him a great waste of time : despising alike 
the effects of nature, the dispositions of Heaven and 
the purposes of men, he made him a road across the 
sea, and forced a passage for ships through the land, 
by spanning the Hellespont and trenching Athos ; 
none withstood him, for the unwilling submitted, and 
the willing chose to be traitors. The former were not 

c2 45 


pcev yap oi>x IkclvoI rjoav a/xiWcr&u, ot 8' vrro 
Xprnxdrcov 8te</>#ap/xeVor a^oreoa b* rjv avrovs 

30 to. TTeLOovTdy Kepoos /cat heos. ' Adrjvaioi 8' ovtco 
ota/cetueV^s" rfjs 'EAAaSos" avrol fiev els tols vauc 
ififiavres err' 'Apre/xtotov efior)6r]oav, Aa/ccSat- 
uoVtot he /cat tojv av[L[idyo}v evioi els GeppLorrvXas 
aTTrjVTiqoav , -qyovpievoi hid rrjv orevoTqra tcov 

yOip'l<MV T7]V TT&pohoV OLOL T eoeodai OLa(J)v\d£aL. 

31 yevofxivov he rod Kivhvvov /caret rdv avrov xpovov 
' 'AdiqvaZoi fxev eviKOJV rfj vau/xa^ta, Aa/ceSatuovtot 
he, ov rals ipw^oXs evheels yevofievou, aAAct rod 
nXrjdovs xpevoOevTes /cat ovs (f>vXd£eLV toovro /cat 

7TpOS OVS KLl'Sw€VG€LV e/JLcXXoV, <$l€(f)6dpi']GaV > X 

oi>x 'QTrrjOevres tojv evavriojv, aXX dirodavovres 

32 ovirep irdxdrjaav jLta^ecr^at* tovtco he rcu rpoTTO) 
rdv p,ev hvorv)(r}<jdvTOJv , tojv he tt^s" Trapohov 

K p0LT7]O dvi OJV , Ot /X€l> €7rop€VOVTO €7Tt TT^Se T^ 
TToAtV, Ot 8' r)lJL6T€pOL TTpoyOVOl 7Tv66p,€VOL jJ,€V TTjV 

yeyevr]\xevr\v Aa/ceSat/xovtot? ovficfyopdv, diropovvTes 
he roZs TrepieoTrjKooi rrpdypLaoiv, elhores 8' 6Vt, 
et jJLev Kara yrjv tols fiapftdpois aVayr^oovTat, 
eTTLTrXevcravTes ^tAtai? vavolv epr^paqv rrjv ttoXlv 
XrjipovTai, et he els rds rpi-qpeis e/x/^crovrat, u7ro 
rrjs Tre^rjs or par ids dX.ojcrovTaL, d/X(/>oTepa he ov 
hwrfaovrai, dpLVvaodal re /cat <f>vXaK7]v iKavfjv 

33 /caraAt77etv, 8uotv 8e 77po/cetueVotv, Trorepov XPV 
ttjv 77arpt8a e/cAtTretv t) xtera raw fiapfidptov 
yevofievovs kclt ah ovXdjoao 6 at rovs "EAA^ya?, rjyr]- 
adp.evoi KpeiTTov elvai /x€t' dpeTrjs kclI 7revias /cat 
(f>vyrjs eXevdepiav t) txer' oVet'Sous" /cat 77A0UTOU 
SouAeiav r^S" iraTpihos, e^eXcrrov vrrep ttjs 'EAAaSos 

1 bi€(pddpr}aav add. Jacobs. 


capable of resisting, and the latter were corrupted by 
bribes : they were under the double persuasion of gain 
and dread. But while Greece showed these inclina- 
tions, the Athenians, for their part, embarked in their 
ships and hastened to the defence of Artemisium ; 
while the Lacedaemonians and some of their allies 
went off to make a stand at Thermopylae, judging 
that the narrowness of the ground would enable them 
to secure the passage. The trial came for both at the 
same time : the Athenians conquered in the sea-fight, 
while the Lacedaemonians, showing no failure of spirit, 
but deceived as to the numbers alike of those whom 
they expected to mount guard and of those with whom 
they had to contend, were destroyed, not having been 
worsted by their adversaries, but slain where they had 
been stationed for battle. When in this manner the 
one side had suffered disaster, and the other had 
captured the passage, the invaders advanced against 
this city ; while our ancestors, informed of the 
calamity that had befallen the Lacedaemonians, and 
perplexed by the difficulties that surrounded them, 
were aware that, if they marched out to meet the 
barbarians on land, they would sail against the city 
with a thousand ships and take it undefended, and if 
they embarked on their war-vessels they would be 
reduced by the land army ; that they ° would be un- 
equal to the double strain of repelling the foe and 
leaving behind a sufficient garrison. So having to 
choose one of two courses, either to desert their native 
land or to join the barbarians in enslaving the Greeks, 
they decided to prefer freedom together with valour 
and poverty and exile to their country's servitude in 
infamy and wealth : they left their city for the sake of 

c The Athenians left in the city. 



TTJV TToXlV, lv* €V /JL€p€L 7TpOS €KOLT€paV dXXd flYJ 

(194] Trpos dpL^oTepas d/.ia ras hwd/xeis Kivhvvevocooiv 

34 i)7T€K9ifievoi he nralhas Kal yvvaiKas Kal paqripas 
els HaXafilva, ovvqd poit,ov Kal to tcov dXXcov 
ov[k\i6r)(UdV vavriKov. ov iroXXats 8 varepov rjfiepais 
rjXde Kal rj 776^ crrparid Kal to vavTiKov to tcov 
fiapfidpcov, o rt? ovk dv Ihcov ecbofirjOr], cos fxeyas 
Kal Setvos" Tjjhe ttj noXei Kivhvvos vnep ttjs tcov 

35 'JLXXtjvcov eXevdeplas rjycovlcrOr] ; Trolav he yvcopuqv 
el^ov rj ol decofxevoi tovs ev rat? vavcrlv eKeivais, 
ovarjs Kal ttj? avTcov ocoTiqpias d-nioTOV Kal tov 
irpooiovTos KivhvvoVy rj ol fieXXovTes vav\xaxqoeiv 


36 HaXajjLLvt; oh togovtov iravTaypdev 7Tepieio~Tr)Kei 
nXrjdos iroXejiicov, cooTe eAa^tcrrov jj,ev avTols 
elvai tcov irapovTcov KaKcov to ddvaTOV tov avTCov 
irpoeibevaiy \ieyiaTr\v he avficpopdv, <a> x vtto tcov 
fiapfidpcov evTvyy}o~dvTcov tov? vireKTeOevTas tJXttl- 

37 "Qov ireioeoQai. rj ttov hid ttjv virdpyovoav diropiav 
TToXXaKis pLev ihe^tcoaavTO dAA^Aou?, eiKOTCOs he 
creeds avTOVs cbXocbvpavTO, elhoTes fiev ra? ocf>erepas 
vavs oXiyas ovaas, opcovTes he 77oAAas" ret? tcov 
7ToXefjLicov, eni(JTd\ievoi he ttjv fiev ttoXiv rjp-qpLco- 
fxevrjv, ttjv he yojpav 7rop9ovp,evqv Kal fieaTrjv tcov 
ftapfidpcov, lepcov he Kaiojievcov, dndvTCOV 8' eyyvs 

38 ovtcov tcov heivcov y aKovovTes 8' ev TavTCp ovp,- 
fiefxeLy/jievov 'JLXXyjvikov Kal fiapfiapiKov irattovos, 
TrapaKeXevGjXOV 8' dficboTepcov Kal Kpavyrjs tcov 
htac^Oeipofxevcov , kol ttjs daXaTTiqs fxeorTrjs tcov 


Kal TToXepiicov vavayicov, avTiiraXov he noXvv 

1 & add. Taylor. 


Greece, that they might challenge each of the two 
forces ° in turn, not both at once. They deposited 
their children and wives and mothers safe in Salamis, 
and assembled to their aid the ships of their allies. A 
few days later both the land army and the fleet of the 
barbarians appeared ; at such a sight, who would not 
have been afraid of the greatness and terror of the 
danger that had come upon our city in her struggle for 
the freedom of Greece ? What were the feelings of 
those who beheld their friends on board those ships, 
when their own salvation was as doubtful as the 
approaching contest ; or again, of those who were 
about to do battle at sea for their dearest, for the 
prizes there in Salamis ? On every hand they were 
surrounded by such a multitude of foes that they 
reckoned it the least of their present troubles to 
anticipate their own death, but saw the greatest of 
disasters in the fate that they must expect to be dealt 
by the barbarians, if successful, to those whom they 
had transported from the city. We may be sure that 
the perplexity of their case made them often grasp 
each other by the hand, and with reason bewail their 
plight ; knowing their own ships to be few, and seeing 
those of the foe to be many ; understanding that their 
city was now deserted, that their land was being 
ravaged and overrun by the barbarians, that the 
temples were being burnt, and that horrors of every 
kind were close upon them. At the same moment 
they heard mingled battle-hymns of Greek and 
barbarian, exhortations on either side, and shrieks of 
the perishing : the sea was full of corpses, there was 
clashing of many wrecks of friends' and foemen's 
vessels, and for a long time the sea-fight was evenly 

a i.e., the fleet and the army of the Persians. 



Xpdvov ovo-qs rrjs vavfiaxlas SoKovvres rore fiev 
vei'iKYjKevai Kal oeowoOat, rore 8' r)rrrjo9ai Kal 

39 0L7ToAa)Aevai. rj rrov 8ta rov rrapovra (f)6fiov noXXd 
fxev (hr)Br)oav ISelv cLv ovk elhov, rroXXa 8' d/couaat 
wv ovk rJKOvcrav. irolai 8' ovx t/ceretat OeaJv 
iyevovro r) Ovolcov dvapivrjoeis, eXeos re rraihajv 
Kal yvvaiKoov rrodos olktos re rrarepajv Kal 
fjLi-jTeptov, XoyiofJios 8', el Svorvxrfo-eiav, rwv 

40 jJieXXovTUiv eoeoOat /ca/ccov; rls ovk aV 6eow 
•qXerjcrev avrovs xmep rod p,eyedovs rod klvSvvov; 
r) rls dvdpcoTrojv ovk av ehaKpvoev ; r) rls rrjs 
roXpirjS avrovs ovk av r)ydodr] ; r) ttoXv rrXelorov 
eKelvot Kara rr)v dperr)v dirdvrojv dvdpdmcov 
SirjveyKav Kal ev rots fiovXev/jtaoi Kal ev rots rov 
TToXejxov Kivhvvois, eKXnrovres fxev rr)v rroXtv, els 
rds vavs 8' efifiavres, rds 8' avrcjv ipv)(as oXlyas 
ovcras dvrird^avres rep TrXiqdei raj rrjs 'Aata?, 

41 eWSei^av 8e rrdoiv dvdpcorrois, viKr]oavres rfj vav- 
/xa^ta, on Kpelrrov [ier oXlycov vrrep rrjs eXev- 
deplas KiiSvvevetv r) fxerd ttoXXcov ^acriXevofievwv 

42 vnep rrjs avrcov SovXelas. rrXelora he Kal KaXXiora 
eKelvot vrrep rrjs rtov 'KXXrjvatv eXevdeplas crvv- 
efidXovro, Grpar-qyov fiev OetuoTO/cAea, tKavwrarov 
etrrelv Kal yvojvat Kal rrpa^at, vavs he rrXelovs rcov 
dXXcov <JV\xpid\ojv y dvhpas 8' efirretpordrovs . /cat 
yap 1 rives av rovrots rwv dXXojv 'EAArjiajv rjpioav 

43 yvcofir) Kal rrXrjdet Kal dperfj ; wore StKaloJS ptev 
dva{L(f)Lofivrr)ra raptor eta rrjs vavptaxtas eXafiov 
rrapa rrjs 'EAAaSo?, et/coraj? 8e rr)v evrvxlav 
ofiovoovcrav rots klvSvvols eKriqaavro, yvqolav 8e 

1 Kal yap Dobree : nalroi mss. 


balanced ; they seemed at one moment to have 
conquered and been saved, at another to have been 
defeated and destroyed. Certainly the fear that was 
upon them must have made them believe that they 
saw many things which they saw not, and heard many 
that they did not hear. What supplications, what 
reminders of sacrifices, were not sent up to Heaven ! 
What pity was felt for children, what yearning over 
wives, what compassion for fathers and mothers, in 
calculating the evils that would result from their ill- 
success ! What deity would have denied them pity 
for such an awful danger ? What man but would 
have shed tears ? Who would not have marvelled at 
their daring ? Beyond all compare did those men in 
their valour surpass all mankind, whether in their 
counsels or in the perils of that war : for they aban- 
doned their city and embarked on their ships, and 
pitted their own few lives against the multitude of 
Asia. They declared to all men, by their victory in 
the sea-fight, that there is better hope for the venture 
shared with a few in the cause of freedom than for 
that in which numerous subjects of a king contend for 
their own servitude. They made the fullest and 
fairest contribution in aid of the freedom of the Greeks 
by providing Themistocles as commander, most com- 
petent to speak and decide and act, and ships more 
numerous than those of all their allies, and men of the 
greatest experience. For indeed who among the rest 
of the Greeks could have vied with these in decision, 
in number, and in valour ? Hence it was just that 
they should receive from Greece without dispute the 
prize of prowess in the sea-fight, and reasonable that 
they should attain a prosperity in accord with the 
measure of their perils, having taught the barbarians 



koll avroxOova rols e/c rrjs 'Aorta? fiapfidpois ti^p 
aurcov dperrjv eTrehei^avro. 

44 'Ev jLtev ovv rfj vau/xa^ta to to i; to us awrou? 
napaaxovreg /cat ttoXv TrXelarov rcbv Ktvhvvajv 
fjL€Tacrx6vT€s rfj Ihla dperfj kolvtjv rr)v eXevBepiav 
/cat rots aXXois eKTTjGavTO' varepov he TleXoTrov- 
V7]GLO)V hcareix^ovrcov ToV 'lodfJLOV, KOLL aya7Tcov- 
T(X>V fJL€V rfj GWTTJpLa, VO/JU^OVTOJV 8 aV^AAcT^at 

rod /caret ddXarrav Kivhvvov, /cat hiavoovp.eva>v rovs 
dXXovs "EAA^^as 1 Trepuhelv vtto rols fiapftdpois 

45 yevofievovs, opytodevres 'AOrjvaloi crvvefiovXevov 
avrols, el ravrrjv rr)v yvwjJLrjv e^ovoi, rrep\ diraaav 
rr)v YleXoTTovvqaov relxos TreptfiaXelv el yap avrol 
vtto <tujv> x 'EXArjvcov TTpohihofxevoL fierd rdjv 
fiapfidpoov eaovrai, ovr e/cetVot? herjoetv ^tAt'cop 

195) vecbv ovre rovrovs dxjyeXrjGeLV rd ev 'Icrduco ret^os" 
aKtvhvvojs yap eaeaOat, rrjv rrjs daXdrrrjs dpxty 

46 fiaaiXeajs. hihaaKOfievoi he. /cat vofii^ovres avrol 
fiev aSt/ca re rroielv /cat /ca/caj? fiovXevecrdai, 
* Adrjvaiovs he St/cata re Xeyeiv /cat rd fieXriara 
avrols -rrapaivetv, eBoijOrjcrav els nAaratas"* airo- 
hpdvTOJV he vtto vvKra ra>v TrXeioroov ovfjifidxcov 
ck ra>v rd^eojv hid to ttXtjOos rcov TToXepbitov , 
AaKehatfioviOi fiev /cat Teyearat rovs fiapfidpovs 
erpeipavro, 'Adrjvaloi he /cat nAaratet? Trdvras 
rovs "EAA^ras" evLKOJv pLaxopcevoi rovs dnoyvovras 
rrjs eXevOepias /cat VTropLeivavras rrjv hovXeiav. 

47 ev eKelvrj he rfj rjfxepa KaXXiorr]V reXevrrjv rots 
rrporepois KLvhvvois emdevres, fiefiaiov jiev rr)v 
eXevdepiav rfj YivpojTrrj Kareipyduavro , ev arraoi 
he rols Kivhvvois hovres eXeyxov rrjs eavrcov 
aperrjs, /cat piovoi /cat fied^ erepwv, /cat 7re£o- 


of Asia that their own valour was genuine and native 
to their soil, 

By thus proving their quality in the sea-fight, and 
bearing by far the greatest share in its dangers, they 
obtained through their particular prowess a general 
access of freedom for the rest of Greece. But after 
this the Peloponnesians built a wall across the Isthmus ; 
and being satisfied with their safety, and considering 
that they were now rid of the peril from the sea, they 
were disposed to stand by and see the other Greeks 
subdued by the barbarians. Then the Athenians, in 
anger, advised them, if they meant to be of this mind, 
to encompass the whole Peloponnese with a wall : for 
if they themselves, betrayed by the Greeks, should 
be united with the barbarians, these on their part 
would have no need of a thousand ships, nor would the 
wall at the Isthmus help its builders, since the empire 
of the sea would belong without hazard to the King. 
Taking the lesson to heart, and deeming their action 
unjust and ill-advised, while the words of the Athenians 
were just and their advice to them was the wisest, 
they went to their support at Plataea. Most of the 
allies had deserted their posts at nightfall, owing to 
the multitude of the enemy ; but the Lacedaemonians 
and Tegeates routed the barbarians, while the 
Athenians and Plataeans fought and vanquished all the 
Greeks who had despaired of freedom and submitted 
to slavery. On that day they brought the ventures of 
the past to a most glorious consummation ; for not 
only did they secure a permanence of freedom for 
Europe, but had given proof of their own valour in all 
those trials, whether alone or with others, in land- 

1 tuiu add. Reiske. 



fiaxovvres /cat j'aujLia^owTe?, /cat Trpos <rovs > x 
fiapfidpovs /cat 77009 rovs "EAA^ras", vtto ttolutojv 
r)£id)6r]oav, /cat fied^ cbv eKivhvvevov /cat Trpos ovs 
eTroXepLOW, r)ye/Ji6ves yeveodai rrjs 'EAAaSos*. 

48 'Yorepco 8e xpovco *}LXXr]viKov iroXepiov /cara- 
ardvTOS ota ^Ao^ t6jv yeyevr)\ievajv /cat (f>66vov 
rcov 7T€TrpaypLev(x>v, fjidya puev aTravres (fipovovvres, 
fjUKpcov 8' iyKXrjfjidrojv eKaoroi heojievoi, vau/xa^ta? 
'Adrjvaiois Trpos Alycv-qras /cat rous" eKeivoiv gvjjl- 
p,axovs yevopbeviqs e^SSo/x^/covra rpnjpeis avrtov 

49 iXd/jipavov . TToXiopKovvrcov he /caret t6v aurov 
Xpovov A'LyvTTTov re /cat Atytyav, /cat ttJ? r)\i- 
Kias aTrovGYjs ev re rat? vaucrt /cat ev to) 7refa> 
ar par ev pear l } KootV#tot /cat ot e/cetVojv crvpLfiaxoi, 
r)yov\xevoi r) els eprjpiov rr)v x^ J P av epufiaXeLV r) 
e£ Alyiviqs d£etv ro Grparonehov, e^eXdovres ttolv- 

50 Srjfiel Tepdvetav KareXafiov 'A^vatot 8e ra>v /zev 
drtovroiVy rcov 8' eyyvs ovrojv, ovSeva eroXpuquav 
/jLeraTrepLipacrO ai- rats 8' avrcbv j/fu^ats" morci;- 
crayres' /cat rcov emovrcov Karacjypovqoavres ol 
yepairepoi /cat ot rrjs tjXlklols evros yeyovores 
tj^lovv avrol piovoi rov klvSvvov TroitjcraodaL, ol 

51 p,ev ijJLTTeipia ttjv dperr\v i ol 8e cfrvcrei KeKnqpLevor 
/cat ot piev aurot 77oAAa^ou dyadol yeyevrnievoi, 
ol 8' eKeivovs pufiovfievoL, rcov fiev rrpea^vrepcov 
dp\eiv eTncrrapLevcov , rcov 8e vecorepcov to eVt- 

62 rarropuevov TTOieZv hvvapLevcov , MvpcoviSov orrparrj- 
yovvros aTravr-quavres avrol els rr)v Meyaot/c^v 
eviKcov fiaxopLevoL d-nauav rr)v ovvapuv rr)v eKelvcov 
rols r)8rj dTreLpijKoot, /cat rot? ovttco hwafxevois, 
rovs els rr)v ocjierepav efi^aXelv d^tcocravras, els 

1 tous add. Reiske. 


fights or in sea-fights, against the barbarians or 
against the Greeks ; and thus they were judged 
worthy by all — by their comrades in peril no less than 
their foes in the field — to have the leadership of 

In later times a Grecian war arose from envy of 
what had come to pass, and jealousy of what had been 
achieved : great was the conceit of all, and small the 
allegation that each found needful. The Athenians, 
in a sea-fight with the Aeginetans and their allies, 
took seventy of their warships. As they were blockad- 
ing Egypt and Aegina at the same time, and their 
men of serviceable age were absent either in their 
ships or in their land army, the Corinthians and their 
allies, conceiving that if they invaded our land they 
would either find it unprotected or draw off our forces 
from Aegina, marched out in full strength and seized 
Geranea. & But the Athenians, though their men 
were away and the enemy close at hand, would not 
deign to summon anyone. Trusting in their own 
spirit, and despising the invaders, the elderly and 
those below the age of service thought fit to take the 
risk upon themselves alone : the former had acquired 
their valour by experience, the latter by nature ; 
those had proved their own worth on many a field, while 
these would imitate them, and as the seniors knew 
how to command, so the juniors were able to carry out 
their orders. With Myronides as general they made 
a sally of their own into the land of Megara and 
conquered in battle the whole force of the enemy with 
troops whose strength was already failing or not yet 
capable, — of an enemy who had chosen to invade their 
country, but whom they had hastened to meet on alien 
a 459-4,53 B.C. b Near Megara. 



53 rr)v dXXorptav aTTavrrjaavres, rpoiraiov 8e ottj- 
aavres koXXlotov p,iv avrols epyov, at'o^t'orou Si 
rots' noXefjilois, ol fiev ou/ccrt tols crojuaotv, ol 8' 
ovnco ovvdfievoL, rals oe xpvxals d/jLtfrorepoL Kpeir- 

TOVS y€v6jJL€VOL, fJL€TOL KaXXloTT]S Sofl]? €LS Tj)v 

avrcov direXQovres ol fiev ttolXlv eVatSeuovTO, ol 8e 
vepl rcov Xolttwv ifiovXevovro . 


KLvovvevdevra u</>' ivos pfjOrjvaL, ovoe ra iv airavri 
ra> XP^ VC 9 TTpaxOevra iv /xta r)p,epa hrjXcodrjvai. 
tls yap dv r) Xoyos r) XP^ vos V PV TOJ P l Kav °S 
yivovro fJLrjvvooLL rr)v rcov evddoe /cetueVojv dvSpcbv 

65 dperrjv; [xerd TrXeiGTOiV yap itovojv Kal tbavepco- 
rdrajv dytovtov Kal koXXlgtcov KLvhvvcov iXevdipav 
[iev eiroiriGav rr)v *EAAd8a, fieyiGT-qv 8' dW8et£ai> 
rr)v iavrcov rrarpLoa, ifioojjLrJKovra p,iv errj rrjs 
6aXaTT7)s dp£avT€s> aGraGiaGrovs 8e Trapaaxovres 

56 tovs GVjJLjjidxovs, ov tols oXlyoLS rovs noXXovs 
hovXeveiv d^Lcooavres, dXXd ro loov 'ix elv dVai>- 
ra? dvayKaoavres, ouSe rovs ovpLfiaxovs doOevels 
rroLOVvres, dAAa /cd/cetVou? laxvpovs Kadioravres, 
Kal rr)v avrcov ovvap.iv rooavrrjv ii7LheU;avr€S, 
ojgO* 6 fidyas fiaoLXevs ovketl rcov dXXorpicov 

€7T€6vfJL€L, dAA' iSloOV TOJV laVTOV Kal 7T€pl TO)V 

67 Xolttojv icbofielro, /cat ovre rpL-qpeLS iv e/cetVoj rep 
XP OV( t> e/c rrjs 'Acta? errXevoav, ovre rvpavvos 
iv rot? "EAA^crt Kariarrj, ovre 'l&XArjvls ttoXls vtto 

[196] tojv fiapfidpeov r)vopa7TO$LGdr}' roaavrr\v ococfipo- 
gvvt\v Kal Sios rj rovrcov dperr) tt&glv dv6 pcorroLS 
Trap€LX ev - & v 'i v€Ka 8et pcovovs Kal it pour dr as 
rcov 'EAA^'ojy Kal rjyejjLovas rcov 7t6X€cov yiyveoOaL. 

68 'E77e'8et£av 8e /cat iv Tat? SvGrvx^aLs rr)v iavrcov 


soil. There they set up a trophy of an exploit most 
glorious for them, but most disgraceful for the foe. 
One part of them had ceased, and the other had not 
begun, to be able-bodied ; but together they took 
strength from their spirit, and thus with fairest 
renown they returned to their own land, where the 
young resumed their education and the old took 
counsel on what remained to be done. 

Now it is not easy for one person to recount in detail 
the perils undergone by many men, or to show forth in 
a single day the deeds of all past times. For what 
speech or time or orator would suffice to declare the 
valour of the men who lie here ? By means of count- 
less toils, conspicuous struggles, and glorious perils 
they made Greece free, while making their native 
land surpassing great : they commanded the sea for 
seventy years and saved their allies from faction, not 
suffering the many to be slaves of the few, but com- 
pelling all to live on an equality b ; instead of weaken- 
ing their allies, they secured their strength along with 
their own, and displayed their own power to such effect 
that the Great King no more coveted the possessions of 
others, but yielded some of his own and was in fear for 
what remained. In that time no warships sailed from 
Asia, no despot held sway among the Greeks, no city 
of Greece was forced into serfdom by the barbarians ; 
so great was the restraint and awe inspired in all man- 
kind by the valour of our people. And for this reason 
none but they should become protectors of the Greeks 
and leaders of the cities. 

And in misfortunes also they displayed their ac- 

From 476 B.C., when Athens became the head of the 
Delian League, to 405 B.C., when she was defeated at 

b i.e., they were the general promoters of democracy. 



aperrjv. arroXop.evojv yap rcov vecov ev 'EAATyoTroVroj 

€LT€ r)y€jJLOVOS KaKLQ €LT€ deOJV OldVOiq, /Cat (JVfJL- 

<f>opas €K€lvt]s fieyi,(JT7]s yevopLevrjS /cat tj/jllp rots 
Suaru^cracrt. /cat toZs aAAot? "KXXtjglv, iorjAajaev 
ov 7toXXo) xpovcp vorepov oti r) rrjg ttoXcojs ovvap.Ls 
69 rrjs 'EAAaSos 1 rjv Ga>rr)pla. irepcov yap rjyepLovcov 
yevo\xeva)v IviKTjCjav jxev vavpLayovvTes rovs "EA- 
Xrjvas ol irporepov els ttjv OdXarrav ovk €/xj8at- 
vovresy errXevoav S' els rrjv JLvpa)777]v, oovXevovcri 
Se 77oActs" rtov 'EXXtJvojv, rvpavvoi S' iyKadeoTauiv, 

OL pL€V p,€TOL TTjV T)pL€T€paV GVpL(f)Opdp, OL §6 pLCTa 

60 T7]V VLKTjV TWV fiapfidpOJV . OJGT d^LOV 7}V €7TL TLp$€ 

to) rdcftcp rore KetpaadaL rfj f EAAa8t /cat 7T€v6rjoaL 

TOVS ivddSe K€LpL6VOVS, Ct>? GVyKaTa6aTTTO[l€V7]S 

rfjs avrcov iXevOepias rfj tovtojv dperfj- a>s ova- 
rvyjjs pLev rj 'EAAd? tolovtojv dvSpcov 6p(f>avr} 
yevop-evr], evrvy^ S' 6 rrjg 'Acrta? /JaatAeus- 
irepojv rjyefiovojv XaftopLevos' rfj puev yap tovtojv 
OTeprjOelcrj] oovXela TrepLecrTiqKe, tw 8' dXAajv 
dp^dvTOJV L^rjXos iyyiyveTaL ttjs tcov irpoyovajv 

61 'AAAa, TavTa fiev i^rj-ydiqv virep Trda-qs 6Xocf)vpa- 
odaL ttjs 'EAAaoos" eKeivojv he tojv dvhpdjv ol^lov 
/cat t8ta /cat hrjpuoaia pLepLvrjadaL, ot <f)evyovTes ttjv 
hovXelav /cat irepl rod St/catou pLaxdpLevoi /cat vrrep 
T7J? SrjpLOKpaTLas OTao-LacravTes TidvTas TroXepiLovs 

K€KT7JpL6VOL €L£ TOV Ileipaia KaT7)XBoV, 01)% V7TO 

vopLOV avayKaoOevTes, aXX vtto ttJ? (favcrews ttcl- 

a At Aegospotami, 405 B.C. 

b The Persian fleet under Conon defeated the Lacedae- 
monians under Peisander at Cnidus in Cilicia, 394 b.c. In 
tiie preceding years Sparta, relying on the support of Persia, 


customed valour. For when the ships were destroyed 
in the Hellespont — whether it was through the fault 
of the commander or by the design of Heaven — 
and that supreme disaster overtook not only us, who 
suffered that misfortune, but all the rest of the 
Greeks, it became evident shortly after that the 
power of our city was the salvation of Greece. The 
leadership was taken by others, and a people who had 
never before embarked upon the sea defeated the 
Greeks in a naval action ; they sailed to Europe and 
enslaved cities of the Greeks, in which despots were 
established, some after our disaster, and others after 
the victory of the barbarians. 6 So it would have been 
fitting for Greece to come then and mourn over this 
tomb, and lament those who lie here, seeing that her 
own freedom was interred together with their valour. 
Unhappy Greece, to be bereft of such men, and 
happy King of Asia, to be at grips with other leaders ! 
For Greece, deprived of these men, is sunk in slavery, 
while he, finding others in command, is moved to 
emulate the designs of his ancestors. 

But though I have been led to utter this lament 
over Greece as a whole, it behoves us to remember, 
in public as in private, those men c who, shun- 
ning slavery, fighting for the right, and rallying 
to the cause of democracy, incurred the hostility 
of all and returned to the Peiraeus ; compelled 
by no law, but induced by their nature ; imitating 

had placed her governors in many Greek cities : after Cnidus 
the Greeks of Asia Minor were abandoned to Persian rule. 

c The speaker returns to the story of Athens after Aegos- 
potami — the tyranny of the Thirty and the democratic 
opposition in the Peiraeus, 404-403 b.c For the whole series 
of events see the General Introduction and Chronological 




62 npoyovcov fiifMrjodfxevoL, rats avrcZv ipvxcus kolvtjv 
rr)v 7t6Xlv kcll tols d'AAoiS" KT-qoofJLevoi, Odvarov pier* 
eXevdepias alpovpievoi r) fiiov pierd SovXeias, oi>x 
■fjTTOv rats' ovfJL<f)opais aloxwopievoL 7? rots exOpols 
opyi^ofievoi, {jl&X\ov fiovXrjdevres ev rfj avrcov 
a.TToQvr\GK£iv 7) t,rjv rrjv dXXorpiav oiKovvres, crvp,- 
p,dxovs p,ev opKovs /cat ovvdrjKas exovres, 7roXep.LOVs 
he tovs irporepov VTrdpxovras /cat tovs ttoXltcls 

63 tovs eavTcov. dAA' opicos ov to ttXtjBos tojv evav- 
tlcov (frofi-qdevTes, dAA' ev tols crcopiaoi tols eavTcov 
KivSvvevoavTes, Tpoiraiov pJev tcov TToXepLLOJV eorrj- 
oav, fidpTVpas Se Trjs cxvtcov dperrjs eyyvs oVra? 
rovSe rov pLvrjpLdTOS tovs Aa k eh a Lpuovicov rd(j)Ovs 
Trapexovrai. /cat ydp rot pLeydXr]v p,ev dvrl pLitcpds 
direhei^av tt]v itoXlv, opLOvoovaav he dvrl ara- 
cria^ovorrjs a7re(f)rjvav, relx 7 ) ^ dVrt tcov kol9- 

64 rjpr]pievcov dveoTrjcrav. ol he KareXOovres clvtcov, 
dheX<j)d rd fiovXevpiaTa tols epyois tcov ivddhe 


dpcov dXX inl GCOTiqpiav rfjs rroXecos irpdnovrOy /cat 
ovre iXarrovadaL hvvdpievoi ovt* cxvtoI irXeov €-X eLV 
heopievoi rfjs piev olvtcov eXevOepias kcu, tols 
fiovXofievois hovXeveiv pieTehocrav, rrjs S' eKeivcov 
hovXeias avrol pieTexeiv ovk rjtjicoaav. epyois he 
66 pieyioTois koll kolXAlcttois dTreXoyiqoavTO , on ov 
/ca/cta rfj avrcov ovh* dperfj <rfj> 1 tcov TroXepiicov 
Trporepov ehvoTv'x r ) (J€V V ^dXis' el ydp OTC\uid- 
CTavres npos dXXrjXovs )Sta napovTCOV IleAoTroi'- 

1 rfj add. Hertlein. 


in fresh encounters the ancient valour of their an- 
cestors ; ready to purchase with their own lives a 
common share in the city for the rest ; choosing 
death with freedom rather than life with slavery ; no 
less ashamed of their disasters than angered against 
the enemy ; preferring to die in their own land 
rather than live to dwell in that of others ; and having 
as allies their oaths and covenants, and as enemies 
their open foes of aforetime and their own fellow- 
citizens. Nevertheless, having felt no fear of the 
multitude of their opponents, and having exposed 
their own persons to the peril, they set up a trophy 
over their enemies, and now find witnesses to their 
valour, close to this monument, in the tombs of the 
Lacedaemonians. For we know that they restored 
in the sight of the world the diminished greatness of 
our city, revived in her the harmony that had been 
shattered by faction, and rebuilt walls in place of 
those that had been demolished. The men who finally 
returned, showing the kinship of their counsels with 
the deeds of those who lie here, applied themselves, 
not to vengeance upon their enemies, but to the 
preservation of the city ; and being men who at once 
could not be overreached and would not seek their 
own advantage, they shared their own freedom even 
with those who wished to be slaves, and declined for 
themselves a share in that slavery. By the conspicu- 
ous greatness and nobility of their conduct they 
justified the claim that the former disasters of the 
city were due to no remissness of theirs, nor to the 
valour of the enemy ; for if they proved able, after 
internal dissensions and despite the presence of the 

° Slain in a fight between the Athenian democrats and the 
Spartans under Pausanias. 



vrjcricov /cat rcov dXXcov i^dpcov els rr)v avrcov otoi 
re eyevovro KareXdelv, SrjXou on paolcos aV 6fxo- 
voovvres TroXepielv avrols eSvvavro. 

66 'E/cetvot fxev ovv Std rovs ev Iletpatet Kivhvvovs 


£evovs rovs evOdhe K€LfjL€Vovs erraiveoai, ol rep ttXtj- 
9ei fiorjOrjaavres /cat rrepl rrjs rjpuerepas crcor-qplas 
p,aypp,evoi, rrarpcSa rr)v dperrjv rjyrjcrdfjLevoi, roiav- 
rrjv rod fiiov reXevrr)v erroi-qoavro' avO* cov r) 7t6Xls 
avrovs /cat errevOiqcre /cat edaipe S^/ioata, /cat eSco- 
K€v e^etv avroLS rov drravra \povov rds aura? TtjLtd? 

toIs dcTTOLS. 

67 Ot 8e vvv darrrofxevoi, fiorjOrjcravres Koptvdiois 
197 J vrro rraXaicov cf>LXcov d$LKovfj,€VOLS /catvot 1 CTuaaa^ot 

yevofievoL, ov rrjv avrrjv yvcopurjv Aa/ceSat/zovtots" 
k\ovres {ol fiev yap rcov dyadcov avrols ecfcdovovv, 
ol Se aoiKovp,evovs avrovs r)Xeovv, ov rrjs rrpo- 
repas e^dpas pLepLV-qpievoL, dXXd rrjv rrapovoav 

CpiXlaV 7T€pl 7ToXXo€ TTOLOVfieVOl) TtaOlV dvdpcOTTOlS 

68 cpavepdv rrjv avrcov dperr)v errehei^avro. eTOAfirj- 
oav yap p,eydXr)v iroiovvres rr)v c EAAaSa ov p,6vov 
vrrep rrjs avrcov acoriqpias Kivhvveveiv , dXXd /cat 
vrrep rrjs rcov rroXepLicov eXevOepias drro9vr]crKeiv 
rols yap AaKehaijiovicov ovpipidxois rrepl rrjs e'/cet- 
vcov eXevOepias e[xdypvro. viKr\aavres fxev yap e/cet- 
vovs rcov avrcov tj^lovv, SvGrvxrjoavres Be fiefiaiov 
rrjv oovXelav rols ev rfj YleXorrovvrjacp KareXirrov . 

69 'E/cetVot? [lev ovv ovrco hiaKeifievois 6 filos 

1 Kaivol Taylor : kolvol mss. 

a As aliens, they were stirred by love of valour rather thar 
by patriotism. 


Peloponnesians and their other enemies, to return to 
their own place, unanimity would clearly have made 
it an easy matter for them to make war on their foes. 

Thus the struggles at the Peiraeus have earned for 
those men the envy of all mankind. But it is right 
that we should also praise the strangers who lie here : 
they came to the support of the people, and fought 
for our salvation ; they regarded valour as their 
native land, and with this noble end they closed their 
lives. In return the city has not only mourned them 
but given them a public funeral, and has granted 
them in perpetuity the same honours as it gives to 
its own people. 

The men who are being buried to-day went to 
support the Corinthians, who were wronged by ancient 
friends, while they were but new allies ; they did not 
act in the same spirit as the Lacedaemonians (who 
envied the Corinthians their wealth, whereas our 
men pitied them for their wrongs, unmindful of their 
former enmity and regardful of their present friend- 
ship), but showed forth their own valour in the sight 
of all men. To enhance the greatness of Greece they 
had the courage, not merely to imperil themselves 
for their own preservation, but also to die for their 
enemies' freedom : for they fought the allies of the 
Lacedaemonians for the freedom of those allies. Had 
they conquered, they deemed their foes worthy of 
obtaining equal rio-hts : in their misfortune they 
settled a sure inheritance of slavery on the peoples 
of the Peloponnese. 6 

Now in such a plight as theirs, life was miserable, 

b The Athenians' object in these operations was to check 
the expansive policy of Sparta by striking at her allies in the 
Peloponnese. Corinth was the centre of the struggle. 



OLKrpos /cat 6 ddvaros evKros' ovroi Se /cat t,tovres 
/cat drrodavovres ^rjXtoroi, rraioevQevres jxev ev 
roZs rtov rrpoyovtov dyaBoZs, dvopes Se yevofxevot 
nqv re ei<eivtov $6£av Scaatoaavres /cat rrjv avrtov 

70 dperrjv eTTtoel^avres . TroXXtov jxev yap /cat KaXtov 
a'tVtot yeyevrjvrai rfj eavrtov irarpioi, eiriqvtop- 
6toaav Se ret u</>' ereptov Svarvx^Oevra, rroppto S' 
drrd rrjs avrtov rov TToXepLov Karearrjaav. ere- 
Xevriqaav Se rov fiiov, toanep xprj rovs dyadovs 
a7Todvrjcn<eLV, rfj jxev irarpioi rd rpotf>eZa a.770- 
oovres, roZs Se Opeipaoi Xvttols KaraXiirovres. 

71 ware d^uov rols £a><7t rovrovs irodelv /cat othas 
avrovs 6Xotf)vpeo9ai /cat rovs rrpoorjKovras avrtov 
eXeeZv rod emXoiTTOv fiiov. ris yap avroZs en 
rjoovr) KaraXeiirerai roiovrtov dvoptov 6a7rro[xevtov t 
ol rtdvra rrepX eXdrrovos rfjs dperrjs fjyovfxevoL 
avrovs {Jiev dneareprjaav filov, XVP a? ^ € yvvaZKas 
eTToi-qoaVy 6ptf>avovs Se rovs avrtov TraZoas direXL7Tov, 
ep-qfiovs o° doeXtftovs /cat Trarepas /cat fxr/repas /car- 

72 earrjaav; rroXXayv he /cat Setvtov vrtapyovruiv rovs 
\xev rraZoas avrtov ^rjXto, on vetorepoi eloiv r) 
ware et'SeVat oltov nareptov eoreprjvrai, et; tov 8' 
ovroi yeyovaaiv, olKrelpto, 6Vt 7TpeofivrepoL r) ware 

73 emXaOeadai rrjs Suo-nr^ta? rrjs eavrtov. ri ydp dv 
rovrtov dviaporepov yevoiro, rj reKeZv fiev /cat 
dpeipat /cat ddipat rovs avrtov, ev oe rto yr\pa 
dovvdrovs jxev elvai rto crajuart, iraotov 8' a7recrTe- 
prjfjLevovs rtov eXrrLhtov dtf>iXovs /cat drropovs yeyo- 
vevau, VTrep 1 Se rajv avrtov ixporepov tpqXovadai /cat 
vvv eXeeZoOac, rrodeivorepov 8' avroZs elvai rov 6d- 
varov rod fiiov; oato yap dvopes dfielvovs rjaav, 

1 vwtp Sauppe : virb MSS. 


death desirable. But these men, both in their life 
and after their death, are enviable ; for they were 
first trained in the excellences of their ancestors, and 
then in manhood they preserved that ancient fame 
intact and displayed their own prowess. For the 
benefits that they have conferred on their own 
native land are many and splendid ; they restored 
the broken fortunes of others, and kept the war at a 
distance from their own country." They have closed 
their lives with a death that befits true men, for thus 
they repaid their native land for their nurture and 
bequeathed sorrow to those who reared them. 
Hence it is meet that the living should yearn for these 
men, and bewail themselves, and pity their kindred 
for the life that lies before them. For what pleasure 
now remains for them, when such men are being 
buried? These, prizing valour above all else, de- 
prived themselves of life, widowed their wives, left 
their own children orphans, and brothers, sisters, 
fathers, mothers in a state of desolation. Though 
their children have many troubles in store for them, 
I envy them because they are too young to know of 
what noble fathers they have been bereft : but I pity 
those whose sons they were, as being too old to forget 
their own misfortune. For what woe could be more 
incurable than to bring forth and rear and bury one's 
own children, and then in old age to be disabled in 
body and, having lost every hope, to find oneself 
friendless and resourceless ? to have the very cause 
of former envy turned now to a matter of pity, and 
to regard death as more desirable than life ? For the 

a i.e., in the territory of Corinth. 



rooovrco rols KaraXeirrofxevoLs rd rrevdos jiel^ov. 

74 7TO)S 8' avrovs XPV ^v£ aL T VS Xv7rr)s; rrorepov iv 
rals rrjs noXecos crvpicpopals ; dXXd rore olvtujv 
€lkos koli rovs dXXovs fxefivrjo 6 'at. dAA' iv rat? 
€vtvx^olis rals Koivals; dAA' Ixavdv XvTrrjorat, rcov 
puev acberipcov reKvcov rereXevriqKorcov, rcov 8e 
c^covrcov drroXavovrcov rrjs rovrcov dperrjs. dAA' 
iv rols loiois Kivhvvois, orav opcocri rovs fiev 
TTporepov ovras <j>LXovs cpevy ovras rr)v avrcov oltto- 
plav, rovs 8' ixOpovs fxiya cppovovvras irrl rals 

75 hvorvx^is rats rovrcov; p,6vr]v 8' dv [xol hoKov- 
fi€V ravrr]v rols ivddoe Keijxevois drrohovvai x®-P iV > 
el rovs jbtev roKeas avrcov o/jlolcos coartep eKelvoi 
Trepl ttoXXov TTOioLfJieOa, rovs 8e rralSas ovrcos 
daTral,OLjjL€da coorrep avrol rraripes ovres, rals 8e 
yvvai^lv elrotovrovs fiorjdovs r)jxas avrovs rrapi- 

XOifJL€V, OLOL7T€p €K€.lvOL L^COVr€S rjCTOLV. riVaS yap OLV 

76 eiKorcos fxaXXov npLcpfiev rcov ivddoe Keip,evcov ; rivas 
8' dv rcov i^covrcov hiKaiorepov irepl ttoXXov ttol- 
OLfieda rj rovs rovrois TTpoorjKOvras, ot rrjs fiev 
rovrcov dperrjs ro lctov rols dXXots direAavoav, 
drroOavovrcov oe fiovoi yviqaltos rrjs hvcrrvx^as 

77 'AAAd yap ovk ot&* 6 ri Sel roiavra 6Xocf)vpe- 
odai' ov yap iXavOdvopiev rjfjias avrovs ovres Ovrjrol" 
wore rt 8et, a TrdXai TrpoaeSoKcofiev TTelaeadaL, 
vrrep rovrcov vvv axOecrOat, r) Xiav ovrco ftapecos 
c\>epeiv irrl rals rrjs cpvaeajs avficfiopals, imarafie- 
vovs on 6 Odvaros kolvos Kal rols x €i P^ (JTOL ^ KaL 

■J rols fieXriorois ; ovre yap rovs rrovi^povs vnepopa 
ovre rovs dyaOovs davfid^ei, dAA' lctov eavrdv 
7rapex €L ttoLglv. el pL€v yap olov re rjv rols rovs 


more they excelled in manhood, the greater the grief 
to those who are left behind. And how should they 
have surcease from their sorrow ? In the city's 
disasters ? But then, surely, the fallen will be re- 
membered by everyone else as well. In the public 
successes ? But it is cause enough for sorrow that 
after the death of their children the living should 
enjoy the fruits of their valour. In their private 
adversities ? When they see their former friends 
deserting them in their destitution, and their enemies 
elated with the misfortunes of these fallen? We have 
but one way, as it seems to me, of showing our grati- 
tude to those who lie here : it is to hold their parents 
in the same high regard as they did, to be as affec- 
tionate to their children as though we were ourselves 
their fathers, and to give such support to their wives 
as they did while they lived. For whom could we 
be expected to honour in preference to those who lie 
here ? Whom amongst the living should we more 
justly hold in high regard than their relations, who 
were on an equality with us all in reaping the fruits 
of their valour, but now that they are dead bear alone 
the kinsmen's part in their misfortune ? 

But in truth I do not know what need there is to 
lament so sadly : for we were quite aware that we 
were mortals. So why chafe now at the fate which 
we so long expected, or be so extremely distressed 
by the calamities of nature, when we know well that 
death is common to the basest and the noblest alike ? 
Death neither disdains the wicked nor admires the vir- 
tuous, but is even-handed with all. Were it possible 



iv rep 77oXepLco klvSvvovs hiacfjvyovoiv aOavdrovs 


diravra XP° V0V TrevBelv tovs Tedvecoras' vvv he r\ 
re envois koll vocrcov tJttcov Kal yrjpcos, o re halficov 
6 rrju r)pL€Tepav jjioTpav elXrjxcos aTTapaiTrjTos. 

79 coare TTpoarjKeL tovtovs evhaLpLoveardrovs r^yel- 
adai, oItlves VTrep p^eyloTcov koll KaXXlcrTCOv klv- 
hvvevoavTes ovtco tov fllov ireXevr-qaav, ovk Ittl- 
rpdifjavres nepl avTCov rfj TVXV> ovh* dva\ieivav- 


koXXlgtov. Kal yap tol dyqpaTOi p,ev avTcov at 
jjLvrjiJLOLi, £,rjXcoTal he vtto TrdvTcov dvQpcorrcov at 

80 rtjLtat* ol nevOovvTaL p,ev Std tt)v (f>voLV cos dvqTOL, 
vpLVodvTaL he cos dOdvaTOi Std T7]V dpeTrjv. Kal 
yap tol OaTTTOvraL hrjpLooLa, Kal dycoves TidevTai 
€77* avTols ptojjLYjs Kal aortas Kal ttXovtov, cos 
d£lovs ovras tovs iv tco TroXepLcp TeTeXevTiqKor as 
Tats avTals rtuat? Kal tovs dOavaTOVs rt/xaa^at. 

81 iycb [lev ovv avTOvs Kal p.aKapi^co tov davdrov Kal 


elvaL yeveadaL, oltlves, i7T€Lor) Ovtjtcov acojidrcov 
€tvxov, dOdvaTOV [ivr^prqv Std ttjv dp€Tr)v <rr)v> x 
avTcov KareXLTTOv o/jlcos S' dvdyKf] rols dpxaloLs 
eQeoL XPV ^ - 1 * KaL OepaTTevovTas tov TraTpLov 
vofiov 6Xo<f)vpeodaL tovs danTopLevovs* 

1 ti-jv add. TTude. 



for those who escaped the perils of war to be im- 
mortal for all time, there would be cause for the 
living to mourn the dead for evermore. But we see 
not only that our nature yields to sickness and old 
age, but that the spirit to whom has been allotted 
the charge of our fate is inexorable. 

Therefore it is fitting to consider those most happy 
who have closed their lives in risking them for the 
greatest and noblest ends ; not committing their 
career to chance, nor awaiting the death that comes 
of itself, but selecting the fairest one of all. For I 
say their memory can never grow old, while their 
honour is every man's envy. Of their nature it comes 
that they are mourned as mortal, of their valour that 
they are lauded as immortal. Thus you see them 
given a public funeral, and contests of strength and 
knowledge and wealth ° held at their tomb ; because 
we think that those who have fallen in war are worthy 
of receiving the same honours as the immortals. So 
I, indeed, call them blessed in their death, and envy 
them ; I hold that for those alone amongst men is it 
better to be born who, having received mortal 
bodies, have left behind an immortal memory arising 
from their valour. Nevertheless, we must needs 
follow our ancient customs, and observe our ancestral 
law by bewailing those who are now being buried. 

° Since about 450 b.c. the State funerals had become 
elaborate festivals : they were celebrated each year in 
October, and included athletic and musical competitions. 



This speech, like that which follows it, On a Wound 
by Premeditation, is for the defence in a prosecution 
before the court of the Areopagus for wounding 
with intent to kill : the penalty following conviction 
is banishment and confiscation of property. The 
main object of the speaker is to prove that there was 
no premeditation ; that any wounds that may have 
been given were the result of casual brawls ; and 
that the first acts of violence came from his opponents. 
After blaming his accuser, Simon, for bringing the 
action at all, and excusing his own part in a discredit- 
able quarrel (1-5), he tells the story of his and Simon's 
amorous rivalry for the possession of a young Pla- 
taean — probably a slave — named Theodotus. This 
led Simon to make a raid on his house, and then to 
attack him in the street (6-8). The defendant, to 
avoid scandal, went abroad for a while, taking Theo- 
dotus with him. On their return, Simon and his 
friends tried to seize the boy, and some further fights 
ensued (9-20). The argument then proceeds to 
show the falsity of Simon's contentions, — that he had 
paid a sum of money to the young fellow, that he 
later recovered it by private arrangement with the 
defendant, and so did not have to claim it, that 


he was badly beaten outside his house, and that he 
was the victim of a premeditated scheme (21-34). 
The victimization is rather the other way about 
(35-39). The terms of the law clearly show that the 
defendant's part in the affair cannot be regarded as 
criminal (40-43). The military record of Simon tells 
the same tale of unruliness and mischief (44-45). 
The conclusion recalls the facts of the case, and claims 
compassion for the serious risk to which the defend- 
ant is exposed (46-48). 

The mention of the battles at Corinth and Coronea 
places the date of the trial at some time later than 
394 B.C. The practised skill of Lysias is evident 
throughout the speech, — in the contrast between the 
honest, peace-loving character of the defendant and 
the reckless, insolent and violent temper of the 
prosecutor, in the brief yet vivid descriptions of 
affrays in the street, and in the tactful frankness with 
which a respectable citizen of middle age is enabled 
to speak of an amorous indiscretion and its disagree- 
able consequences. 


III. npoz ZIMHNA AnoAoriA 

IloAAd /cat $€lvol avveiSchs Tiljjlcovi, a) ftovXrj, ovk 
av rror avrov ets roaovrov roApirjs rjyrjaapLrjv acp- 
ik€(j9gll, ojore virep cLv avrov e'Set Souvat Slktjv, 
VTTep rovrcov chs aoiKovjievov ey/cA^jita iroirjoaodou 
Kal ovrw fxeyav /cat aepuvov opKov SiopLoordpievov 

2 €ts" vptas eXdelv. el puev ovv d'AAot rives epueXXov 
irepl epLov oiayvojaeodai, o<j)6opa av icfioftovpLTjv 
rov klvSvvov, optov on /cat rrapacjKeval Kal rir^at 
eviore roiavrai ytyvovrai, ware ttoXXcl /cat irapa 
yvdofjLTjv dirofiaivew rois Kivhvvevovaiv els vpias 8' 

3 elaeXOtbv cAm^ct) rcov StKalojv rev^eodai. /xaAtcrra 
S' dyavaKrcby cZ fiovXiq, ort rrepl rcov TrpaypLarcov 1 
elirelv avayKaaQ-qoo /zat Trpos vpuas, virep cov eycb 
alaxwopievos, et p^eXXoiev 7toXAol jjlol cruveiaeaQ ai 3 
rjveoxofirjv doiKovpuevos. eTTeuSr) he Hl/jlojv fie els 
roiavr-qv dvdyKrjV Kareanqoev, ovoev a7TOKpvipdpLe- 
vos arravra SirjyqaopLai 7rpos vfias rd rre'npayp.eva. 

4 d£ttO 8e, co fiovXr), el puev dSt/ccD, purjoepLL&s avy- 
yva>pL7]s rvyxdveiv eav he rrepl rovrcov airoheit;u) 
co? ovk evoxds et/xt ols 2t/xajv SicopLocraro, dXXcos 
Se vpuv cpalvcvfjiai napa rrjv rjXiKiav rr)v efiavrov 
dvorjrorepov irpos to \ieipaKiov hiaredeis, atVotyzat 

1 vpay/xdruy Markland: Tpavn&ruv MSS. 



Although I was aware of much that was outrageous 
about Simon, gentlemen of the Council, I did not 
believe that he would ever have carried audacity to 
the pitch of lodging a complaint as the injured party 
in a case where he was the person who should be 
punished, and of taking that great and solemn affi- 
davit and so coming before you. Now if it were any 
other court that was to make a decision upon me, 
I should be terrified by the danger, considering what 
strange machinations and chances occur at times to 
cause a variety of surprises to those who are standing 
their trial : but as it is before you that I appear, I 
hope to obtain justice. What especially vexes me, 
gentlemen, is that I shall be compelled to speak to 
you of the facts of this case ; for it was my feeling of 
shame at the mere thought that many would know of 
my troubles that made me put up with my wrongs. 
But since Simon has placed me in such a necessity, I 
will relate to you the whole of the facts without the 
slightest reserve. If I am guilty, gentlemen, I expect 
to get no indulgence ; but if I prove my innocence as 
regards the counts of Simon's affidavit, while for the 
rest you consider my attitude towards the boy too 
senseless for a man of my age, I ask you not to think the 

The oath or affidavit (Sio)ju.ocn'a) taken by both parties 
to a suit at a previous examination (avaKpiais). 



VfM&s firjhev jjl€ X € W 0J vo/jll£,€lv, elhoras on im- 
dvfifjcrai fiev airaoiv dvOpcbirois eveanv, ovros he 
fieXnoros av elr] /cat craxf>povecrraros > oans koct- 
fjLLcorara rots' ovjJLcf)opds <j>epeiv hvvarai. ots d-nacriv 
epurohtov ijjbol yeyevryrai Hipaov ovrocrt, (hs eyd) 
vjjuv eiriheii;u). 

5 'H/Ltets 1 yap e7re6vjji'qaa[JLev t to povXrj, Qeohorov, 
IIAaTat/cou p,eipaKiov> /cat iycb p,ev ev rroicov avrov 
rj^lovv elvai jjlol <J)l\ov, ovtos he vfipi^ajv /cat rrapa- 
voficov coero avayKacreiv avrov iroieiv 6 n jSouAotro. 
ocra jiev ovv eKelvos /ca/ca vtt* avrov Treirovde, ttoXv 
av epyov eir\ Xeyeiv ocra he els e/xe avrov e^y]\idprr\- 

6 Kev, rjyovfiai ravd* vpuv rrpooy\Keiv aKovoai. 7tv96- 
jjuevos yap on ro fietpaKLov rjv nap* epLOL, eXdcbv iirl 

[97] rr\v ot/ctav rr\v e\ir\v vvKrojp puedvajv, eKKoxftas ras 
Ovpas elcrrjXOev els rrjv yvvaiKOJvlnv , evhov ovocov 
rrjs re dheXcfrrjs rrjs epirjs /cat ra>v dheX(f>ihdjv, at 
ovro) Koufxiojs fiefiuoKacrLV ware /cat vito rdv 

7 olKeiojv 6pd)p,evai aloyyveodai. ovros roivvv els 
rovro rjXdev vj3pea>s coot' ov rrporepov rjdeXrjaev 
0L7TeXdeLV t nplv avrov r)yovp,evoL heivd Troielv ol 
7Tapayev6jjLevoi /cat ol per avrov eXBovres, em 
nalhas Kopas /cat 6p<f>avas eloiovra, e£rjXaaav jSta. 
/cat rooovrov eherjoev avrcp fxerafieXijcraL rcjv 
vfipLOfjievojv, tbore e£evpd)V ov eheiirvoviiev dro- 
TTcorarov rtpdy\xa /cat dinar or arov eTTOLrjcrev, el 

8 [ir\ ris elheif] rrjv rovrov fiaviav. eKKaXeoas yap 
pie evhodev, eTTechr) rdyiora e£rjX6ov, evdvs fie 
rvnreiv eTreyelpr^oev erreihrj he avrov r)fivvdiJLr)v, 

Athenian women usually lived in seclusion, and only left 



worse of me for that, since you know that all man- 
kind are liable to desire, but that he may be the best 
and most temperate who is able to bear its misfor- 
tunes in the most orderly spirit. All my efforts in 
this way have been thwarted by the plaintiff Simon, 
as I shall make clear to you. 

We felt desire, gentlemen, for Theodotus, a 
Plataean boy ; and while I looked to win his affection 
by kindness, this man thought by outrage and 
defiance of the law to compel him to accede to his 
wishes. To tell all the ill-treatment that the boy 
has suffered from him would be a lengthy business : 
but I think it proper that you should hear the numer- 
ous offences he has committed against myself. 
Hearing that the boy was at my house, he came there 
at night in a drunken state, broke down the doors, 
and entered the women's rooms : within were my 
sister and my nieces, whose lives have been so well- 
ordered that they are ashamed to be seen even by 
their kinsmen. This man, then, carried insolence to 
such a pitch that he refused to go away until the 
people who appeared on the spot, and those who 
had accompanied him, feeling it a monstrous thing 
that he should intrude on young girls and orphans, 
drove him out by force. Far from repenting of his 
outrageous proceedings, he found out where we 
were dining, and acted in the strangest, the most 
incredible manner, as it might seem to those 
unacquainted with his madness. He called me out 
of doors, and, as soon as I went outside, made an 
immediate attempt to strike me. When I beat him 
off, he stood out of reach and began pelting me with 

the house to attend a religious ceremony or festival ; cf. 
Speech I. 20 ; Thucyd. ii. 45. 



e/ccrra? 1 efiaXXe p,e XlOols. /cat ifjiov /xev d\iaprdvei , 
ApioroKpirov he, os rrap ifie rjXde aer avrov, 
9 fiaXchv XiOco avvrpifiei ro fiercoTrov. eyco roivvv, cb 
fiovXrj, rjyovjjLevos /xeV Setva, 7ra<7^etv, atcr\a>vo/xe - 
v'os' 8e, o7re/> 97877 /cat irporepov elnov, rfj avfitfropq, 
■qveLxofjLrjv, /cat /xaAAov f)povp,r]v /xt) Xafielv toutojv 
tojv dfJLaprrjfjLOLTWv St/c^v 77 So^at Tot? TroXirais 
dvoriros elvau, elhcos on rij ixev rovrov rrovripiq 
rrpeirovra carat ra rrenpay^ieva, e/xou oe ttoaaol 
KarayeXdaovrau roiavra Trda-yovros rcov tpdoveiv 
eWucrfievcov, edv ns ey rfj rroXet Trpo9vp,rjrai xprjcrros 

10 et^at. ovrco he acf)6hpa r)7ropovpLr)v 6 n xprjcroufJLrjv, 
co fiovXrj, rfj rovrov Trapavouta, coore eho£e /xot 
Kpdnarov elvau dTrohrjpLrjcraL [e/c rrjs TrdAeoj?]. 2 
Xaficov hrj ro /xetpa/ctov [arravra yap Set rdXrjdrj 
Xeyeiv) oj^o/xtiv e'/c rrjs iroXecos. eVetS?) he oyurp 
Ikclvov etvau rov ypovov Zt/xam einXaQeodai /xev rod 
veavioKov, /xera/xeA^arat he rcov rrporepov -qpuaprr]- 

11 fievtov, dcfiiKvovpLai 7rdXiv. Kay to ueV aV^d/x^v et? 
ITetpata, ovros 8' alcrOopLevos evdecos rJKovra rov 
Qeohorov /cat hiarpifiovra irapa Auox/xa^oj, os 
oj/cet 7rXr)criov rrjs ot/cta? r*js ovros e/xe/xta^ojro, 
TrapeKaXeae nvas rcov rovrov e7TLrrjhelcov. /cat 
ovrot fiev rjpiartov /cat eirivov, tf>vXaKas he /caT- 
earrjcrav em rou reyovs, lv* , 077ore e^eXOou ro 

12 fxeipaxiov, elaap-n da eiav avrov. ev he r ovrco rep 
Kaipco dcfyiKvovfiaL eyco e/c rietpatcDs", /cat roeVoLtat 
napitov cos rov AvcrcpLaxov oXiyov he xp° vov $ ia ~ 
rpti/javres i£epx6p<e9a. ovroi 8' 17817 puedvovres 3 
eK7TT]hcocTLv &j> fjfjL&s /cat ot /xeV rives avrco rcov 
7rapayevop,evcov ovk r)9eXr)trav avve^a/jLaprelv, St- 

1 4k<tto.s Taylor : ^vords mss. 


stones. He missed me, but Aristocritus, who had 
accompanied him to my house, was struck by a stone 
which broke his forehead. So I, gentlemen, feeling 
myself grossly ill-used, but ashamed — as I have 
already told you before — at my misfortune, put up 
with it, and preferred to go without satisfaction for 
these offences rather than be thought lacking in 
sense by the citizens : for I knew that, while his 
actions would be found appropriate to his wickedness, 
I should be derided for the treatment I received by a 
number of people who are in the habit of resenting 
any ambition that one may show for a good standing 
in the city. I was so perplexed, gentlemen, in face 
of this man's lawless behaviour, that I decided that 
it would be best for me to reside abroad. So I took 
the boy (since the whole truth must be told), and 
left the city. When I thought it was time enough 
for Simon to have forgotten the young fellow, and also 
to have repented of his former offences, I came back 
again. I betook myself to the Peiraeus ; but this man, 
observing immediately that Theodotus had arrived 
and was staying with Lysimachus, — who lived hard 
by the house that this man had rented, — invited some 
of his friends to join him : they were at lunch and 
were drinking, and posted watchers on the roof so that, 
when the boy should come out, they might seize upon 
him. At this moment I arrived from the Peiraeus, and 
in passing I turned into Lysimachus's house : after 
spending some little time there, we came out. Then 
those people, already drunk, sprang out upon us ; 
some of his party refused to join in his criminal action. 

2 ck ttjs noXecos del. Kayser. 
ovroi 8' 77877 pedvovres Schott : 77877 fxedvovTes ovtoi 8' MSS. 

ficov Se ovtogI /cat 0ed</>tAo? /cat Upwrapxos Kal 

AvTOkAtJS €l\kOV TO fX€LpOLKLOV. 6 Se pll[tOLS TO 

13 [pLariov wx €TO 4 ,€ ^7 iOV ' € V^ ^ rjyovfxevos eKelvov 
jjuev eK^ev^eodai, rovrovg 8', eVeiS^ Ta^iora ev- 
ru^otev avdpLQTTOLS, aluxvvofJLevovs drrorpeipecrS 'at 
— ravra Siavorjdels erepav oSov tpxop>r]v airiojv 
ovrcx) o</>dSo' avrovs i(f>v Aarr 6 pLTjv, Kal Trdvra ret 1 
U7TO toutojv ytyvd/x.eva [leydArp? e/xaura> crvfxcfropav 

14 evofii^ov. Kavravda 2 fiev, tva <f>r]ol Hificw ttjv 
p>d'X' r ] v yeveo'^ac, oure toutojv oure rjfjLcJov ovSelg 
ovre Karedyr) rrjv Ke(j)a\y)v ouVe a'AAo kclkov ovhev 
eAafiev, cuv eya> rous rrapayevopievovs vpuv irap- 
efo/xat fxaprvpas. 


15 "On jaev roivvv ovros r\v 6 aSiKTjcras, w fiovArj, 
Kal emfiovAevoas r)[MV, Kat ovk eyeb rovrco, vtto 
rcov irapayevop,eva)v pLefiaprvpr/rai vpZv. fiera Se 
ravra ro jjl€V jietpaKLov els yvafeuov Kare<j)vyev, 
ovroi be ovveiorreoovres r\yov avrov j8ia, flocovra 

16 Kal K€Kpayora Kal puaprvpopievov. avvSpapovrcov 
8e dvdpajTTCov ttoXAojv Kal ayavaKTovvrajv rep 
rrpdypLari Kal Sewa (fraoKovrajv elvai ra yiyvop.eva y 
ru)V p,ev Xeyofxevajv ovhev i^povn^ov, MdAa>va 8e 
rov yvacfrea Kal dXXovs rivas errap.vveiv eVt- 

17 x el P°v vra S crvveKoi/jav. rjSr] Se aurots" ouot rrapd 
ttjv Adp,7TU)vos otKtav iycij jjlovos /SaSt£a>v eVru^arco, 
Seivov be -qyTjod/JLevos elvai Kal aloxpov Trepubelv 

[98] ovra>s dvopLOJs Kal /3tata)S" vfipioOevTa rov veavlaKov, 
eVtAa/x/^dVo/zat avrov. ovroi be, biori fxev roiavra 

1 to. Reiske : ravra mss. 
* Kavravda Contius : Kal ravra MSS. 



but Simon here, and Theophilus, Protarchus and 
Autocles began dragging the boy along. He, how- 
ever, flung off his cloak and ran away. Then I, 
expecting that he would make good his escape, 
while they, if they met anybody, would at once turn 
aside from a feeling of shame, — with this conclusion 
I took myself off by another street ; so careful I was 
to give them a wide berth, for I regarded all the 
proceedings of these men as a grievous misfortune 
to myself. Thus, on the spot where Simon says that 
the fight occurred, nobody on either their or my side 
had his head broken or received any other hurt : 
as witnesses to all this I will produce to you the per- 
sons who were then present. 


That this man, then, was the wrongdoer, gentle- 
men, and that he had designs on us, and not I on 
him, has been testified to you by those who were 
then present. After this the boy took refuge in a 
fuller's shop ; but these men dashed in after him 
and laid violent hands on him, while he shouted and 
cried out and called the bystanders to witness. A 
crowd of people came running up, and protested 
against their action, which they declared a monstrous 
proceeding : these men gave no heed to anything 
that was said, but gave a severe beating to Molon 
the fuller and some others who were endeavouring 
to protect the lad. They had already got as far as 
Lampon's when I, walking by myself, met with them ; 
and considering it a monstrous and shameful thing 
to stand by and see the young fellow subjected to 
such lawless and violent outrage, I seized hold of 
him. They, when asked why they were treating him 



TrapevojjLovv els iiceZvov, ovk rjdeXrjtrav elrtelv epcorrj- 
devreg, dcf)€[X€voi he rod veavitJKov ervirrov epue. 

18 f-aXVS ^ yevopbevrjs, to ^ovXiq, Kal rod pueipaKiov 
fidXXovros avrovs Kal Trepl rod oco pharos dfivvo- 
pievov Kal rovrcov rjpias fiaXXovrcov, en he tvtttov- 
rcov avrov vtto rrjs pLedrjs Kal epiov dpLVvopcevov, 
Kal rcov napayevop,evcov cos ahiKovpbivois rjpuv 
dndvrcov eTTtKovpovvrcov , ev tovtco tw dopvfico ovv- 

19 TpifiopieBa rag Kecf>aXds aTravres. Kal ol p,ev dXXoi 
ol pierd rovrov TrapoLvrjOOMres, eTreihr] ra^Kjrd 
p,e ethov pierd ravra, eheovro puov ovyyvtopLiqv 
ex eiv > °^X ^S" dhiKovpievoi dAA' cos heivd TreTroirj- 
Koreg- Kal e£ eKelvov rod xP° vov Terrdpcov ertov 
7To.peX-qXv96ra)v ovhev puou TTtoTTore eveKaXeaev 

20 ovheis. Ytipucov S' ovtocjl, 6 ndvrcov rcov KaKcov 
a'lnos yevopuevos, rov p,ev dXXov xP ovov fovxlav 
r\ye hehicos nepl avrov, erreihr) he hiKas Ihias 
fjodero KaKtos dycovicrdpievov i£ dvnhooecos, Kara- 
cppovqcras piov ovrcoal roXpLrjpcog ets tolovtov dycovd 
pie KaTearrjcrev. cos ovv Kal ravr dXrjdrj Xeyto, 
rovrcov vplv rovs rrapayevop.evovs pidprvpas nap- 


21 Td pev ovv yeyevr\p,eva Kal epcov Kal rcov p,aprv- 
pcov aKrjKoare' eftovX6pLr]v 8' av, to ^ovXiq, YuipLcova 
rrjv avrrjv yvcbpL7)v ifiol ex eiv > * v ' dpi(f>orepcov rjpicov 
aKovuavres rdXrjdrj pahlcos eyvcore rd hiKaia. eVet- 
hr) he avrco ovhev pieXei rcov opKcov cov ht- 

° A wealthy citizen, such as the speaker here, had to 
undertake certain public services, which he could only 
avoid by challenging some other citizen, whom he considered 


in such lawless fashion, refused to answer, but letting 
the young fellow go they began to beat me. A battle 
ensued, gentlemen ; the boy was pelting them and 
defending his person, while they were pelting us ; 
they also, in their drunkenness, were beating him. 
and I was defending myself, and the others present 
were all supporting us, as being the injured party ; 
and in this brawl we all of us got our heads broken. 
The others whom Simon had led into this drunken 
assault, at their first sight of me after the affair 
begged my pardon, as men who, so far from suffering 
injury, had acted in a monstrous way ; and though 
since that time four years have elapsed, nobody has 
ever brought any charge against me. Simon here, 
who was the author of all the trouble, kept quiet 
for some time, in fear for himself; but when he 
became aware that I had failed in a private suit on 
a challenge to an exchange of property, he conceived 
a contempt for me and, with the audacity that you 
now see, has involved me in this serious prosecution. 
Now, as witnesses to show that here too I am speaking 
the truth, I will produce to you the persons who were 
present on the occasion. 


So now you have heard from the witnesses as well 
as myself the story of what took place ; and I could 
wish, gentlemen, that Simon had the same intentions 
as I, so that after hearing the truth from us both you 
might have arrived with ease at the just decision. 
But since he cares nothing for the oaths that he has 

wealthier than himself, either to exchange his property with 
him, or to undertake the service. 



tojAoaaTO, 7T€tpd(JO[xai /cat nepl a>v ovtos eifjevcrrai 

22 StSao/cetv vpi&s. erdA/x^oe yap elrrelv d>s avros p,€V 
rpiaKooias Spaxpds eSa>/ce GeoSdraj, crvvdrjKas 
npos avrov TrouqodpLevos , iyd> 8' eTTifiovXevoras dir- 
eonqaa avrov to /xetpa/ctov. /catVot ^XPW o.vr6v t 
etVep rjv ravr dXr]6rj, rrapaKaXioavTa {xaprvpas 
ojs TrXelorovs Kara tovs vopiovs hiaTTpdrreadai 

23 7T€pl avrajv. ovtos Se tolovtov ovSev TTomorz 
<f>aiv€Tai TTOirjaas, vfipit,cov Se /cat tvtttcjv [a/x'] 1 
apbcjiorepovs rjpias /cat /ca)/xa£ajv /cat to? dvpas 
€KfiaX\a>v /cat vvKrajp elaubv eVt yvvaiKas iXev- 
Oepas. a XP^J /xaAtcrra, c5 ^ovX-q, Te/c/x^ota vopbi^etv 

24 ort ipevSerai 7rpos vpias. GKeipaade Se ws aVtcrra 
eiprjKe. rrjv ydp ovaiav rrjv iavrov asnaoav irev- 
rrjKovra /cat Sta/cootojv opa^uojv ertu^aaro. /catrot 
OavpLaurov et toV iraiprjuovra rrXeiovojv e/xt- 

25 adcocraTO (Lv avros Tvyxdvei KeKTiqpevos . et? rovro 
8' 17/cet roXfirjs coure ovk e£ao/cet 77ept toutou 
pbovov avTOj ijjevcraoOaL, irepl rod SeSa>/ceVat to 
apyvpiov, dXXd /cat /ce/co/xto#at (f)V t OL' /catrot TrcD? 
et/cd? cart Tore /xev facts' roiavra e^a/xaordVetv 
ota KarrjyoprjKev ovtos, aTrooreprjaai fiovXopLevovs 
rds rpta/coatas" Spa^/xa?, eVetS^ Se aVextaxeoa- 
pL€0a, rrji'LKavra dnrooovvaL to apyvpiov avra), 

jiT]T€ d(f)€lpL<EVOVS TOJV iyKXrjpLaTOJV pLTJTC dvdyK7]s 

26 -/^tv pL-qoepu&s y€vop,evrjs ; dXXd yap, <L fiovXij, 
wavTa avTW ravra ouy/cetTat /cat fiepLrjxdvrjTai, 
/cat Souvat /xeV <f)7]cnv y Iva pbrj So/07 Setvd Troieiv, et 
pLTjhevos avTW crvpbfioXalov yeyevrjpuevov TOtaura 
erdAua vfipi^eiv to pieipaKtov , aVetA^eVat Se rrpocr- 

1 <V' del. Taylor. 


sworn, I will try also to inform you concerning the 
lies that he has told. He had the audacity to state 
that on his part he had given three hundred drachmae 
to Theodotus, under an agreement made with him, 
and that I by intrigue seduced the boy from him. 
And yet, if this was true, it was for him to summon 
as many witnesses as he could and pursue the matter 
in accordance with our laws. But it does not appear 
that he has ever done anything of the sort, but only 
that he has outraged and beaten us both, and has re- 
velled and broken in doors and intruded on free women 
by night. You ought to take all this, gentlemen, 
as primary proof that he is lying to you. And then, 
consider how incredible his statements are. He has 
valued his property altogether at two hundred and 
fifty drachmae : yet how surprising that he should 
hire his companion for more than he himself in fact 
possesses ! And he has carried audacity to such 
lengths that it does not suffice him merely to lie about 
this matter of having given the money, but he even 
says that he has recovered it ! Yet how is it likely 
that I first committed such a crime as he has laid to 
my charge — of seeking to deprive him of his three 
hundred drachmae a — and then, after we had had our 
affray, paid him back the money, without either 
obtaining a quittance of all claims or being subjected 
to any compulsion ? Why, gentlemen, this is all mere 
invention and artifice of his : he says that he gave it. 
so as to avoid the scandal of daring to commit such 
an outrage on the lad without any bargain struck 
between them; and he pretends that he has got it 

° Either simply by carrying off the young man or else by 
arranging with him for a share in the money. 



TTOietrai, StoVt <f>avepos eoriv iyKoAeuas ovoenoT 
apyvpiov ovSe pvelav nepl tovtov ovoeaiav noirjoa- 

27 O^ox 8' inl TaZs avrov Ovpais U77* e/xou heivtos 
hiartOrjvai TvnTOfievos. (/>atVerat 8e 7rAetv r) rerrapa 
OTaota a7ro t^s ot/cta? Stomas to jieipaKiov ovhev 
kclkov eytov, /cat ravra nAeZv 7} Slclkoglcuv I^ovtoov 
dv6 pcx)7TCx}v e^apvos cart. 

28 Aeyet S' cos rjpieZs tJAOojjlzv inl rrjv oIkiclv tt)V 


€yaj anoKTeveZv, /cat cos" tovto ecrrtv rj npovoia. 
iyco S' rjyovficu, co fiovArj, pqoiov etvau yvcovai 
otl ijjevheTai, oi) [xovov v/jllv toZs elcodocn OKoneZadai 

7T€pl TCOV TOIOVTCOV, dAAct /Cat TOLS dAXoiS dnadt. 

29 Tip yap av ho^eie ttlgtov cos iyco npovor)9els /cat 
[99] emfiovAevcov rjAOov im tyjv Tilficovos ot/ct'av p,ed' 


nap avTcp GwetAeyiJuevcov, el firj els tovto p,avias 
afpiKOfjLTjv coGTe emdvpieZv els tbv noXAoZs /xa^ecr#at, 
aAAa)? re /cat eloojs otl aGfievcos dv /xe elSev inl 
Tals Bvpais TaZs avTOv s os /cat inl ttjv ipirjv ot/ctav 
cpotTcov elurjei /3ta, /cat ovTe ttjs doe\(f)r}s ovTe tcov 
aoeA(j)ihcov <j>povTioas ItfTeZv p,e eroAua, /cat e£evpcov 

30 ov Setnvcov irvyyavov , eKKakeoas eTvnTe pie; /cat 
TOTe p,ev dpa, tva firj nepifiorjTos e'lrjv, ^au^tav 
rjyov, crvpi(f)opav ifxavTOV vopbl^cov ttjv tovtov 
novqpiav eneiSrj Se xpovos SteyeVero, ndXtv, cos 

31 ovtos cf>r]OLV, eneOvfirjoa neptflorjTos yeveodai; /cat 
el pcev tjv napd tovtco to pLetpaKiov, el)(ev av Tiva 
Xoyov to ipevhos avTcp cos iyco Sta, ttjv iniBvixiav 



back, because it is clear that he never laid a claim to 
money or made the least mention of the matter. 

He says that I gave him a beating at the door of 
his house, which left him in a terrible state. But we 
find that he pursued the boy for more than four 
stades b from his house with no sign of injury, and 
this he denies, although it was seen by more than two 
hundred people. 

He states that we went to his house with potsherds 
in our hands, and that I threatened to kill him, and 
that this is premeditation. But I think that this lie 
of his, gentlemen, is easily detected, not only by 
you who are used to investigating this sort of case, 
but by everyone else as well. For who can find it 
credible that by a premeditated manoeuvre I 
went to Simon's house after daybreak with the 
boy, when so many people had gathered about 
him, unless I had become so utterly insane as to 
be eager to fight them all single-handed ; especi- 
ally when I knew that he would have been de- 
lighted to see me at his door, — he who in fact kept 
coming to my house, and entered it by force, and, 
disregarding both my sister and my nieces, had the 
audacity to seek me out, and having discovered where 
I happened to be dining called me out and beat me ? 
And so, as it seems, I, who at first, to avoid notoriety, 
kept quiet, taking this man's wickedness to be so 
much misfortune to myself, was yet after a lapse of 
time, as he says, converted to a desire for notoriety ! 
Now if the boy had been living with him, there 
would be some show of reason in his lie that I was 

a His pretence of having got the money back by private 
arrangement is the excuse he makes for not having formally 
claimed the money of which he says he was defrauded. 

6 About 800 yards. 



TjvayKa^ojjLrjv dvorjTorepov Tt iroielv roov zIkotcov 
vvv he rovroo p,ev ovhe hceXeyero, dAA' e\iiaei 
navroov dvOpoovoov jidXiora, Trap" e/Jtol 8' ervyyave 

32 8 tatT ob jjlevov. doore too vfjioov ttlotov dos eydo 
irpdrepov fiev e^eirXevoa e*K ttjs TroXeoos eyoov ro 
pbeipaKiov, Iva fir) rovroo fiaxotfirjv, eTreihr) he 
d^LKOfjLTjv rrdXiV, rjyov avrov errt rr)v ot/a'av rr)v 
Htfioovos, ov rrXeZara efieXXov tt pay fiara e£eiv; 

33 Kdl eTTefiovXeVOV fieV OLVTOO, OVTCO he TjXdoV dlTCipd- 

dXXov dvOpoorrov rrapaKaXeaai firjheva, el fir) rovro 
ye to Traihiov, o emKovprjoaL fiev fioi ovk av 
ehvvaro, firjvvaai Be Ikolvov r)v fiaaav t£d fievov , et 

34 rt eydo e^rjfidpravov; dXX els rooovrov dfiadlas 
dc/nKdfirjV, ware eTTifiovXevoov Hifioovi ovk enqpiqcra 
avrov ov fiovov olov r rjv XafieZv, r) vvKroop r) fied* 
r)fiepav, dAA' evravda rjXOov ov avros efieXXov vtto 
TrXelcrrcov o^drjcreoOal re /cat avyKOTrrjcreoOai, doa- 
irep Kar ifiavrov rr)v rrpovoiav etjevpioKoov, Iv 
obs fidXiora vtto roov eydpdov vfipiodeLiqv ; 

35 "Ert rolvvv, c5 fiovXr), /cat ex. rrjs /^d^j rrjs 
yevofievys pahiov yvdovai on iftevherai. to yap 
fieipaKLov dos eyvoo, plipav doLfidrtov, (f>evyov d^eTO, 
ovtol he avrov eTrehtooKov, eydo he erepav aTreXddbv 

36 6hov tpxdfirjv. Kalroi rrorepovs XPV oItiqvs roov ye- 
yevrjfievoov elvai vofil^eiv, rovs <f>evyovras r) rovs 
t,r)Tovvras KaraXafieZv ; eydo fiev yap r)yo dfiai 
7raoLv etvai hrjXov on cfrevyovai fiev ol irepl avrdov 
hehiores, hidoKovoi he ol fiovXofievoi Tt Troirjoat, 

If Theodotus was a free Plataean, he would have the 
same rights as an Athenian citizen, and could not be subjected 


driven by my desire to an act of quite improbable 
folly : but the fact is that the boy would not even 
talk to him, but hated him more than anyone in the 
world, and was actually living with me. 

So who of you can believe that I previously left 
the city on a voyage with the boy to avoid a fight 
with this man, and then, when I had got back, I 
took him to Simon's house, where I was to expect 
most embarrassment ? And though I had designs 
on him, I came utterly unprepared, without calling 
to my aid either friends or servants or anybody at 
all, save only this child, who would have been unable 
to support me, but was capable of giving information 
under torture a upon any crime that I might commit ! 
But such was the depth of my stupidity that, having 
my design against Simon, I did not look out for him 
where he might be caught alone, whether by night 
or by day, but went to the place where I should find 
most people to see me and give me a thrashing, as 
though I were contriving my premeditation against 
myself, with a view to getting the utmost amount of 
outrage from my enemies! 

And besides, gentlemen, from the very fight that 
took place you can easily perceive that he lies. When 
the boy saw what was on hand, he flung off his cloak 
and ran away : these men pursued him, while I took 
myself off by another street. Now which party should 
be held responsible for such affairs, those who flee, 
or those who seek to capture ? In my opinion it is 
obvious to all that those flee who are in fear for 
themselves, and those pursue who mean to do some 

to torture. Perhaps he or his father was a Plataean slave, 
like Pancleon (see Speech XXIII.), or had not yet established 
his claim to the citizenship. Cf. Aristoph. Frogs, 694. 



37 kclkov. ov Toivvv ravra et/cdVa <fi4v> l t dWcog 
8e 7T€pl olvtcov TTeVpa/CTat, dAAd KOLTaAafiovTes to 
/jLeipoLKLOv €K ttjs 6Sov rjyov ^Sta, evTV^dtv 8' eyco 
tovtcov p,ev oi>x r)7TTOfjLr]v, rod /.tetpa/ctou 8' eVeAa/z- 
f$av6{JLr)v ovtol Se eKeXvov re rjyov jSta /cat epJe 
ervTTTov. /cat ravd i vplv vtto tcov Trapayevo/xevcov 
pLepLapTvprjTCLL. cooTe heLvov el Trepl tovtcov eyco 
86£co Trpovoy]9rjuai, irepl cov ovtol rvyyavovoiv 

38 ovtco SeLvd /cat Trapdvofia TrzTTOLrjKOTes. Tt 8' dv 
7rore erraOov, el rdvavrla tcov vvv yeyevr/pievcov 
r)v> el ttoAAovs eyojv tcov eTTLTrfieicov eyco, amav- 


avTOv /cat eSlcoKov /cat KaTaAaficbv dyeiv fila 
eQryrovv, drrov vvv tovtov tcxvtcx rreTTOLrj kotos 
eyco et? tolovtov dycova KadetrTrjKa, ev co /cat Trepl 


30 /cti/8wet/a> ; rd 8e pieyiOTOV /cat 7repi,(f)avecTTaTov 
TxdvTcov 6 yap doiKiqdelg /cat eirifiovAevOels v-n 
epiov, cos cfrrjcriv, ovk eToXparjcre TeTTapcov Itcov 
eTno-K^i/jao-OaL els uuas". /cat ot jLtev dAAot, otcxv 
epcoGL /cat aTTOGTepcbvTai cov eTnOvfiovGL /cat 
ovyKOTTcooiv, SpyL^ofievoL TTapaxprjpLa TipLCopeloOai 
ttfTodoiv, ovtos Se xpovois voTepov. 

40 "Ort /xev ow, to fiovArj, ovSevos olltlos et/xt tcov 
yeyevrjpLevcov, lkolvcos dVoSeSet^at vo/xt£ar ovtco 
oe 8td/cetjLtat 77p6s" Tas" e/c tojj; rotourajv 7rpayp,aTCov 
Siatbopds, cooTe d'AAa 77oAAd vfipLop,evos vtto 
1-iL/jicovos /cat /carayets" tt^ Ke(f>aAr)v v-n avTOV ovk 
eToApLTjcra avTco en LcrKrjipacrd 'at, r)yovpuevos Secvov 
[100] etmt, ct dpa 77-ept ttcilocov ecpLAovLKYjcra/jLev rjfJLets 

1 a^" add. Sauppe. 



hurt. And this is not a case of a probable thing 
having turned out otherwise in fact : no, they caught 
the boy and were dragging him by force out of his 
way, when I met them, and without touching these 
men I took hold of the boy ; whereas they not only 
dragged him by force, but also beat me. All this 
has been testified to you by those who were present. 
So it will be extraordinary if I am held to have pre- 
meditated any of those things wherein these men are 
found to have so monstrously transgressed the laws. 

How, pray, should I have been treated, if the case 
were the opposite of what has now occurred : if I, 
with a number of my associates, had gone to meet 
Simon, and fought with him, beaten him, pursued 
and caught him, and then tried to drag him by force, 
if, as it is, and when it is he who has done all these 
things, I have been subjected to proceedings like 
the present, in which I risk the loss of both my native 
land and all the property that I possess ? But here 
is the strongest and most striking proof of all : the 
man who was wronged and victimized by me — as he 
says — did not dare for four years to denounce me 
before you. Everyone else, when in love, and 
deprived of the object of desire, and battered with 
blows, immediately in his anger seeks redress ; but 
this man seeks it long afterwards. 

So, gentlemen, that I am not to blame for any of 
these occurrences has, I conceive, been sufficiently 
proved. And observe the spirit in which I treat 
quarrels arising from this sort of affair : although I 
had suffered a variety of outrages at Simon's hands, 
and had even had my head broken by him, I could not 
bring myself to denounce him, as I felt it extravag- 
ant, just because of a mutual rivalry over a child, to 



7rpos dXXrjXovg, rovrov eW/ca e^eXdaai rtvas 

41 ^rjTTJaoLL e'/c rrjs rrarpioos. erretra ok /cat ovoe/jLtav 
r)yovfxr]v rrpovoiav elvai rpavfiaros Sons p-v) 0.77-0- 
KreZvai fiovX6p,evos erpajoe. rts ydp ovra>s eorlv 

42 evrjOrjs, dons €K ttoXAov rrpovoelrai directs eA/cos" 
rts avrov rwv exdptov Xiqiperai; dXXd SijXov ore 
/cat ol rovs vofjiovs evOaSe Sevres, ovk et rives 
p,ayeodp,evoi ervypv dAArjAajv Kard^avres rds K€- 
<f>aXds, €77t rovrois r)^iojoav rrjs rrarpioos cf>vyr)v 
7Torfoaodai' rj rroXXovs y dv igrjXacrav dAA' ogol 
emfiovXevoavres drroKr elvai rivas erptoaav, drro- 
Krelvai Se ovk e$vvrj6r)oav, rrepi rd>v roiovratv 
rds rL/jLCoplas ovraj pieydXas Kareorrjoravro, r)yov- 
fievoL, virep wv efiovXevoav /cat Trpovvorjd-qoav , 
vrrep rovrojv TrpocrrjKeiv avrois Slktjv Sovvai' el Se 
(XT] Kareaypv y ovSev rjrrov ro y eKeivcov jreTroirjodai. 

43 /cat ravra rjSrj /cat rrporepov rroXAaKis vfxels ovrco 
Sieyvojre rrepi rrjs rrpovoias. /cat yap oeivov dv 
eirj, el ogol e/c jj,edrjs /cat <f>iXoviKias r) e/c 77-atStcDv 
r) e/c XoiSopias rj rrepi eraipas ua^ouevot eA/co? 
eXaftov, el vrrep rovrojv aJv, erreiSav fieXnov c/ypo- 
vrjoajoiv, arracri pierafieXei, ovra>s /cat voxels pieydXas 
/cat Seivds rds ripiojpias TroirjoeoOe, cjore e^eXavveiv 
nvas rwv rroXircov e/c rrjs rrarpioos. 

44 Qavpid^oj Se fxdXiora rovrov rrjs hiavoias. ov 
ydp rod avrov fxoi So/cet et^at epav re /cat cru/co- 
(f>avrelv, dXXd ro piev rd>v evT}9eorepwv y ro Se rucv 
Travovpyordrojv. efiovXopirjv S° dv e^elvai uot rrap' 
vpuv /cat e/c rcov dXXajv emoei^ai rr)v rovrov 
rrovrjplav, Iva r)rriaraode x on rroXv dv hiKaiorepov 

1 rjirLcraade Bernhardy : iiriar^ade mss. 



press for a man's expulsion from his native land. 
Besides, I did not see that there was any premedita- 
tion of wounding in the case of a man who gave a 
wound without meaning to kill. For who is so simple 
as to premeditate a long time ahead how some enemy 
of his shall come by a wound ? Why, it is clear that 
even the makers of our laws did not think well, when 
people happened in a fight to break each other's 
heads, to make it a case for banishment from their 
country ; else they would have exiled a goodly 
number. But in the case of any persons who, 
designing to kill, wounded others without being able 
to kill them, they appointed the punishment in that 
degree of severity, judging it meet that where they 
had shown design and premeditation they should 
pay the penalty : though if they did not check all 
such misdeeds, none the less their best efforts had 
been exerted. And in this way you have decided, 
many a time in the past, on this point of premeditation. 
Extraordinary, indeed, it would be, if in all cases of 
wounds received through some drunken rivalry, or 
game, or abuse, or in a fight for a mistress, — affairs of 
which everyone repents on better consideration, — 
you are to inflict a punishment of such awful severity 
as that of expelling any of our citizens from their 
native land. 

I wonder most of all at this man's temperament. 
For it does not seem to me that the same person can be 
both a lover and a slanderer, since the former implies 
the simpler sort of man, and the latter the most 
villainous. I could wish that I were allowed to 
expose this man's wickedness before you in all its 
other effects, so that you might have understood how 

a Cf. Plato, Laws, ix. 876 e ff. 



olvtos irepl Oavdrov rjyojvl^ero tj irepovs virep rfjs 
Trarplhos €LS kivSvvov KaQioTt). to. \.ikv ovv aAAa 

45 idaoj- o S' -qyov/jLcu vplv TTpocnJKetv d/couaat /cat 
reKjiripiov eaeadai rrjs tovtov dpacrvr-qjog /cat 

ToXfJiT]?, 7T€pl TOVTOV p,VTjGdj]O0p,aL. €V Ko0tV#t(J 

yap, eTTeuSr] voTepov rjXOe ttjs irpos tovs TroXepiiovs 
l^d-Xqs /cat ttjs ets Kopooveiav crrparetas', e'ua\;eTO 
to) Ta^cdpxcp Kd\rjTi /cat Ztvittev avTov, /cat ttclv- 
(Trparta to>v ttoXltcov itjeXOovTcov, So^a? d/cooyxo- 
Taros" 1 etyat /cat 7TOvqpoTaTos, fiovos 'Adrjvaiaiv 
vrro tcov OTparrryyCiv i^eKT]pv)(9rj. 

46 "E^otjLtt 8' av /cat aAAa noXXd etVetv nepl tovtov, 
dXX €7T€i$f) Trap* vplv ov voyapiov Iotlv e£to tov 
7rpdy{iaTos Ae'yetv, e'/cetvo ivdvpLelade- ovtoL elcnv 
ol j8ta et? tt]v r)[X€Tepav ot/ctav etcrtoVres", ovtol ol 


47 rjfJL&s. cvv vfielg pLep,vrjfxevoL tcl St/cata ifjrjcfii^ecrde, 
/cat /X7) TrepLiSrjTe e'/c Try? iraTpi^os aSt/ca)? iicireaov- 
Ta, U77ep 77s e'ya> TroAAous" /ctvSwous /ce/ctvSweu/ca 
/cat 77oAAd? XrjTOVpylas XeXrjTovpyrjKa, /cat /ca/cou 
fxev aur?y ouSe^d? atrtos' yeyeV^uat, ovhe tcov 

48 ead/v irpoyovtov ovSels, dyaOtov 8e 77oAAdV* cSare 
St/cata)? dV u^' u/xd>v /cat U7ro tow dXXcov iXer]- 
deirjv, ov fiovov et rt nddoLfiL cov Ztua>v /tauAeTat, 
aAAa /cat ort rjvayKdcrOrjv e/c tolovtcov 7TpaypLaTCOV 


1 dKoa-fiSraTos Emperius : koo-/xi<J)t<xtos mss. 

° At the battle of Coronea in 394 b.c. the Athenians and 
Thebans fought the Spartans commanded by Agesilaus. 



in justice he ought far rather to be on trial for his life 
than bringing others into peril of losing their native 
land. I will, however, pass over all those things, 
and will mention but one which I consider you 
ought to hear, as being a sure proof of his brazen- 
faced audacity. In Corinth, where he arrived after 
our battle with the enemy and the expedition to 
Coronea, he fought with the taxiarch b Laches and 
gave him a beating ; and when the citizens had set 
forth in full military strength, he was specially 
noted for insubordination and knavery, and was the 
only Athenian ordered by the generals to be banned 
by herald. 

I could go on to relate many other things regard- 
ing this man ; but, since it is not lawful to speak 
in your court beyond the limits of the case, I ask 
you to reflect on this : it was these men who forced 
their way into our house, they who pursued us, and 
they who forcibly seized and dragged us out of 
our path. Remembering these things, give your 
vote for justice, and do not suffer me to be unjustly 
ejected from my native land, for which I have braved 
many dangers and performed many public services : 
no harm have I ever brought upon that land, nor has 
any of my ancestors ; nay, many are the benefits 
that we have brought her. Justly, then, should I 
receive your pity, &nd all other men's too, not merely 
if I should meet with such a fate as Simon wishes, 
but even for having been compelled, as a result of 
such transactions, to stand my trial on such a charge. 

b The officer commanding an infantry contingent from one 
of the ten tribes. 




The narrative part of this speech has been lost ; what 
we have is only the argument or proof. It was 
written for a defendant who was brought before the 
court of the Areopagus on a charge of wounding a 
man, with intent to kill, in an affray for the possession 
of a slave-girl, whom the defendant alleged to be 
their joint property, while the accuser said that he 
was her sole owner. The penalty involved was 
banishment and confiscation of property. 

The speaker states that he and the prosecutor had 
been reconciled after a quarrel on terms arranged by 
their friends. He had challenged the prosecutor to an 
exchange of property, as was commonly done by a 
citizen who was charged with a costly public service, 
and who thought that it should be undertaken by 
some other citizen of ampler means than himself : 
this act of his had been brought up against him by 
his accuser as evidence of personal enmity. But 
the exchange, though begun, was cancelled by agree- 
ment (1-2). Another sign of their friendly relations 
is that he nominated the prosecutor as one of the 


judges of the competitions at the Dionysia, and 
although his friend was not actually appointed, he 
showed by a note under his hand that he had agreed 
to vote for the defendant's tribe. Apparently there 
was a private understanding between the two men 
which the speaker is not ashamed to avow before 
that august tribunal (3-4). Yet, even supposing 
they were enemies, the manner in which the assault 
took place forbids any suspicion of premeditation. 
The prosecutor got a black eye, which he called a 
wound, and behaved as though he were seriously 
injured ; while he would not allow the slave-girl, 
who was the subject and witness of the quarrel, to 
be put to the torture for evidence (5-10). This 
refusal on the accuser's part is dwelt on at length 
as a sure indication of the defendant's innocence : 
his opponent's excuse, that she is a free woman and 
not available for the question by torture, is false 
(12-17). The dreadful danger in which the defend- 
ant now finds himself is utterly out of proportion to 
the paltry nature of a dispute whose consequences 
have been grossly exaggerated (18-20). 

This incomplete piece, though not very well 
arranged or argued, is direct and lively in style, and 
is probably a genuine work of Lysias, who took good 
care that a quite ordinary client should borrow quite 
ordinary plumes. 



1 Savfjiaarov ye, cL fiovXrj, to Sta/xa^ecr^at irepl 
tovtov, cos ovk eyevovTO r\\xiv htaXXayal, /cat to 
[lev ^evyos /cat to, avhpairoha, /cat ocra e£ dypov 
/cara, ttjv dvTihooiv eXafie, 3 fxrj av hvvauOai dp- 
vrjdfjvai cos" ovk direha>Ke, <f>avepCos he irepl irdv- 
tcov SuaXeXv jxevov dpvelcrOat tol irepl ttjs dvOpcoirov, 

2 p,r] Kotvfj tj/jl&s xprjodai ayy^ajp^crat. /cat T-r\v fiev 
[101] dvTihooiv hi eKetvrjv (f>avepos cart iroLrjodfievos , 

tt]v 8' atVtav St' f)v arrehcDKev a 4 eXafiev, ovk av 
dXXrjv e'xoi elirelv (fiovXofievos TaXr)9rj Xeyecv) r) 
otl ol cfyiXoi irepl irdvTwv r)p,&s tovtcov avvrjX\a£av. 

3 efiovXofirjv o' av fxr) diroXaxeiv avrov KpiTTjV 
Aiovvcrlois, lv* vfjiiv (jyavepos eyeveTO ep,ol hirjX- 
Xayfxevos, Kplvas ttjv epirjv cj)vXrjv viKav vvv he. 
eypaifte fxev rawra els to ypapifiaTeiov, aWAa^e 

4 he. /cat ort dXrjOrj tolvtol Xeya>, OtAtvo? /cat Ato- 

kXtjs taaaw aAA' ovk ear' avTols pLapTVpfjcrai yut] 

hiopLooafievois irepl ttjs air las fjs eyd> <f>evyaj, 

errel Gacfxx>s eyvuiT av otl r^iels rjfxev avTov ol 

1 TIIEP Blass: irepl mss. 2 AAHAON add. Taylor. 

3 Aa/3e Scaliger: ^Xa^ov mss. * & Taylor: fj mss. 

9 Apparently an exchange of property in the matter of a 
XeiTovpyia. See note on III. 20, p. SO and IV., Introd. p. !» t. 

6 The great dramatic festival, held about the end of March. 


It is surprising, gentlemen of the Council, that the 
fact of our reconcilement is so keenly disputed, and 
that, while he cannot deny his having restored the yoke 
of oxen, the slaves, and all the goods on the estate that 
he received under the exchange, he denies, in face 
of the settlement clearly made on every point, that 
we agreed to share the woman between us. It is 
plain that he made the exchange because of her ; 
and the only reason he can give — if he wishes to 
speak the truth — for having restored what he received 
is that our friends reconciled us on all these matters. 
I could wish that he had not been omitted by lot from 
the judges at the Dionysia, 6 so that you might have 
seen clearly that he had been reconciled to me, from 
his decision that my tribe was the winner. In fact 
he recorded it thus on his tablet, but he was omitted 
by lot. My statement on this is true, as Philinus and 
Diodes know : but it is not possible for them to testify 
when they have not taken oath c upon the charge laid 
against me ; you would then have perceived clearly 
that it was we who proposed him as judge, and that 

Ten judges of the contests seem to have been appointed 
beforehand, but only some of these were chosen by lot for 
the actual recording of votes. 

c Witnesses must have taken a solemn oath at a preliminary 
stage before they could come before the Areopagus. 



KpLTrjv ep,fiaA6vres /cat r)fia>v eve/ca €/ca#t£ero. 

5 dAA' rjv, el /SouAerat, ex^pos' SlSoojjll yap avrco 
rovro' ovSev yap oia<j>epei. ovkovv rjAdov avros 
avrov dnoKrevoov, cos ovros (j>r)OL, /cat j8ta els rrjv 
ot/ctav elorjAOov. 8td rl ovv ovk direKreiva, 
U7ro^et/)tov Aafioov to atofxa, /cat rooovrov Kpa- 
rrjoas coore /cat rrjv avdpomov AajSctv; (f)paodra> 

6 7rpds vfias. aAA' oi)/c e^t elnelv. /cat /x^y ovSeis 
y€ vfxoov dyvoel ort darrov av iyx^ipiSLop TrArjyels 
dneOavev 77 ttv£ iraiopLevos. </>atWrat roivvv oi3S' 
avros alricopLevos roiovrov rt exovras r)fias eAdelv, 
dAA' oorpaKcp <j)rjol 7rAr)yfjvai. /catTOt (f>avepov 

7 17S77 ef cov etprjKev, ort, ov irpovoia yeyevrjrau. ov 
yap av ovrojs TJAOofxev, dS^Aou ovros €t irapd 
rovrtp evpr\oo\iev SorpaKov 7} oroo 1 avrov drro- 
Krevovfiev, dAA' OLKoOev exovres av epaoi^ofjLev. vvv 
Se ofioAoyovfAeda Trpos TralSas /cat avA-qrploas /cat 
/act' otVou eA^ovres". ajcrre 77x0s- ravr iorl irpovoia; 

8 eyco puev ydp ofytat ovSafjbws. dAA' ovros iv- 
avrlws rots dAAots" hvoepcos ion, /cat dp,<f)6repa 
jSouAerat, to t€ apyvpiov jut) dirroSovvai /cat Trp 
avdpOJTTOV ex €LV ' € ^ Ta V7T ° ttjs dvOpoonov TTap- 
oj^v/jL[xevos 6£vx €i P ^av /cat irdpoivos iorvv, dvdyKT} 
8e dpbvvaoB ai. rj Se rore puev ejxe 7repl noAXov 
Tore he rovrov cfrrjari, 7roielodai, fiovAopLevr) vtt* 

q d{X(f)or€pojv epaoOai. /cat eyoo fxev /cat ef dpxfjs 

evKoAoos etxov /cat vuv en e^a)* d 8' et? rovro 

/3apv$aLfJLOVLas rjKei, wore ovk aloxvverai rpavpuar 

ovopid^cov rd VTrooTTia /cat ev kAlvt) irept^epofxe- 

1 6ry Markland: ovtus mss. 

° i.e., the half of the woman's price contributed by the 



it was on account of us that he went on the bench. 
But — if he will have it so — he was our enemy : I grant 
him that, for it makes no difference. So then I went 
myself to kill him, as he says, and forced my way into 
his house. Why, then, did I not kill him, having his 
person in my power, and having got the upper hand 
to the extent of taking the woman ? Let him ex- 
plain it to you : but he cannot tell you. Further- 
more, everyone of you is aware that he would have 
been killed more quickly by the stroke of a dagger 
than by the blow of a fist. Now, you find that not 
even he accuses us of having come with anything 
like that in our hands ; he only says he was struck 
by a potsherd. Why, it is evident already from what 
he has said that there has been no premeditation. 
For we should not have gone in that way, when it 
was uncertain whether we should find in his house a 
potsherd or something to serve for killing him, but 
should have brought it from home as we set out. In 
point of fact, we admit that we went to see boys and 
flute-girls and were in liquor : so how is that pre- 
meditation ? In no wise, to my thinking. But this 
man takes his love-sickness in an opposite fashion 
to the rest of us : he wants to have it both ways — to 
avoid paying up the money a and to have the woman 
as well. And then, with his passion inflamed by the 
woman, he is excessively hasty of hand and the worse 
for liquor, and one is forced to defend oneself. As to 
her, sometimes it is I, and sometimes he, for whom 
she professes affection, wishing to be loved by both. 
Now I have shown an easy temper from the begin- 
ning, as I still do to-day ; but he has got into such an 
irritable state that he is not ashamed to call a black 
eye a wound, and to be carried about in a litter and 




iropvqs avBpumov, r)v e^eoTLV avrco dvap^Lo^rjTiq- 

10 tcds %X €lv ^P 01 dTrohovTL rdpyvpiov. /cat <f>r]oi fiev 
Seivojs e7TL^ovXevdrjvaL /cat npos diravd* rjpuv 
dficfyicrP^TeL, e£6v o° e/c rfjs dvOpconov fiaaavL- 
odelo-qs tov eXeyxov TTOLTjoacrdaL ovk r)deXr)crev 


y]\ilv r\v rj t'Sta tovtov, /cat irorepa to rjfxiav tov 
dpyvpiov iyd> ovve^aXopaqv r) ovtos array eSa)/ce, 

11 /cat el hir]XXayjjL€VOL r) ert e^flpot rjfiev, ert Se et 
pi€Ta7Tefji(f)9€VTes rjXdopiev r) ovhevos KaXecravTos , /cat 
et ovtos r)PX € X €L P^ V dhiKcov r) iyto irpoTepos 
tovtov eVdra^a. tovtojv ko.6 ev Zkolotov /cat 
Tojy dXXtov ovSev rjv 6 Tt ov paStov tols T€ dXXoLs 
ipicfxives /cat tovtols 7TOLrjoou. 

12 "OtL p,€V OVV OVT€ TTpoVOLOL €y€V€TO OVT€ dSlKU) 
TOVTOV, CO fiovXiq, €K TOOOVTOJV TeKfXrjpLCJV /Cat fJLdp- 

Tvpicov vpuv emSe'Set/CTar aftoj 8' ooov dv eyeveTO 
orrjfJLelov tovtco 7700? to hoKelv dXrjOrj XeyeLV <f>vyovTos 
ifjiov tt)v fidoavov, togovtov ijJLol TeKpaqpiov yeve- 
crQou otl ov ifjevoojJLOLL, StoTt outos" ovk rjdeXrjoev 
e/c ttjs dvOpojTrov TTOi-qoaoOai tov eXeyxov, /cat pur] 


avTTjv eXevOepav eti/at. opioids ydp TrpooiqKeL /cd/xot 

13 tt)s eXevSepias, to loov KaTadevTL dpyvpLov. dXXd 
ipevheTdL /cat ovk dXrjdrj XeyeL. rj beLvov ye, el els 
[xev Xvolv tov crajjLtaTOS" [eSa>/ca to dpyvpLov] 1 e/c 

1 ?d(i)Ka rb apyupiov del. Hamaker. 

a It was common in Athenian law-suits to demand or offer 
that slaves be tortured for the extraction of evidence. See 


pretend to be in a dreadful condition, for the sake of a 
harlot wench whom he is free to have uncontested on 
restoring the money to me. And he says that he has 
been plotted against in a monstrous way, and con- 
tests every point with us ; yet although it was open 
to him to procure his proof by having the woman 
tortured," he refused. She would first have informed 
you whether she was shared by us or belonged only to 
him, whether I contributed half the money or he gave 
it all, and whether we had been reconciled or were 
still enemies ; also whether we went on receipt of a 
summons, or without invitation from anyone, and 
whether this man struck the first blow by assault, or 
I first hit him. Each of these points in turn, as of the 
rest, could have been cleared up with ease in every 
case both for the public and for this court. 

Thus there has been neither premeditation nor 
wrongdoing on my part, gentlemen : this has been 
made clear to you by an abundance of evidences and 
testimonies. And I think it fair that, inasmuch as 
this man could have found an indication in favour of 
his speaking the truth in my evasion of the test of 
torture, I should equally find a proof that I am not 
lying in the fact that he refused to settle the question 
by means of the woman ; and I claim that the less 
weight should be given to his words, when he says 
that she is free. For I am alike concerned in her free- 
dom, since I have put down an equal sum of money. 6 
But he lies, and does not speak the truth. What 
a monstrous position it would be ! To ransom my 
person from the enemy, I could have made what use 

b i.e., if I let her keep the sum paid by me, she can obtain 
her freedom ; if not, she will continue to be a slave. 

E 101 


TWV 7ToXepLLO)V e^ijv dv fJLOL XP 7 } ® - 1 a ^ T fj °" TL 
efiovXopLTjV, KLvhweVOVn he [AOL TTepI TTJS TTOLTpiSoS 

ovhe rrvdeodai Trap* avrrjs rdXrjdrj e.Kyevy\uerai 
7T€pl d>v els ttjv Kpiaiv KaOeoTYjKCf /cat /xev hrj 
noXv dv hiKaiorepov eirl ravrrj rfj atria jSaaavt- 
oOeirj rj eVt rfj e/c rcov TToXepLLQjv Auaet Trpadeirj, deep 
irapa p,ev eKeivcov fiovXopievajv dnoXvcraL eon /cat 
[102] aAAo#€v evirop-qaavn Kopaadijvai, erfi he rots ^X~ 
Opols yevop^evov ov hvvarov ov yap apyvpiov 
Xafielv n podvpiovvr ai, aXX e/c rrjs rrarpihos €/c- 

14 fiaXelv epyov 1 rroiovvrai. toa#' 7rpocrrJKei pur/ 
drrohexeo-dai avrov hid rovro ovk d^iovvros jSa- 
aaviodrjvai rr)v avOpainov, on avrrjv eXevBepav 
icrKrjTTrero elvai,, dXXd noXv piaXXov orvKO(j>avr lav 
Karayiyva)GK€LV, ort, rrapaXiTTcbv eXeyxov ovra>s 

15 aKpifir} e^avarr\aeiv vpias pahia)s cprjOr]. ov yap 
$t}7tov rrjv ye rovrov 7TpoKXrjoiv mororepav vpias 
vopii^eiv Set rrjs r)pierepas } e</>' ols rovs avrov ot/ce- 
ras r)t;iov fiaoavit.eodai. a pcev yap eKelvoi rjheaav, 
eXOovr as rjpias cLs rovrov, /cat ^ftet? opboXoyovpiev. 
el he pbera7Tepi(f)6evres r) pir), /cat rrorepov rrporepos 

16 errXrjyiqv r) errdra^a, ihceivrj piaXXov dv fjhei. en he 
rovs piev rovrov olhceras Ihiovs ovras rovrov el 
eftaoavl^opiev, dvor]rojs dv n rovrcp xapi^optevoi 
/cat rrapd rrjv dXrjdeiav epiov Kareipevaavro' avr-q 
he VTrrjpxe Koivrj, opioiws dpL(f)orepa>v apyvpiov 
Karare6rjKora>v } /cat pdXiora fjhei- hid ravrrjv 
anavra rd rrpaxOevra rjpuv yeyevrjrai' /cat ov 

17 A^aet ovhev* on ravrrjs 2 eyajy* dvioov et^ov ^acra- 

1 tp-yov Scheibe : avrbv mss. 
2 5n tcu'ttjs Herwerden : 4v TavTy mss. 

J 02 


of her I pleased a ; but when I am in danger of losing 
my native land, I am not to be permitted even to 
ask her for a true statement on the matters for which 
I have been brought to this trial. Nay, it would be 
far more just to have her tortured for the purpose of 
this charge than to have her sold for my ransom from 
the enemy, inasmuch as, if they are willing to take 
a ransom, one can get plenty of means elsewhere for 
obtaining one's return ; but if one is in the power of 
one's adversaries, it is impossible. For they are not 
set on gaining money, but make it their business to 
expel one from one's native land. It is your duty, 
therefore, to reject his claim that the woman should 
not be tortured, which he made on the pretended 
ground of her freedom ; you ought much rather to 
condemn him for slander, on the ground that he put 
aside so decisive a test in the expectation that he 
would easily deceive you. For surely you should not 
regard his challenge as more convincing than ours, 
in regard to the points on which he claimed to have 
his own servants put to the torture. For as to their 
knowledge of our having gone to his house, we likewise 
admit that ; but whether we were sent for or not, and 
whether I received the first blow or gave it, are things 
that she would be better able to know. And then, had 
we put his servants, who were wholly his property, 
to the torture, they would have been led by a foolish 
complaisance to him into denying the truth and falsely 
accusing me. But this woman was our common 
possession, both alike having put down money, as 
she knew very well : it is on her account that all this 
business has come upon us. And it will be observed 
by all that in having her put to the torture I must be 

a i.e., I couid have raised money by selling her. See below. 



VMjdelcrrjs, dAA' aTreKwovvevov tovto' ttoXv yap irepl 

TrXeLOVOS TOVTOV Tj €fJL€ (j>aiV€TaL 7TOirj(jaiJL€Vr) , KOLL 

liera pcev tovtov e'/xe r)hiK-qKvia y \L€t Ijxov 8' 

0V$€7TC07T0T€ €LS TOVTOV i^OLfiapTOVCrOL. dAA' OflOJS 

eyd> fiev els TavTrjv KaTe<f)vyov, ovtos Se ovk 
err ioTevcrev avTjj . 

18 Ovkovv Set Vfias, cS fiovXrj, ttjXlkovtov ovtos 
tov Kivhvvov, pqotajs a7ToSexecrdat tovs tovtov 
Xoyovs, dAA' evdvfiovjjLevovs otl irepl ttjs iraTpihos 
jjlol koX tov filov 6 dya)V eoTiv, ev 1 VTroXoyco rauras 1 
ra? TTpoKXrjO'eis iroieiodai. /cat pur] ^tjt€lt€ tovtuw 

€Tt fiet^OVS 7TLOT€lS' OV y6\p dv €\OipLl ellXeZv dAA' 

rj tclvtcls, cos" ovSev els tovtov 7rpovvorj6rjv. 2 

19 dyavaKTO) 8', c5 fiovXr], el Std Tropvrjv /cat SovXrjv 
dvdpcoTrov irepl twv pLeyloTcnv els klvSvvov kol9- 
ecrT7)KCL, tI kolkov ttojttot€ ttjv ttoXiv Tj ai)TOV TOVTOV 
elpyaa/jievoSy r) els rtVa to)v ttoXltcov otlovv 
e£ajjLapTa)V ; ovSev yap efiotye eciTi tolovtov 
ireirpayfievov, dAA* dXoycoTaTOv 3 irdvTOJV kw- 
hvvevoj iroXv jitet^o) avpufiopdv ifxavTw Std tovtovs 

20 eirayayeadai. irpos ovv iraihojv /cat yvvaiKwv /cat 
detbv toSv ToSe to ^a>ptov e\6vTOJV t/cereua) vpids 
/cat dvTifioXco, eXerjoaTe fie, /cat (jltj irepdorjTe em 
tovto) yev6fievov t firjSe dvrjKeoTcp avpi<l>opa irepi- 
fidXrjTe' ov yap d£ios ovt eyd) fyevyeiv ttjv efiavTov, 
ovTe ovtos ToaavTTjv Slktjv Trap* epiov Xa^elv virep 
(X)V (f>TjGLV TjOLKfjadat,, ovk -qSiKYj/JLevos. 

1 tv Markland : yJkv mss. 

1 irpovv orjdrjv Contius : vpovorjO^vai MSS. 

8 dXX' a\o-ywTa.Tov Sluiter : dXXd Xdyy rb tlov MSS. 



at a disadvantage, and yet I ran this grave risk ; for 
clearly she was much more attached to him than to 
me, and has joined him in wronging me, but has never 
joined me in offending against him. Nevertheless, 
while I sought her as my refuge, he put no confidence 
in her. 

You should therefore decline, gentlemen, when my 
danger is so great, to accept offhand the statements 
of this man : you should rather reflect that I have 
my native land and my livelihood at stake, and so 
should take these challenges into your reckoning. Do 
not look for still stronger pledges than these : I could 
not instance others to show that I did not premedi- 
tate anything against this man. I am vexed, gentle- 
men, at finding myself in danger of losing what I 
value most on account of a harlot and a slave : for what 
harm have I ever done to the city, or to this man him- 
self, or against what citizen have I committed any 
sort of offence ? Nothing of the kind have I ever 
done, yet with the least show of reason in the world 
I am in danger of bringing upon myself a much more 
serious disaster on account of these men. So I pray 
and beseech you, by your children, your wives, and 
the gods who keep this place, have pity on me, and 
do not suffer me to fall into the hands of this man, 
nor involve me in an irremediable calamity. For it 
is equally unfair that I should be banished from mv 
own country, and that he should exact so heavy a 
penalty from me for wrongs which, though he says 
that he has received them, he has never received. 




This short speech, of which the conclusion has been 
lost, was composed for a friend who desired to support 
the accused, Callias, a resident alien of advanced 
years and good standing : the slaves of Callias, in the 
hope of being rewarded with liberty, had denounced 
him for sacrilege, the penalty for which was death. 
The case was heard before the ordinary court of 
Athenian citizens sitting as paid judges (SiKao-rou or 
ryAiao-Tat). After the restoration of the democracy 
in 403 B.C., accusations of various forms of impiety, 
which had been fairly common in the previous time, 
became very frequent. We find again in the speech 
On the Olive-stamp (vii. 16) the danger arising from the 
public encouragement of slaves to earn their freedom 
by laying information of impious acts against their 
masters. We have no means of ascertaining either 
the particular act that was the subject of this case or 
the date of the trial. 

The speaker explains that the gravity of his friend's 
danger has induced him to add his own good opinion 
and offices to those of others who have pleaded in 


Callias' defence (1-2). The evidence of slaves should 
count for nothing as against an unblemished reputa- 
tion : if it is accepted, we shall have servants con- 
stantly renouncing their proper duty in order to 
calumniate their masters (3-5). 



1 Ei [lev Trepl a'AAou rwos r) rod acofxaros, d> dvSpes 
BiKOLGTai, KaXAcas rjyoovL^ero, i^-qpKeu dv [xol koI 
tol Trapa rcbv dXXa>v elprjjjLeva' vvv Se \ioi So/cet 
alaxpov elvai, KeXevovros koI Seo/xeVou, koll <f>lXov 

OVTOS Kdl ifJLOl Kdl €OJS €^7] TO> TTarpl, KOLL TToXXdJV 

GvpifioXaLajv r)fjLLV TTpos olXXtJXovs yeyevrjfxivojv, fir) 
Por]6f}<jai KaAAia ra SiVata, oitojs dv SvvwfiaL. 

2 ivofxi^ov p,kv ovv ovra>s fieroiKew avrov iv ravrrj 
rfj rroXec, ware ttoXv rrporepov dyadov rwos 
Tev£eo9ai Trap* vjjlojv r) irrl rocavrats alriais els 
roaovrov klvSvvov Karaorrju eadai' vvv Se ol im- 
fiovXevovres ovx rjrrov imKwSvvov ttolovgl rov 


3 air Lois ovgw. vjias Se d£iov jxrj rovs piev rd>v 
1 103] deparrovrojv Xoyovs ttiotovs vo/jll^zw, rovs Se 

tovtcdv OLTTLarrovs, ivOv/Jbovjievovs on KaAAia jiev 
ovhels 7to)7tot€ ovr l$lu)T7]s iveKaXeaev OVT€ 
apxaiv, oIkojv S* iv ravrrj rfj rroXei 77oAAa jxev 
ayada vjids irroirjaev, ovhejiiav Se cr^coy alriav 
els rovro rrjs rjXuKLas a^i/crat, ovroi Se iv drravri 
ra> fiicp fieydXa rjjxaprrjKores /cat ttoXXwv KaKcijv 


If Callias had anything else than his life at stake in 
chis trial, gentlemen of the jury, I should be content 
with what you have heard from the other speakers ; 
but, as it is, and when he urges and requests me, and 
he is not only a friend of mine but was one of my 
father's so long as he lived, and we have had many 
arrangements between us, I feel it would be disgrace- 
ful not to support Callias so far as justice requires and 
my ability permits. I did expect, indeed, that the 
character that he showed as an alien residing in this 
city would far more readily gain for him some bene- 
fit at your hands than allow him to face so grave a 
danger because of such accusations as you have heard. 
But I find that, these designing persons make life no 
less dangerous for those who have done no wrong than 
for those who are guilty of many misdeeds. You, 
however, ought not to credit the statements of mere 
servants and discredit those of the accused ; for you 
should reflect that no one, either private citizen or 
magistrate, has ever indicted Callias before, and that 
while dwelling in this city he has bestowed many 
benefits upon you, and has arrived at his time of life 
with a blameless reputation ; whereas these men, 
having spent their lives in committing serious offences 
and incurring a variety of troubles, make their 
E2 109 


7T€7T€LpafjLevoL, taoTrep dyaOov tlvos OLiTioi yeye- 
vrjjjLevoi 7T€pl iXevdeplas vvvl iroiovvrai rovs Xoyovs. 

4 K0.1 ov davpLa^oj' laaui yap on, idv <p,€v> 1 ijjev- 
hofievoi iXeyxOoJGLv, ovhev jiel^ov tojv vrrapyovriov 
ireiGOVTaiy idv §e Vfids i^arrariqaojaLy tojv irapovrojv 
KaKiJov €oovtoa' airrjXXayiiivoi. Kairoi rovs roiov- 
tovs ovre Karr^yopovs ovre fidprvpas ttlgtovs XPV 
vopLi^etv elvai, olnves avrol fieydXa Kepoatvovres 
rrepl iripojv ttolovvtoll rovs Xoyovs, aAAd noXv 
fidXXov ogol rep S-qpLOGtcp fiorjdovvres els klvovvovs 

5 G<j)ds avrovs KaBiGrduiv. d^iov oi /xot So/cet elvat 
ov rovrojv lolov rjyeiGdai rov aycDva, aAAd kolvov 
airavrajv rojv iv rfj iroXer ov yap rovrots p,6vois 
elal OepaTTOvres, aAAd /cat rots dXXous dVacrtv, ol 


GKexpovrai 6 ri <dV> 3 dyaOov elpyaGfievoi rovs 
heoTToras iXevOepoi yivoivro, dAA' o n ipevhos Trepl 
avrdjv p,r)vvcravT€s . . . 

1 iikv add. F. M tiller. 

2 taovTo.1 Aldus : iQvrai mss. 

3 hv add. Scheibe. 

fl A slave whose accusation was accepted as true was 
rewarded with freedom. Cf. VII. 16. 



speeches to-day with an air of having performed a 
great service, merely in the hope of freedom. And 
I am not surprised ; for they know that, if they are 
convicted of lying, they will suffer nothing worse than 
their actual lot ; while if they succeed in deceiving 
you they will be rid of their present troubles. Yet 
surely such men as these, whether accusers or wit- 
nesses, should win no credit, when they have a great 
profit to make for themselves by their statements 
concerning others ; much rather should it be given 
to those who, to uphold the public weal, b involve 
themselves in danger. The trial, in my opinion, 
ought to be regarded, not as the personal affair of 
the accused, but as the common concern of every- 
body in the city ; for these c are not the only people 
who own servants ; they are owned by everyone else, 
and looking at the fate of the accused will no longer 
ask themselves by what great service to their masters 
they might gain their freedom, but by what lying 
information about them. . . . 

h Perhaps Callias was employed by the stewards of the 
sacred treasure of the Parthenon, and was accused of 
embezzling some of it. 

c Others besides Callias appear to have been involved in 
the accusation. 




This piece, which takes the form of a speech in 
accusation of Andocides at his trial in 399 B.C., is 
probably a pamphlet composed by one of his many 
persecutors after hearing or reading his defence, 
which has come down to us under the name On the 
Mysteries. This writer against Andocides has certain 
weaknesses and faults which are familiar enough to 
readers of the ancient rhetoricians : his topics are 
ill-arranged, his allusions to important facts are vague 
and hasty, and he avails himself of elaborate language 
to conceal the uncertainty of his grip on his subject. 
It is now generally agreed, on these grounds alone, 
that the writer cannot have been Lysias ; and when 
we consider the curious insistence on the religious 
guilt of Andocides, and the misfortunes and sufferings 
which he has endured for the last sixteen years and 
which, like even his survival of them all, show the 
curse of Heaven upon him, and observe the abrupt and 
tactless manner in which it is admitted that there 
may be something in Andocides' charges against his 
actual accuser, Cephisius, we are led to the conclusion, 
which is supported also by the author's claim to be 


the great-grandson of a priest of the Mysteries (54), 
that we have here a declamation composed by a 
zealous devotee whose prejudices had been only 
deepened and inflamed by the able defence put 
forward by Andocides. 

In the early summer of 415 B.C., when the Athenians 
were already excited by the last preparations of the 
great armament intended for the conquest of Sicily, 
they were thrown into a state of panic by finding that 
in one night nearly all the stone images of Hermes 
at their house-doors had been mutilated. The religious 
terror was increased by a persistent rumour that the 
most sacred rites of the Greeks, the Mysteries of 
Eleusis, had been travestied in a number of private 
houses. At the inquiry which followed, Andocides, 
one of the many persons who had been arrested on 
the first informations, informed against the small 
group of his associates under a guarantee of impunity 
for himself, which had been offered by a decree of the 
Assembly. His information appears to have included 
a confession of his own complicity in the outrage on 
the Hermae ; but he denied having had anything to 
do with the profanation of the Mysteries. However, 
a new decree was passed, on the proposal of Isotimides, 
that persons who had confessed to an act of impiety 
should be excluded from the market-place and the 
temples. Andocides came under the terms of this 
law, and he left Athens, and was virtually in exile for 
thirteen years. During this period he carried on a 
trade in timber and other supplies, first in Macedonia, 
then in Cyprus, and again in Samos. In 411 B.C., 
while the oligarchs were in power at Athens, he 
returned there, only to be imprisoned for aiding 
the democrats at Samos. He got away when the 



oligarchs fell from power, and returned to Cyprus, 
where he got into some trouble with Evagoras, King 
of Salamis. In 410 he was again in Athens, trying 
to re-establish himself by recalling his services to the 
people at Samos (see his speech On his Return) ; but 
he failed, and went wandering again, in Sicily, Italy, 
the Peloponnese, Thessaly, the Hellespont, Ionia and 
Cyprus. He seems in this time to have made a con- 
siderable fortune. In 402, after the amnesty had been 
arranged between the Athenians and the Spartans, he 
returned to Athens ; he enjoyed the citizenship for 
three years, and performed several responsible and 
costly services, besides speaking in the Council and 
the law-courts. But in 399 his enemies brought him 
to trial for impiety, on the ground that despite the 
decree of Isotimides he had taken part in the Greater 
Mysteries at Eleusis. His defence succeeded in 
obtaining his acquittal. 

The present piece lacks the clarity, strictness and 
tact of any real forensic pleading. With a manner 
of bitter antagonism the writer relates, first, a story 
of awful retribution for impiety : about half of the 
story has been lost, but it instanced the case of a 
man who cheated the Eleusinian goddesses of an 
offering, and was punished by starvation amid plenty 
of food. We must therefore be careful to punish the 
impious (1-3). If acquitted, Andocides may be in a 
position to officiate at the Mysteries : this would 
cause a scandal in Greece, where his uneasy wander- 
ings are well known (4-8). Remember Pericles' 
advice, that though written laws may be rescinded, 
the unwritten laws which guide the priesthood remain 
to condemn the impious. Andocides has had the 
impudence to pose as an upholder of the sanctity 



of the Hermae (9-12). He has confessed his guilt, 
and it was an outrage on the religion of his own 
country ; he had so little fear of Heaven that he 
took to a seafaring life, but Heaven was guiding 
him to a just condemnation (13-20). Consider the 
miserable life that the man has led, abroad and at 
home : clearly gods and men alike have joined in 
persecuting such a miscreant (21-32). He is now 
attempting to enter public life, and will have many 
pleas to urge for the people's indulgence, but they 
are all irrelevant, and he has done you no real 
service at any time : he was only concerned to save 
his own skin (33-4-9). Refresh your memory of that 
past profanation of the Mysteries and the curse 
pronounced over Andocides. To cleanse the city and 
appease the gods we must be unmoved in our deter- 
mination to condemn the vile outcast (50-55). 



1 ... €$7}(J€ TOV llTTTOV €K TOV pOTTTpOV TOV UpOV 

ojs a770$iSovs, rfj 8' imovurj VVKTL vcjyeiXero. OVTOS 
ovv 6 ravra Trocqaas davdrco rep aXyiarco drrdiXero, 
AipLa>' ttoXXcov yap /cat dyaddjv avrco £ttI rr)v 
rpdire^av TrapaTide/jLevtov o£,eiv iSoK€L rod dprov 
Kal rrjs jJid^rjs KaKivTov, /cat ovk iovvaro icrdUiv. 

2 /cat ravra ttoXXol rjpLtov tjkovov rod lepocf)dvrov 

3 Xeyovros } St/catov ovv fioi So/cet etvat vvv eirl 
rovrco rd rore Xey(divra dvapivrjcrai, /cat fir) fiovov 
rovs rovrov cfytXovs vtto rovrov /cat rcov rovrov 
Xoyojv drroXXvodai, dXXd /cat avrov rovrov ixjS 

'ASvvarov Se /cat vpuv eart, rrepX roiovrov rrpdy 
fxarog (faepoven rr)v ifjrj^ov, r) KareXer)oat r) Kara- 
XOLptoaoOai 'AvSokiSt), imorafievois ort ivapycos 
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'AvSoKihrjs dOwos a7raXXayfj <8t' > 4 Vfias e/c rovde 
rod dytovos /cat eXdr) KXr)pa)a6fievos rwv ivvea 

1 post Xeyouros sequuntur otl 'ApdoKidrjs fx^vvuv rovs avrov 
(cf'Tou X) avyyeveh /ecu <pi\ovs uiruWve (airoWuwv X*), (paanuiv 
avrovs awepyous di>ai : damnavit Reiske. 

2 Ti/Awpeiroi' Dobree : ri/uuopelre, rL/xcopeirai mss. 

3 ravra Thalheim : 6vra mss. 4 8i add. Scheibe. 


... he tied up the horse to the knocker on the temple 
door, as though he were handing it back ; but on 
the following night he contrived to take it away. 
Well, the man who did this has perished by the most 
painful death, of hunger : for, although plenty of 
good things were set on the table before him, he 
found that the bread and cake had a vile odour, and 
he was unable to eat. This fact a number of us heard 
stated by the priest in charge of the rites. I therefore 
think it just that I should now recall in connexion 
with the accused the statements made at that time, 
and that not only should his friends perish by his act 
and his information, but he himself too should perish 
by the action of another. 

It is impossible for you on your part, when you give 
your vote on a matter of this kind, to show either pity 
or indulgence to Andocides, since you understand 
that these two goddesses take signal vengeance upon 
wrongdoers : every man ought therefore to expect 
the same consequences for himself and for others. 
I would ask you, if you allow Andocides to get off 
now unscathed from this trial, and to attend for 
drawing the lots for the nine archons, and to be 

s Demeter and Persephone. 



dpxdvrcjv /cat Xdxjj fiaocXevs, d'AAo tl rj vnep 
v/jlcov /cat Qvoias Ovcreu 1 /cat evxds ev^erat Kara 
ra irdrpia, ra puev iv rep ivOdoe 'EAeuoWa>, ra 
Se iv tQ> 'EAeuatvt tepai, /cat rrj? ioprrjs eVt- 
ueArJaerat p,v or r)pio is , otto)? dy pL-qhels dhiKfj [ir/he 

5 acre fir] ra Upd; /cat TtVa yvwpjqv o'Ucrde e£eiv rovs 
pivoras rovs dcjiiKvovpLevovs, irreiSav tSa>cjt tov 
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6 r^v iravr\yvpiv ftovXopLevoL 7) Oeojpelv; ovSe yap 
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hid ra ^ae^ueVa. dvayKaioJS yap e^et a77o ra>v 
ttoXv Siacjjepovrojv r) /ca/ctDv r) dyadcov epyatv rovs 
TTOirjeravras yiyvwaKeadai. irreira Be /cat Stcu^A^/ce 
7t6\€ls 7roXXas iv rfj aTroBrjfXLa, Ht/ceAtay, 'iTaAtav, 
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Kvnpov ftaoiXeas ttoXXovs K€KoXaK€VKev, a> dv crvy- 

7 yivqrai, ttXtjv rod HvpaKootov Alovvolov. ovros 
oe r) irdvrojv evrvx^raros icrriv r) rrXeiarov 
yvcofir) Sia(j)€p€L r(hv dXXojv, os jjlovos rcov avy~ 
yevopievcov 'AvhoKihrj ovk i^rjrrarrjO'q vrr* dvopos 
roiovrov, os riyvrrv ravr-qv e^et, rovs jJiiv ixOpovs 
fji-qSev iTOielv /ca/coV, rovs oe cfrlXovs o ri dv ovviqrai 
/ca/coV. cuore ad rdv Ata ov pdSiov ionv vfxlv 

[104] avrco ovhev ^aptaaaeVots- 7rapd rd SiKaiov XaOelv 
rovs "EAA-^as". 

8 Nw ovv vfxlv iv dvdyKTj iarl fiovXevoaodai rrepl 

1 dvaias dvcrei Cobet: Qvaiacrovat., dvaiaaei mss. 
2 ZpxovTai add. Reiske. 

a The king-archon's functions were mainly religious, and 
were especially concerned with the Mysteries. 



elected king-archon, a shall we not see him performing 
sacrifices and offering prayers on your behalf according 
to ancestral custom, sometimes in the Eleusinium 
here, & sometimes in the temple at Eleusis, and over- 
seeing the celebration of the Mysteries, to prevent 
the commission of any offence or impiety concerning 
the sacred things ? And what, think you, will be the 
feelings of the initiated who arrive for the rite, when 
they see who the king is, and remember all his 
impious acts ; or what the thoughts of the other 
Greeks who come for this celebration, purposing 
either to sacrifice or to attend in state c at that great 
assembly ? For Andocides is by no means unknown 
either to foreigners or to our own people, such has 
been the impiety of his conduct ; since it needs must 
be that, if they are specially outstanding, either good 
or evil deeds make their doers well-known. And 
besides, during his absence abroad he has caused com- 
motionin many cities, in Sicily, Italy, the Peloponnese, 
Thessaly, the Hellespont, Ionia and Cyprus : he has 
flattered many kings — everyone with whom he has 
had dealings, except Dionysius of Syracuse. That 
monarch is either the most fortunate of them all, or 
far above the rest in intelligence, since he alone of 
those who dealt with Andocides was not deceived by 
the sort of man who has the art of doing no harm to 
his enemies but as much as he can to his friends. So, 
by Heaven, it is no easy matter for you to show him 
any indulgence in contempt of justice without being 
noticed by the Greeks. 

The moment, therefore, has come when you must 

6 As distinguished from the sanctuary at Eleusis. 
c Religious envoys came either as spectators or to give 
notice of a festival about to be held elsewhere. 



avrov- ev yap eTrioraoOe, d> dvSpeg ' ' KQ-qvaloi, on 
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11 'AvSokiStjs Se roorovrov Karanej>povr]Ke ra>v 6ea>v 
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/xdAAov TTpooG)(r) T€ TOV vovv) (f>dcrKa)v rov "Ap^- 
lttttov 3 daefieiv Trepl rov 'Ep/XTJy rov avrov rrarpcpov. 
6 he "Ap^t777ros* r)vreStKei rj jjltjv tov 'Ep/X7}i> 

1 fxaXXov ?) Tjttov del. Taj'lor. * &i> add. Reiske. 

3 " Apxt-TTTov Palmer: ' kpivrLinrov mss. 

" A decree of Isotimides excluded from the market-place 
and the temples those impious persons who had obtained 
immunity by laying information against others. 

" A few words are missing here from the text, 


of necessity make a decision on his case. For you are 
well aware, men of Athens, that it is not possible for 
you to live with our ancestral laws and with Andc- 
cides at the same time : it must be one of two things, 
— either you must wipe out the laws, or you must get 
rid of the man. He has carried audacity to such a 
pitch that he actually refers to the law w T e have made 
regarding him as one that has been abolished, and 
claims liberty henceforth to enter the market-place 
and the temples . . . b even to-day in the Council 
House of the Athenians. Yet Pericles, they say, 
advised you once that in dealing with impious persons 
you should enforce against them not only the written 
but the unwritten laws also, which the Eumolpidae c 
follow in their exposition, and which no one has yet 
had the authority to abolish or the audacity to gain- 
say, — laws whose very author is unknown : he 
judged that they would thus pay the penalty, not 
merely to men, but also to the gods. But Andocides 
has shown such contempt for the gods and for those 
whose duty it is to avenge them, that before he had 
been resident in the city ten days he instituted pro- 
ceedings for impiety before the king-archon, and 
lodged his complaint/ 1 though he was Andocides, and 
had not only done what that person has done with 
regard to the gods, but asserted — and here you 
should give your closest attention — that Archippus 
was guilty of an impiety against the Hermes of his 
house. Archippus countered this with a sworn 
statement that the Hermes was sound and entire and 

e The hereditary priests of Eleusis, who pronounced orally 
on cases of conscience, etc., and were the repositories of 
traditional, as distinct from codified, custom. 

d Trp6aK\r)<ris was the citation of the person accused, and 
Xtj£is was the formal complaint before the magistrate. 



vyid re /cat oXov etrat, /cat f.irjSev Tradelv covrrep 

12 ol dAAot 'Epuar ojjlcds fievTOi tVa pur) vtto tovtov 
tolovtov ovtos 7rpdyp.aT ^X 0l > hovs dpyvptov 
d7rrjXXdyr]. kclLtoi orrore ovros Trap' irepov fjtJLtooe 
hiK-qv doefieias Xafielv, rj ttov iripovg ye rrapd 
tovtov Xafieiv St/catov /cat evoefies eoTiv. 

13 'AAAct Aefet heivdv elvai, el 6 fiev pLrjvvTTjs rd 
ea^ara ireioeTai, ol he paqvvQevTes tcov olvtcov vpuv 
e7TiTLfAoi ovTes jjLeOe^ovcn. /catVot oi>x vrrep avTOV 
diroXoyrioeTai, dXXd /cat tcov dXXcov KaTrjyop-qaei. 
tovs puev ovv dXXovs ol eniTa^avTes /caraSe'^aa^at 
dSiKovoL /cat tov avTov dcrefirjpiaTOs atrtot eloiv 
el 8' vfxels avTOKpaTopes ovTes avTol 1 care ol 
d(f>e\6vTes rds TipLcoplas tcov decov, dAA' <oi>x> 2 
ovtol atrtot euovTai. Vfielg ovv fir) fiovXecrde els 
lipids ttjv atrtav Tavrrjv TrepiTpeijjai, e£6v tov 

14 dSt/couvra KoAdvaoiv a,7r7]AAa^^at. eWtra 8' 
eKelvoi pLev apvovvrai rd jxepa^vvpieva, ovtos 8e 
dfioXoyei 770t7Jcrat. /catrot /cat ev 'Ap€ta> rrdyco, 
ev tw aepLVOTaTcp /cat 8t/catordra> St/caar^ptaj, 
(jfxoXoyoov fiev dSt/cetv dnodvQcrK.ei, edv Se d/x</»t- 
ofirjTrj, eXeyxeTou, kol ttoXXoI ovhev eSo^av 
dSt/cetv. ovkovv SjJLOLOLV XPV yvcofirjv ex £lv 7Te P^ 
re tcov dpvovjjievcov /cat Trepl tcov 6/JLoXoyovvTcov. 3 

15 Sewov 8e jjiot, 8o/cet etvar edv puev tls dvSpos orcofia 
Tpcoorj, Kecf>aXi]v r) irpocrcoTrov r) x € ^P as V ^dSas, 
ovtos* piev /caret tovs vopiovs tovs e£ 'Aoet'ou irdyov 
<j>ev£eTai ttjv tov dhiK-qdevTOS noXtv, 6 /cat edv /cart^, 

1 6vTes aiiToi Reiske : rjre kcu mss. 

2 ovx add. Reiske. 

3 bjxo\cryovvT(j}v Reiske : buoXoyovfxtvuv MS9. 

4 ovtos Dobree : avrds mss. 

8 post tt6\iv in libris i) Tpav/naros 4k irpovoias : del. Taylor. 



had in no way been treated like the other figures of 
the god : but at the same time, to avoid being troubled 
by a man of Andocides' sort, he got his release by a 
payment of money. Well now, since Andocides has 
sought to exact a penalty from another for impiety, 
surely justice and piety require that others should 
exact one from him. 

But he will say it is strange that the denouncer 
should suffer the extreme penalty, while the de- 
nounced are to retain their full rights and share the 
same privileges with you. Nay, in fact, he will not 
speak in his own defence, but will accuse the rest. 
Now of course the persons who ordered the recall 
of the rest are in the wrong, and are guilty of the 
same impiety as they : but if you, with your supreme 
authority, are yourselves the persons who have 
cheated the gods of their vengeance, it is certainly 
not those men who will be the guilty ones. Then do 
not allow this charge to rebound on you, when you are 
free to clear yourselves by punishing the wrongdoer. 
Moreover, they deny the acts for which they have 
been denounced, whereas he admits those reported 
of him. And yet, in a trial before the Areopagus ; 
that most august and equitable of courts, a man who 
admits his guilt suffers death, while if he contests the 
charge he is put to the proof, and many have been 
found quite innocent. So you should not hold the 
same opinion of those who deny and of those who 
admit the charge. And this, to my mind, is a strange 
thing : whoever wounds a man's person, in the head 
or face or hands or feet, he shall be banished, accord- 
ing to the laws of the Areopagus, from the city of the 
man who has been injured, and if he returns, he 



ev$ef)(deLS Oavdrco £,r)puoj9r)oerai' edv 8e rt? rd 
avrd ravra dS 1/07077 rd dydAuara rcbv decbv, oi)S' 
olvtqjv KcoXvcrere rcov lepcov eVtjSatWtv r) eloiovra 
<ou> 1 ri\xu>pr\aeoQe ; /cat fiev Sr) rovrajv /cat 8t/catov 
/cat dyaOov eoriv emixeXeloBai, vcjS a)v /cat eu /cat 

16 kcikojs hvvqaeaOe rrdoyeiv. <f>aol Se /cat ra>i> 
'EAArjvajv 7ToXXovg 8td ra, evOdSe dcre^-q/jiara e/c 
tcoj^ 77ap' avrols lepcov e^eipyeiv. vpLels Se auTot 

Ot dhlKT]deVT€S 7T€pl iAd,TTOVOS TTOielode TOL nap 

17 vplv vopufxa r) erepoi rd vfxerepa. rooovrov 8' 
ovros Ataydpou rod M^At'ou doefiecrrepos yeyevryrai' 
exelvos fiev yap Xoyco irepl ra dAAdrpta lepd /cat 
copras' rjcrefiei, ovros Se epya> 7rept rd 2 eV r^ avrov 
TToAei. opyl^ecrdac ovv XPV> **> dvSpeg 'AO-qvaioL, 
tols darols dSt/couat udAAov r) rot? £evois rrepl 
ravra rd lepd' rd ju.ei> yap coorrep dXXorpiov eoriv 

18 dfxdpTrijjLa, to 8' ot/cctov. /cat fir) ovs fiev €X er€ 
dSiKovvras d<f)lere, rovs Se <j>evyovras t^relre 
crvAXafjifidveLV , eiriK-qpvrrovres rdXavrov dpyvplou 

[105] SaWetv rep dudyovri r) aTTOKreivavri. el Se fLrj, 
So^ere rot? "EAA^at K.op.'nd'Qeiv piaXXov r) rifxoj- 

19 pelodai fiovXeodai. eTreSei^aro Se /cat rots' "EA- 
Xtjoiv on deovs ov vo/zt£et. ov yap ojs SeSttbs" rd 
TreTTOirijjieva, dXX d>s 6appa>v, vavKXrjpla eTTiBepievos 
rr)v ddXarrav eVAet. 6 Se 9eog VTrrjyev avrov, Iva 
d^LKOfievos cts" rd djJLaprijfxara eirl r^ ififj irpo- 

20 <f)doei Soir) Slkyjv. eX.7Tit,oj p,ev ovv avrov /cat 

1 ov add. Aldus. a ra Aldus : ray mss. 

a Called the 4 ' Godless " ; cf. Aristoph. Birds, 1073 ; 
Diodorus Siculus, xiii. 6. 

6 The text implies that the deity is employing the speaker 
as a fair and convenient means of punishing Andocides. 



shall be impeached and punished with death; but 
whoever does these same injuries to the images of 
the gods is not to be debarred by you from approach- 
ing the very temples, and is not to be punished for 
entering them ! Nay, surely it is just and good to 
have a care for those beings by whom you may be 
either well or ill entreated. It is even said that many 
of the Greeks exclude men from their own temples 
on account of impious acts committed here ; while 
to you, the very persons who have suffered these 
wrongs, your own established customs are of less 
account than they are to mere strangers ! And mark 
how far more impious this man has shown himself 
than Diagoras the Melian ° ; for he was impious in 
speech regarding the sacred things and celebrations 
of a foreign place, whereas Andocides was impious 
in act regarding the sanctities of his own city. Now 
where these sacred things are concerned you should 
rather be indignant, men of Athens, at guilt in your 
own citizens than in strangers ; for in the one case the 
offence is in a manner alien to you, but in the other 
it is domestic. And do not let off those whom you 
hold here as wrongdoers, while you seek to apprehend 
those who are in exile, proclaiming by herald your 
offer of a talent of silver to anyone who arrests or 
kills them ; else you will be judged by the Greeks to 
be making a brave show rather than intending to 
punish. He has made it plain to the Greeks at large 
that he does not revere the gods. For without a 
sign of misgiving for his actions, but with an air 
of assurance, he took to ship -owning, and went 
voyaging on the sea. But the deity was enticing 
him on, that he might return to his iniquities and pay 
the penalty at my instance. 6 Well, I hope that he 



hcooeiv 8ikt)v, OavfioiGiov Se ovoev av fJLOL yevovro, 
ovre yap 6 Oeds Trapaxprjp-a /coAd£et [dAA' avrrj 
fxev ear iv dvOpumivr] St/c^j 1, iroXXaxddev oe k\a) 
T€KjjLaLp6[ji€vo£ et/cd£etv, opwv /cat erepovs rjoe- 
^rjKoras XP 0l,c P oeocoKoras oiKiqv, /cat tovs i£ 
€K€Lvtov Sua ra tcov rrpoyovojv dpapTrjpaTa' ev Se 

€7Tt77"e/X77et TOt? aOLKOVOLV, WGT£ 7ToXAoi>S 7Jh~q 

iTnOvfjurjaaL TeXevTiqoavTas t6jv /ca/coV a7rr]XXdxOaL. 
6 be deos reXos tovtco Xvp.7]vdp,evos rep jStaj Odvarov 

21 ^JKeifjacrde oe /cat avrov 'Avookloov top fiiov, 
d</>' ov rjcrePrjKe, /cat et ns tolovtos erepog Iotiv. 
'AySo/ctS^s" yap eneLorj yjpLaprev, i£ eTTLpoXrjs 2 
elcraxOelg els to OLKaarrjpiov , eorjaev 3 eavrov 
TL/jLTjaafxevog Secr/xo£>, el pur] Trapabolr] tov olkoXov- 

22 6ov ev S' rjoet ov Swrjoopievos napabovvai, os 
Std tovtov /cat rd tovtov dpapri^ara diredavev, 
Iva <pLr}> 4 pLrjvvTTjs yevovro. /catrot ttojs ov deajv 
ns ttjv tovtov yvojpLrjv Sie(f)6eipev, o? paov rjyrjoaro 
SeopLov ripLijcraodai 7} dpyvpioi* iff* eAm'St rfj avrfj ; 

23 e/c 8* ovv tovtov tov Ttu^/xa ; 09 e'Se'Sero eyyvs 
eviavTov, /cat epLrjvvoe SeSe/xeVo^ /caret tojv avTov 
ovyyevdv /cat </>t'Aa>v, dbetas BoOetcrrjg aura), et 
Sofete TdXrj9r\ p/iqvvGai. /cat TtVa avTov So/cetre 
iftvxrjv £X eLV > diTOTe ret pJev ecr^ara /cat rd atcr^tara 

1 dA\' . . . 8Lkt) del. Halbertsma. 

2 ^7R/So\?7s Taylor : 4ttc^ov\tjs mss. 

8 i'drjo-ev Stephanus : idi-qaev mss. 4 ^77 add. Stephanus. 

6 ?) apyvpiov Taylor : /xaprvplov mss. 

a e£ iTTiPoXys (if Taylor's conjecture is correct) must imply 
" as the result of a fine summarily inflicted " (by the archons); 
cf. xxx. 3. 


will indeed pay the penalty, and there would be 
nothing to surprise me in that ; for the deity does not 
punish immediately, as I may conjecture by many 
indications, when I see others besides who have paid 
the penalty long after their impious acts, and their 
descendants punished for the ancestors' offences. 
But in the meantime the deity sends upon the wrong- 
doers many terrors and dangers, so that many men 
ere now have desired that their end had come and 
relieved them of their troubles by death. At length, 
it is only when he has utterly blasted this life of 
theirs that the deity has closed it in death. 

Only consider Andocides' own life since he com- 
mitted his impiety, and judge if there is any other 
man to compare with him. For Andocides, when 
after his offence he was brought before the court by a 
summary citation, a committed himself to prison, hav- 
ing assessed 6 the penalty at imprisonment if he failed 
to hand over his attendant : he knew well that he 
would not be able to hand him over, since this servant 
had been put to death because of this man and his 
offences, lest he become an informer about them. 
Now, must it not have been some god that destroyed 
his reason, when he conceived it to be easier for him to 
assess imprisonment than a sum of money, with 
as good a hope in either case ? However, as the 
result of this proposal he lay for nearly a year in 
prison, and informed as a prisoner against his own 
kinsmen and friends, having been granted impunity 
if his information should be deemed true. What soul 
do you think was his, when he could descend to the 

b A defendant could propose a penalty as an alternative 
to that proposed by the plaintiff, and the judges had to vote 
for one or the other penalty. 



€7TOL€L fJ,7]VVOJV KCLTO. TO)V €0LVTOV (f>lXo)V, f) 81 

24 acorrjpia a<f)avr)s avrcp; fxerd he ravra, e7reihf) 
arreKrovcos rjv ovs avros e<f>r) Trepi TrXeiarov ttol' 
eiadai, eho^e rdXrjdrj psqvvoai /cat iXvdrj, koll 
7rpo(j€ifrr)(f)L(ja<j9€ vjxels avrov elpyeodai rrjs dyopds 
Kai rcov lepcov, cocrre ju-^S' aSt/cou^Ltevov inro rcov 

25 ixOpcov hvvacrQai hiKTjV Xafielv. ovSels yap ttco* 
i£ oaov 'AOrjvai* delfxvrjaroi elaiv, em roiavrr] 
atria rjrificoOr] . hiKaiojs' ovhe yap epya roiavra 
ovheis 7TO) elpydaaro. /cat rovrcov irorepa rovs 

26 Oeovs XPV V TO avrofxarov alriaoOai; fiera he 
ravra errXevuev cos r6v Ktrtcov ^SacrtAea, /cat rtpo- 
hihovs Xrj(f)6els vtt avrov eheOr), /cat ov fxovov rov 
ddvarov ecfrofteiro dXXd /cat rd Kad* rjfxepav at- 
/cta/xara, olojxevos rd aKpconqpia ^covros aTTorfjir]- 

27 Q-qoeoOai. dirohpds he €/c rovrov rov Kivhvvov 
KareirXevaev els rrp> iavrov itoXiv em* rcov rerpa- 
Koaritov <rocravrr]v yap o> 4 Oeos XrjOrjv ehcoKev, 
cocrre eig rovs rjhiKiqpLevovs avrovs eTTeOvpx)o~ev 
dfiiKeorOai. dcfyiKOfievos he iheOrj /cat f)KioOr), 

28 dircoXero he ovxh aAA' iXvOr). evOev oe eirXevoev 
cos Yivayopav rov Kvnpov fiaoiXevovra, /cat 
dhiKrjaas eipxOrj. dnohpas he /cat 6 rovrov e(f)evye 
[iev rovs evOdhe Oeovs, ecf>evye he rrjv iavrov 
7t6Xlv ecf>evye he els ovs rd it poor ov dcfiiKoiro rorrovs. 
/catrot ris X^-P 1 ^ T <? P^P* KaKoiraOelv p,ev iroXXaKis, 

29 dvartavoauOai he. paqhe-nore; KararrXevaas he e/cet- 
6ev hevpo els 8^/xo/cpartav [els rrjv avrov 77oAty]' 

x tu Reiske : irov mss. 2 'Adijitcu Bekker : 'Adrjvalui' mss. 

3 ini Taylor : e7rei mss. 

4 yap add. Taylor, ToaavTrjv et 6 Markland. 

6 dirodpas 8Z Kai Reiske : aTroSp&cras mss. 

6 a's . . . ir6\it> del. Dobree. 



utmost depth of baseness in informing against his 
own friends, with so little prospect of deliverance ? 
After that, when he had achieved the death of those 
whom he professed to value most highly, he was held 
to have given true information and was released : 
you then passed a special decree that he was to be 
barred from the market-place and the temples, so 
that even if wronged by his enemies he could get no 
redress. Why, nobody to this day, throughout the 
ever-memorable history of Athens, has been dis- 
qualified on so grave a charge. And justly ; for neither 
has anyone to this day committed such acts. Should 
we attribute these results to the gods, or to mere 
chance ? After this he took ship and went to the king of 
Citium ; and being caught by him in an act of treachery 
he was imprisoned, and was in fear, not merely of 
death, but of daily tortures, expecting to be docked 
alive of his extremities. But he slipped away from 
this danger and sailed back to his own city in the time 
of the Four Hundred b : such a gift of forgetfulness 
had Heaven bestowed on him, that he desired to 
come amongst the very persons whom he had wTonged. 
When he came, he was imprisoned and tormented, 
but not to death, and he was released. He then took 
ship and went to Evagoras, who was king of Cyprus, 
committed a crime, and was locked up. He slipped 
away from those clutches also, a fugitive from the 
gods of our land, a fugitive from his own city, a fugi- 
tive from each place as soon as he arrived in it ! 
And yet what charm could he find in a life of re- 
peated suffering without a moment of respite ? He 
sailed back from that land to this city — then under a 

• On the south coast of Cyprus. 
* June to September, 411 b.c. 



rots' txev Trpvrdveoiv e'Sa>/ce xPVI JLaTa * " va Q-vtov 
irpoGaydyoiev evddhe, vjjlcls S' avTov i^Xdaare 

€K T7JS TToXeOJS, TOt? 0€ols fief3aLOVVT€S TOVS VOflOVS 

30 ovs iiprjcjiLaacrde. /cat tov dvopa ov S77/Z0?, ovk 
dAtyap^ta, ov Tvpavvos, ov 7t6Xls ideXeu he^aodai 
oid reXovs, dXXd jrdvra tov xpovov, ef oaov 
rjaefirjcrev, dXcofievos Stdyet, murevojv del fxdXXov 
tols dyvdjai tcjv yvajplpLcov Std to TjOLKrjKevai ovs 
yiyvwcTKei. to Se TeXevToiov vvv dcjuKOfMevos els 

31 ttjv ttoXlv Sis iv rep avTcp eVSe'Set/CTat. /cat TO 
p,ev crojjita del iv Seoyzots' e^et, rj Se ovoia avTov 
iXaTTOJV €K tojv klvovvqjv ylyveTou. /catVot 1 6Vav 


[106] Stavefxr), tovt eort to £,rjv 2 filov dfilajTov. a tovtoj 
6 Beds ovk irrl GOJTTjpia imvoelv StSojotv, aAAct 

32 TificopovpLevos tojv yeyevqfievojv dae^pLaTCOv. to 
Se TeAeuTatov i>t> vl irapahehcjKev avTov vplv xp^j^Oai 
o tl dv povXrjcrde, ov tco fir] dSt/cetv 7TLcrT€vcov y 
dAA' V7TO haipLOViov tlvos dyopuevos dvdyKrjs. 

OVKOVV XPV t JL ®' T ° V ^ta OVT€ 7Tp€G^VT€pOV OVTO. 
OVT€ Ved)T€pOV t OpOJVTaS 'AvSo/Ct'S^V €K TOiV KLV" 

ovvojv 00)1,6 fievov, crvveiSoTas olvtco epya dvocria 
elpyaafievo), ddeojTepovs ytyveadou, ivdvpiovpLevovs 
oTt -fjpucrvs 6 jStos" jStojvat KpeiTTOJV dXvTTOJS cgtIv 
rj StTrXdaios XvnovpLevcp, djonep ovtos. 

33 Et? togovtov 8e dvato^uvTtas* d</>t/CTat, ojare /cat 
7rapaaK€vd^€TaL Ta 77oAtTt/cd TTpaTTecv 3 /cat rjSr] 
brj/A-qyopeL /cat cmn/za /cat a7roSo/ct/zd£et tojv 

1 KalroL Markland : <ai mss. 

2 t;?jv Cobet : rbv mss. 

3 to, iroXtriKCL irp&TTeLv Valckenaer: rfj iroXei xai irpdrrei 



democracy — and bribed the presiding magistrates to 
introduce him here ; but you banished him from the 
city, upholding at Heaven's behest the laws which 
you had decreed. And there is not a democracy, an 
oligarchy, a despot, or a city anywhere that is willing 
ever to receive this man : during all the time since 
he committed his impiety he spends his days as a 
wanderer, trusting always to unknown people rather 
than known, because of the wrong that he has done 
to those whom he knows. Finally, on his present 
arrival in the city he has been twice impeached in 
the same place. He keeps his person always in gaol, 
while his substance diminishes owing to his embarrass- 
ments. And yet, when a man portions out his own 
life among enemies and blackmailers, it is living no 
life at all. These shifts are suggested to him by the 
deity, not for his salvation, but to punish him for the 
impieties that have been committed. And now at 
last he has given himself up to you, to be dealt with 
at your discretion, not trusting in an absence of guilt, 
but urged by some supernal compulsion. Now, 
by Heaven, it must not be that any man, whether 
elderly or young, should lose faith in the gods through 
seeing Andocides saved from his dangers, when all 
are acquainted with the unholy acts that he has com- 
mitted : we should reflect that half a life lived in 
freedom from pain is preferable to one of double 
span that is passed, like his, in distress. 

But so high is the flight of his impudence that he 
actually prepares for a public career, and already 
speaks before the people, makes accusations, and 
is for disqualifying some of our magistrates ; he 

° A»y citizen could accuse a magistrate-elect at the publio 
examination or scrutiny of his qualifications (8oKifj.aaia). 



apxovrcov rioi. Kal crvpifiovXevei ttjv povXrjv elcnchv 
nepl Ovollov /cat 7rpoa6Scov Kal evx^v /cat jxavTeicov. 
/catrot tovtco neid6p,evoi rroiois deoZs r^yqaeode 
K-e^aptc/xeVa Troielv ; /jl7] yap oieade, cb dvhpes 
St/caorat, el u/xet? flovXeode ra tovtco 7re7TOL7]fxeva 

34 eiriXadeodai, /cat tovs Oeovs imX'qaeadaL. d^tot 
Se ovx cbs rjOLKTjKcbs y]<jvyiav e^aw iroXiTeveodai, 
aXX couirep avros e^evpcov tovs rr]v ttoXlv dSt- 
KTjaavras, ovtco Stavoetrat, /cat rrapaoKevd^eTai 
ottcos irepojv 1 /zetfov Sw-qarerai, cocnrep ov Std 
7rpa6rr)ra Kal aa^oAtav rrjv vfxeTepav ov SeSajKcbs 
Vfuv hiKrjv, els ovs vvv dfiapTavcov ov XavQdvei, 
aXX a/xa ef eXeyxOrjcreTai re Kal SaWet Slktjv. 

35 'Ia^uptetrat Se /cat tovtco tco Xoycp' dvayKaicos 
ydp e^et 2 v/jl&s StSda/cetv a ovtos diroXoyiqaeTai, 
Xv* aKovoavTeg Trap* dp,<f)OTepcov ajxeuvov hiayvtoTe. 
cf)rjal ydp dyadd ixeydXa iroirjaai tyjv 7t6Xlv firjvvcras 
Kal aTraXAd^as Seovs Kal Tapaxrjs ttjs tot€. tLs 

36 Se tcov jxeydXcov KaKcov atrtos" eyeveTo; ovk avTos 
ovtos, TTOi-qoas a eTToirjoev; etra tcov jiev dyadcov 
Set tovtco X^P lv etSeVat, otl ifJLrjWore, pucrOdv Vfxcov 
ai>TCp SthovTCOv tt]v dSetav, ttjs Se Tapaxrjs* Kal 
tcov KaKcov voxels atrtot eore, otl e'^Tetre tovs 
"qcre^KOTas; ov h-qTrovdev, dXX ai)TO tovtov Tovvav- 
tlov erdpafe [xev ovtos tt)v ttoXlv, /carear^craTe 


37 YlvvOdvofiai 8' aiVrov fieXAeiv aTroXoyrjcrecrdai 

1 irtpiov Contius : iripovs, eripus MSS. 

8 Zx €L Franz : £x w M ss. 

• 5£ Tapaxys Schott : 5' apxv* mss. 



attends meetings of the Council, and gives advice in 
debates on sacrifices, processions, prayers and oracles. 
Yet, in allowing yourselves to be influenced by this 
man, what gods will you expect to be gratifying ? 
For do not suppose, gentlemen of the jury, that, if 
you wish to forget the things that he has done, the 
gods will forget them also. He does not deign to share 
in his city's affairs quietly, seeing that he has been a 
wrong doer ; no, he has the ideas of one who has him- 
self discovered the injurers of the city ; and he plans 
to have more power than other men, as though he had 
not to thank your mildness and preoccupation for his 
escape from punishment at your hands. He is trespass- 
ing against you now, as all can see ; but the instant 
of his conviction will also be that of his punishment. 
But there is another argument on which he will 
insist, — for it is necessary to instruct you in the de- 
fence that he will make, in order that having heard 
both sides you may form a better decision : he says 
he has conferred great benefits on the city by laying 
information and relieving you of the fear and con- 
fusion of that time. But who was the author of our 
great troubles ? Was it not this very man, by the 
acts that he committed ? After that, ought we to 
feel grateful to him for those benefits, because he 
laid information when you offered him impunity as 
his payment, and are you the authors of that con- 
fusion and those troubles, because you sought out 
the wrongdoers ? Surely not : the case is quite the 
contrary ; he threw the city into confusion, but you 
restored it to composure. 

I understand that he proposes to urge in his de- 

v 133 


to? at crvvOrJKai /cat avrco etat, Kada7T€p /cat rot? 
dAAot? ^KOrjvaiois. /cat tovto Trpoa^/xa itoiov- 
fievos oterat 7roXXovg vfiujv, SeStora? fir) Xvarjre 

38 ras 1 crvvdrjKas, avrov aTroi/n^tetCT^at. (Ls ovv 

Ol)8€V 7TpOGrjK€L 'AvSoKlSt) TO)V <JVvdr)K(2)V , 77€pt 

tovtov Xe£oj, ovre [la tov Ata rcov 77po? Aa/ce8at- 
ILOviovSy a? vpeis avvedeoOe, ovre c5V rrpos rovg 
eV [rep] 2 aarei ol e/c rietpaicos'. ovSevl yap r)p,cov 
Toaovrojv ovtcdv ret aura apLapTripara ovo* o/xota 
rjv rots 'AvooklSov, ware /cat tovtov r)pLtov drro- 

39 Aaucrat. dAA' ov fiev 8f) eVe/ca ye tovtov 8ta<£epo- 
fievoi, irreiSr) /cat tovtco /xeTe'So/xev tCjv avvOrjKtov, 
tot€ $L7)/\Adyr)fjL€v. ov yap eVe/ca eVo? avopos dAA' 
eVe/ca rjfjucov to)v i£ d'orea)? /cat e'/c ITetpatai? at 
crvvdrJKat eyivovTO /cat ot op/cot, eVet rot Setvov 
di> et^, et 77ept 'AvSo/ct'Sou aTroo-qpLovvTOS avTOi 
eVSeet? 6vt€s iTrepLeXrjdrjpev, orra>s i^aXtLtfiOeLrj 

40 avTto tol d/xa/)T7y/xara . dAAd Aa/ceSat/xoVtot yap 
eV Tats 1 rrpos avTovs crvvdiqKais eTrepeXrjdrjoav 'Av- 
So/ctSou, ort erradov dyadov rt U7t' auroir dAA' vpelg 
€7T€p€Xij9r]Te ye avrov; olvtl Troias euepyecrta?; 

OTt 77oAAd/CtS' St' UjLtds" W77ep TTJS TToXeOJS C/CtvSu- 

41 vevaev; ovk Zotiv, c5 avhpeg 'Afl^vatot, toutco 
dXrjdrjs avTT) r) diroXoy La, /A17S' u/xet? e^airaTaode. 
ov ydp tovto Xveiv eart Ta auy/cet/xeva, et' 'Av- 
SoklStjs eVe/ca tcov loiqjv dpiapTr) paTOJV olSojol 
otKrjv, dAA' edv rt? eVe/ca rcov Srjpoaiajv crvp,(f)opajv 
Idea Tivd TipLOjprJTai. 

42 "Iaxo? ow /cat Kr)(f)Lcriov avTiKaTr\yopr)Otiy /cat 

1 wv Reiske: rCiv mss. 2 t<jj del. Pertz. 

a The treaties for pacification and amnesty made on the 
restoration of the democracy in 403 b.c. 


fence that the agreements hold for him in just the 
same way as for the rest of the Athenians ; and on 
the strength of this pretext he supposes that many 
of you, in fear of breaking the agreements, will ab- 
solve him. I will therefore explain how Andocides 
has no part in those agreements, — not only those, I 
aver, which you made with the Lacedaemonians, but 
also those which the men of the Piraeus made with 
the party of the town. For not one amongst us all 
had committed the same offences, or anything like 
the same, as Andocides, whence he might be able to 
make us serve his turn. But of course, as it was not on 
his account that we were divided, we did not wait to 
include him under the terms of the agreements before 
we came to a reconciliation. It was not for the sake of 
a single man, but for the sake of us, the people of the 
town and of the Piraeus, that the agreements were 
made and the oaths taken ; for surely it would be 
an extraordinary thing if we in our want had taken 
so much care of Andocides, an absentee, as to have 
his offences expunged. Yet it may be said that the 
Lacedaemonians, in the agreements made with them, 
took care of Andocides because of some benefit that 
they had received from him ; but did you take care 
of him ? For what sort of good service ? Because he 
has often risked danger because of you, in aid of the 
city ? There is no truth, men of Athens, in this de- 
fence of his ; do not let yourselves be deceived. 
You have a breach of the agreements, not if 
Andocides is punished for his private offences, but 
if private requital is exacted from a man on account 
of public misfortunes. 

Perhaps, then, he will bring a counter-accusation 
against Cephisius, and he will have plenty to say ; 



e£ei o Tt Xeyrf rd yap dXrjOrj xprj Xeyeiv. dXX 
Vf.ielg ouk dv ovvaiode rfj avrfj ipr)(f>(p tov re drro' 
Xoyovfievov /cat tov Kanqyopovvra /coAdaat. dAAd 
vvv p.ev 7repl rovrov Kaipos icrru yvajvcu rd St/cata, 
[107] erepos he 7/£et K.r)(f>io~tq> /cat rjpLcov eKaarco, tui> 
ovros vvv iA€fivrj(J€TaL. fjirj ovv /cat St' erepav 
opyrjv rovrov doiKovvros vvv d7roifj-qcf)Lar)cr0e . 

43 'AAAa Xe^eu on fxrjvvr7]s eyevero /cat erepos 
ovhels vfitv eOeX-qaei (JLrjvveiv, edv KoXd^rjre. 
'AvSoklStjs he exei rd pnqwrpa Trap* vjjlojv, acucras 
tt\v avrov ijjvx'rjv erepcov 8td ravra aTroOavovrcov. 
rrjs fxev ovv acorrjpLas Vfxels rovrco a'LnoL eare, rtov 
Se KciKihv ra>vSe /cat rcbv Kivhvvaiv avros eavrw, 
irapafids rd Sdy/xara /cat rrjv doeiav ecf)' fj firjvvrrjs 

44 eyevero. ovkovv e^ovoLav %pr) rroielv rols paqvv- 
rals dhiKelv (dp/cet yap rd TTerroirnieva) , dAAd 
TrapafiaLvovras KoXdt.eiv. /cat ol p,ev d'AAot [xrjvv- 
raiy ottoctol cV aiGXpols air Lais e^eX-qXeypLevoi 
0(f)ds avrovs ep,7)vvaav y ev yovv eTrLaravrai, /jltj 
ivoxXelv rols rjhiKrjfjLevois, rfyovpLevoi arrohrjiiovvres 
p.ev ' 'AOrjvaloi /cat eVtrt/xot ho^etv elvai, eTTihr)pLovv- 
res he rrapd rols rroXLrais rols r)$LKrjpLevois 7rovrjpol 

45 ho^eiv /cat daefiels etvai. 6 yovv rrdvrcjv ttovy]- 

poraros Bdrpa^os* ttXtjv rovrov, yevofievos eirl ra>v 

rpiaKovra pLTjvvrrjs /cat ovacov avrqj crvv9r]Kcov /cat 

opKiov KaBdnep rols 'EXevcnvoOev, SeLcras vpLcov ovs 

TjSLKTjaev, ev erepa rroXei tpKei. 'AvSo/cto^s" he 

Kal avrovs tovs deovs dSt/o^cras" 7repl eXdrrovos 

° 404-403 b.c. 


for the truth should be spoken. But you could not, 
by the same vote, punish both the defendant and the 
accuser. Now is the moment for a just sentence 
upon this man , another time will come for Cephisius, 
and for each of us whom he will now proceed to cite. 
Do not, therefore, be led by anger against another to 
absolve now the wrongdoer here before you. 

But he will say that he turned informer, and that 
no one else will be willing to give you information, if 
you punish him. Yet Andocides has got from you 
the informer's price, since he has saved his own life 
while bringing others, for that price, to their death. 
You are the authors of his salvation, but he is the 
author of his own present troubles and dangers, for he 
transgressed the decrees and the terms of impunity 
on which he turned informer. You ought not to give 
informers a free licence for wrongdoing, since what 
is already done is enough : you have rather to punish 
them for their transgressions. All other informers 
who, after being convicted on disgraceful charges, 
have informed against themselves, understand one 
thing at least, — that they must not molest those 
whom they have wronged : they feel that while 
resident abroad they will be accounted Athenians 
in full possession of their rights, but that residing 
here among the citizens whom they have wronged 
they will be regarded as wicked and impious persons. 
Batrachus, for instance, the most wicked, next to 
this man, of them all, having turned informer in the 
time of the Thirty, and being covered by agree- 
ments and oaths along with the party at Eleusis, was 
yet so afraid of those of you whom he had wronged 
that he made his abode in another city. But Ando- 
cides, who has wronged the very gods themselves, 



avrovs edero, elvuhv els tol lepd, r) Bdrpaxos rovs 
avOpouTTovs. ogtls ovv /cat Trovrjporepos /cat afia- 
deorepos Barpa^ou earl, rrdw Set dyarrrjrcos vcf>* 
vpitov avrov crcodijvoLL. 

46 Oepe St}, els tl 1 OKeipapLevovs XP1 vfids 'AvSo- 
klSou aTTOiprj^iaaGdai; norepov d)s arpariwrrjs 
ay ad 6s; dXX ovherrojiror e'/c rr)s TroXeajs iorrpa- 
revaaro, ovre trmevs ovre OTrXlrrjs, ovre rpirjpapxos 
out em^drrjs, ovre irpo rrjs o~vpL(f>opas ovre puerd 
rrjv ovfjL^opdv, rrXeov t) rerrapaKOvra err) yeyovais. 

47 /catTOt 2 erepoi cf>evyovres ev 'EAA^cjttoVto) avv- 
erpLrjpdpxovv vpuv. dvapjvr\<jQf)T€ Se /cat aurot e'| 
oora>v KaKcov /cat noXepLov vpL&s avrovs 7repi€7roirj- 
uare koX rr)v ttoXlv, 77oAAa p,ev rot? crdjuacu 7tovtJ- 
oavres, rroXXd Se dVaAdjaayTes" xPVt Jbara KaL ^^ a 
/cat SrjpLocriq,, ttoXXovs Se /cat dya^ou? Ta/y 77oAtrcov 

48 KaraOdipavres Std ro> ye.vop.evov rroXepiov. 'Ai>- 
ooKLorjs Se aTraOrjs rovrajv ra>v KaKcov yevopuevos 3 
. . . etV rr)v aojTiqpiav rrj Trarpioi, d£tot wvl 
fxerex^tv rrjs rroXeajs, dcrepojv ev avrfj. dXXd 
vXovtcov yap /cat Svvdpievos rot? xPlf JLCL(7L KaL 
pacriXevaLv e£evojp,evos /cat rvpdvvois — a wvl /co/x- 
rraaei, emcrrdpievos rovs vpierepovs rporrovs — 

49 rroiav elcrtfiopdv . . . rovrcp dyadov yevoivro, /cat 
emardpevos eV rroXXco odXco /cat Kivhvvcp rr)v ttoXlv 
yevopLevrjv, vavKX-qpcov ovk eroXpLrjaev errapdels 
alrov elodycxjv dxfreXrJGai rr)v Trarpioa. dXXd 

1 els rl Markland: d tl mss. 

8 kclitoi Auger: ko.1 mss. 

* Post yevofievos add. ou8ti> avfx^a\bfj.€vo% Cobet 



made less account of them by entering their temples 
than Batrachus did of mankind. He therefore who 
is both more wicked and more obtuse than Batrachus 
ought to be only too glad to have his life spared by 

Pray now, on what consideration ought you to 
absolve Andocides ? As a good soldier ? But he 
has never gone on any expedition from the city, 
either in the cavalry or in the infantry, either as 
a ship's captain or as a marine, either before our 
disaster a or after our disaster, though he is more 
than forty years old. Yet other exiles were captains 
with you at the Hellespont. Remember from what 
a load of trouble and warfare you by your own 
efforts delivered yourselves and the city : many 
were your bodily labours, many your payments from 
private and public funds, many the brave citizens 
whom you buried because of the war that you waged. 
And Andocides, who suffered none of these troubles 
<who contributed nothing> 6 to his country's salvation, 
claims now to take part in the affairs of the city, the 
scene of his impieties ! But with all his wealth, and 
the power of his possessions, the accepted guest of 
kings and despots, — so he will now boast, well ac- 
quainted as he is with your character, — what sort of 
contribution <or other aid did he furnish that> c might 
stand to his credit ? Knowing that the State was 
tossed in storm and danger he, a seafarer, had not 
spirit enough to venture to aid the city by importing 
corn. Why, resident aliens from abroad, just be- 

a The victory of the Peloponnesians over the Athenians at 
Aegospotami in the Hellespont, 405 b.c. 

b Translating Cobet's restoration of a gap in the text. 

c Some words denoting other public services appear to 
have fallen out of the text 



fxlroiKoi fiev /cat £eVot eW/ca rrjs p,€TOiKias d)(f>e- 
Xovv rrjv ttoXiv elodyovres 1 ' crv Se ri /cat dyaddv 
rroirjcras, co 'AvSo/ct'Sri, rrola dfiapTi^/jLara dva- 
KaXeadfievos, nolo. roo</>eta dvrairohovs . . . 
60 'A#rii/atot, fivija9r]Te rd 77-6770 triueVa 'AvSoklSt], 
iv9v/jiT]9r)T€ Se /cat rrjs ioprrjs, St' r)v vrro rwv 

TToXXdjV 7TpOVTLfirj9r]T€. dAA' €OT€ ydp VTTO TO)V 

tovtov djJLapTrjfjLdrojv rjSr) KaTarrXrjyes Sta to 
7ToXXaKLs loelv /cat d/couaat, ware ouSe rd Setvd 
en heivd So/cet vpuu etV'at. dAAd TtpooiyeTe rdv 
vovv y So/cetVa) S' vpLiv tj yvcbjjLT) opav a ovtos 

51 eVotet, 2 /cat SiayvaHjecrOe apizivov. ovtos ydp 
ivhvs GToXfjv, fjafiovpievog rd lepd eWSet/cvue rot? 
dfJLvrjTOLS /cat et7ie rfj cf)a>vfj rd aTroppryra, rcbv Se 
dewv, ovs Tjixels [Oeovs] 3 vofil^opLev /cat depa- 
rrevovTes /cat dyvevovres Ovopiev /cat Trpoaevypiieda, 

TOVTOVS 7T€pi€KOlfj€. /Cat €TTL TOVTOIS Up€lOLL /Cat 

Upets ardvres KarrjpdcravTO rrpos iorripav /cat </>ot- 
viKioas dveoeiuav , Kara to vopujiov to TraXatov 

52 /cat do^atov. ojuoAoyriae Se ovtos Troirjoai. ert Se 
rrapeXOwv tov vo\iov ov vfieis edeode, zipyeodai 
tcqv Upa>v avTov d>s dXiT-qpiov 6Vra, raura rravra 
fiiaadfievos eloeXrjXvOev rjfjLcov els tj]V 7r6Xiv y /cat 
eOvoev €77t tcov fiajfjLcov a)v ovk i£f)v avTco /cat 
air-qvTa toTs tepot? Trepl a rjcrefirjoev, elofjXOev et? to 

[108] 'EAeuotVtov, e'^eovu/faro e/c -7-779 tepa? x*P VL fi S' 

1 efo-ayaywi', eara/yay^'res mss. 
1 ^7ro/et Taylor : 7rote? mss. 3 Oeovs del. Dobree. 

a A page is missing here. 

6 The Mysteries, in which the present judges had been 

c Cf. the solemn cursing of Alcibiades described by Plu- 


cause they were resident aliens, aided the city by 
such imports. But you, Andocides, what benefit 
have you actually conferred, what offences have you 
made good, what return have you made for your 
nurture ? . . .° 

Men of Athens, recall the actions of Andocides, and 
reflect too on the festival 6 which has brought you 
special honour from the majority of mankind. But 
indeed you have become so stupefied by now with 
his offences, from your frequent sight and hearing of 
them, that monstrous things no longer seem to you 
monstrous. But apply your minds to the task of 
making your thought envisage the things that he 
did, and you will come to a better decision. For this 
man donned a ceremonial robe, and in imitation of 
the rites he revealed the sacred things to the un- 
initiated, and spoke with his lips the forbidden words : 
those deities whom we worship, and to whom with 
our devotions and purifications we sacrifice and pray, 
he mutilated. And for such a deed priestesses and 
priests stood up and cursed him, facing the west, c and 
shook out their purple vestments according to the 
ancient and time-honoured custom. He has admitted 
this action. Moreover, transgressing the law that 
you made, whereby he was debarred from the 
temples as a reprobate, he has violated all these 
restrictions and has entered into our city ; he has 
sacrificed on the altars which were forbidden him, 
and come into the presence of the sacred things on 
which he committed his impiety ; he has entered 
into the Eleusinium, and baptized his hands in the 

tarch, Alcib. 22. In prayers and vows addressed to the 
celestial gods the speaker faced the east, but in those 
addressed to the infernal gods, the west. 

F'A 141 


63 riva XPV Tavra avaG^iadai; iroiov cfytXov, ttoiov 
avyyevrj, irolov St^/xot^v 1 XPV tovtcq yapioay^evov 
KpvfiSrjv <f)avep(hs rot? OeoZs aTrexOeadai; vvv ovv 
Xpr) vopii^eiv Tipax) povjxevovg Kal diraXAaTTOfievovs 
'AvSo/ctSou ttju ttoXlv KaOaipeiv 2 Kal d7roSto7ro/z- 
ireZoQai Kal c/>ap/xa/ccV aTTOTTepureiv Kal dXiT7)piov 
airaWaTTeoQaiy cos* eV tovtojv ovtos Ioti. 

64 Bou'Ao/xat roivvv elireZv a Aio/cAt}? 6 ZaKopov 
rod lepo(f)dvrov, Trdimos Se rffxerepog, crvve^ovXevae 
fiovXevofievoLs v/jlZv 6 tl Set xpTjcr&H Meyapet dvopl 
rjcrep-qKOTi. KeXevovrajv ydp irepajv aKptrov irapa- 
Xpfj/JLa aiTOKTtZvai, 7rapf)vecr€ KpZvai t&v dvdpcoTTOJV 
eVe/ca, Iva aKovoavres Kal loovtcs aax/ypoveoTepoL 
ol dAAot cocrt, tojv Se dea)v eVe/ca o'iKodev e/caorov, 
a Set tov doreftovvTa iradeZv, avrov Trap* iavrcp 

55 /ce/cpt/cora els to St/caoT^ptov etateVat. Kal vpteZs, 
co avopes 'AOrjvaZou (e7rt'oTao-#e ydp a Set Troirjoai), 
fjLrj dva7T€LodrJT€ V7TO tovtov. (fravepcbs e^ere avrov 
daefiovvTa' et'Sere, rjKovaare ra tovtov dfjLapTrj/jLaTa. 
avTifioXiqoei Kal iKeTevaeL vfias' /x^ eAeetre. ov 
yap ol StAcatoj? d-nodvQGKOvTes dXX ol dSt/cco? 
a£tot etcxtv iXeeZadat. 

1 57)/j.6t->]v Blass : 8iKa<TTT]i> MS9. 
* Post nadalpeiv in libris apav airdyeadai del. Taylor. 



holy water. Who ought to tolerate these doings ? 
What person, whether friend or relation or towns- 
man, is to incur the open enmity of the gods by show- 
ing him secret favour ? You should, therefore, con- 
sider that to-day, in punishing Andocides and in 
ridding yourselves of him, you are cleansing the city, 
you are solemnly purifying it from pollution, you are 
dispatching a foul scapegoat, you are getting rid of 
a reprobate ; for this man is one of these. 

And now I would mention the advice that Diodes 
son of Zacorus the officiating priest, and our grand- 
father, gave you when you were deliberating on the 
measures to be taken with a Megarian who had com- 
mitted impiety. Others urged that he be put to 
death at once, unjudged ; he counselled you to 
judge him in the interest of mankind, so that the 
rest of the world, having heard and seen, might be 
more sober-minded, and in the interest of the gods 
he bade each of you, before entering the court, judge 
first at home and in his own heart what should be 
the fate of the impious. So you, men of Athens, — 
for you understand what you are bound to do, — 
must not be perverted by this man. You hold him, 
caught in the open commission of impiety : you 
have seen, you have heard his offences. He will 
beseech and supplicate you : have no pity. For it 
is not those who justly, but those who unjustly, suffer 
death that deserve to be pitied. 

a It seems likely that the speaker's family belonged to the 
Eumolpidae or hereditary priesthood of the Mysteries. 




A rich Athenian citizen of unassuming character has 
been accused, in the first instance, of removing a 
sacred olive-tree from his farm : but, as the persons 
who rented from the State the produce of the sacred 
olives have not given any evidence against the 
accused, he is now charged before the Council of the 
Areopagus with the removal of a fenced-in stump of 
such an olive. The moriae or sacred olives all over 
Attica were supposed to be offshoots of the tree 
originally planted by Athene on the Acropolis : 
not only these, but also the stumps of those which 
had been injured by invaders or by lightning, were 
fenced about for their preservation, and were regu- 
larly inspected by commissioners of the Areopagus, 
as there was always a chance that they might revive 
in the manner of the olive in the temple of Athene 
which shot up again after it had been burnt down by 
Xerxes. The strict attention given to the matter 
may be connected with a well-founded belief that, 
in the dry soil of Attica, trees of any kind were of 
value to the community. 

a Herodotus, viii. 55 ; cf. Virgil, Georg. ii. 30, 181. 


The offence of removing a sacred stump was an 
impiety punishable in former times by death, but 
later only by exile and confiscation of property. 
In this case it is alleged to have been committed at 
a date which we can fix as 397 B.C., and the trial 
took place a considerable time (unspecified) after 
that date. The defendant makes out a good case 
for his innocence in simple and unemotional 
language. He has had to leave the quietude of his 
normal life in order to contend against the malevo- 
lence of a venal slanderer, and he gives reasons to 
show that there has been no sacred olive or stump 
on his farm since he became its owner (1-11). It 
is unlikely that he would attempt such a dangerous 
act when he could not hope to escape detection (12- 
18); and the accuser, Nicomachus, has produced 
no witnesses (19-23). Although the accused had 
plenty of such trees on his other farms, where there 
was much less risk of detection, he has never been 
charged by the court's inspectors with the removal 
of any of them (24-29). He has performed the 
various public services expected from a good citizen 
of the wealthier class (30-33) ; the accuser has 
declined to take over his slaves for the test of 
evidence extracted under torture (34-40). It is a 
heavy penalty that he must suffer if the accusation is 
believed, but this is a mere assertion which Nico- 
machus has refused to support by a fair test (41-43). 



1 Tlporepov /zeV, to PovXrj, ivofii^ov e^elvai rco j3ov- 
Xoj.L€vo) y r qGV\iav dyovri, pnqre StVa? '^X €lv l JL V r€ 
tt pay \iara' vvvl Se ovrwg aTTpoohoKTjrcos alriais Kal 

TTOVqpOLS CTUKO(j)dvTaiS 7Tepi7T€7TTO)Ka, LOOT €L 7TO)? 

olov re, ook€l fiot oeiv Kal rovs pLJ] yeyovoras rjor) 
oeotevou Trepl tlov jxeXXovTCOv eoeoOaf oia yap rovs 
tolovtovs ol kLvovvoi [ot] 1 Koivol yiyvovrai Kal rols 

2 \JL7)okv aoLKOvoi Kal tois iroXXd rjfJLaprrjKOOLV . OVTLO 
o' aTTopos 6 aytbv jxol Kadeorr]K€v, coore aTreypd- 
tf>7]v to pL€V TTpcorov iXdav €K rrjs yrjs dcpavt^eiv, Kal 

7TVvdav6jJL€VOL TTpOOjJGaV €776107) 8' €K TOVTOV TOV 

rpoirov ooikovvto fie ovoev evpelv iovvrjOiqoav, vvvl 
fie crrjKov <(f>acnv> 2 dcfravl^eLV, rjyovfJLevoL ifiol fiev 
ravrrjv T7)v alrlav aTTOpLOTaTiqv etvat aireXiy^ai, 3 
avrols Se i^elvai pL&XAov 6 tl dv fiovXtovrai Xiyziv. 

3 Kal Set pie, 7T€pl tov ovtos eTTifiefiovXevKLos rJK€L, 
apJ vfilv tois hiayvtoooiL€vois Trepl tov TTpdyfAaros 
aKovcravra* Kal Trepl rrjs irarpioos Kal Trepl rrjs 

1 of del. Stephanus. 
8 <t>o.<nv add. Reiske. 
8 airehty^ai. Westermann : d7ro5e?£cu mss. 
4 dfi . . . dKovaauTa Sauppe : d\\' . . &Kov<ravTas, iv . . , 
&K0ucra<n mss. 



Heretofore, gentlemen of the Council, I thought it 
possible for a person who so desired to avoid both 
law-suits and anxieties by leading a quiet life ; but 
now I find myself so unexpectedly embarrassed with 
accusations and with nefarious slanderers that, if 
such a thing could be, I conceive that even those who 
are yet unborn ought now to be feeling alarmed for 
what is in store for them, since the conduct of these 
men brings as great a share of danger upon those who 
have done no wrong as upon those who are guilty of 
many offences. And this trial has been made 
specially perplexing for me, because at first I was 
indicted for clearing away an olive-tree from my 
land, and they went and made inquiry of the men 
who had bought the produce of the sacred olives ; 
but having failed by this method to find that I have 
done anything wrong, they now say it is an olive- 
stump that I cleared away, judging that for me this 
is a most difficult accusation to refute, while to them 
it allows more freedom to make any statement that 
they please. So I am obliged, on a charge which 
this man has carefully planned against me before 
coming here, and which I have only heard at the 
same moment as you who are to decide on the case, 
to defend myself against the loss of my native land 



ovoias dycovlaaaOat. ofjicog Se Treipdao\xai ef dp- 
Xrjs vjjl&s 8t8a£at. 

4 r Hv {lev yap tovto Yleiadvopov to ^oj/hW, hrj- 
fjLevdei'TCou Se tojv ovtojv 1 6K€lvov 'A77oAAoScopo9 
o Meyapei)? Sojpeidv napd rod Srjixov Xaficbv rov 
fxev dXXov xpovov eyeojpyei y oXiyoo 8e rrpd toov 
rpiaKovra ' 'AvtlkXtjs Trap* avrov Trpcafxevog e£- 
epiiadojaev eyoo Se 77ap' 'AvTt/cAe'ou? elprjvqs ovcrrjs 

6 cbvovfJLCU. 2 rjyovfJLCLL tolvvv, a> fiovXrj, ijj.6v epyov 
dirohel^ai ojs eVetS?) to ^topiov eKT7]ad{JLrjv, ovr' 
e'Aaa ovre otjkos evrjv ev clvtw. vo/jll^oj ydp rov 
jjiev rrpoTepov \p6vov, ovV el ndXai evrjaav uoptat, 
ovk dv St/catto? ^/xtoua^ar el ydp jjltj St' rjfi&s 
etcrtv rjcfravicrpLevcLL, ovSev TrpocrrjKeL Trepl tojv 
dXXorpiwv dpLapr-qpLdroov cog d$LKovvras Kivhv- 

6 veveiv . irdvres yap eiriUTaade on <6> 3 TroXe/jLog 
/cat dXXoov ttoXXojv alrios KaKoJv yeyevryraiy koX rd 
fiev Troppoj V7TO AaKeSaijjLovLCov erefjivero, rd 8' 
eyyvs vrrd tojv <f)iXojv SirjpTTa^ero- ware ttojs av 
hiKaiojs imep tojv <r6re> i rfj rroXei yeyevrjfievojv 
avp.(/)op6jv eyoo vvvl oiKrjv SlSoltjv; a'AAoj? re /cat 

7 tovto to x. OJ p' lov ^ v T <V TToXefiop Si][j,ev6ev drrparov 
rjv ttXcIv t) rpia err), ov Oavfiaarov 8' el Tore rds 

[109] pLoplas e^eKOTTTOV , ev a> ouSe rd 7)\xerep ovtojv 

1 o£ tZv 6vTiov Bekker: tCov 6vti»)i> o mss. 

2 <bvov/ Emperius : (bvov/xrjv mss. 

3 6 add. Dobree. 4 rore add. Reiske. 

Peisander was a leader in the revolution of the Four 
Hundred (411 B.C.), and his property was forfeited on the 
counter-revolution of the Five Thousand in the same year ; 
Apollodorus was rewarded for taking part in the assassination 
of Phrynichus, another of the Four Hundred. 


and my possessions. Nevertheless I will try to 
explain the affair to you from the beginning. 

This plot of ground belonged to Peisander ; but 
when his property was confiscated, Apollodorus of 
Megara had it as a gift from the people 3 and culti- 
vated it for some time, until, shortly before the 
Thirty, 6 Anticles bought it from him and let it out. 
I bought it from Anticles when peace had been made. 
So I consider, gentlemen, that my business is to show 
that, when I acquired the plot, there was neither 
olive-tree nor stump upon it. For I conceive that 
in respect of the previous time, even had there been 
sacred olives of old upon it, I could not with justice 
be penalized ; since if we have had no hand in their 
clearance, there is no relevance in our being charged 
as guilty of the offences of others. For you are all 
aware that, among the numerous troubles that have 
been caused by the war, the outlying districts were 
ravaged by the Lacedaemonians/* while the nearer 
were plundered by our friends ; so how can it be 
just that I should be punished now for the disasters 
that then befell the city ? And in particular, this 
plot of land, as having been confiscated during the 
war, was unsold for over three years : it is not sur- 
prising if they uprooted the sacred olives at a time 
in which we were unable to safeguard even our 

b 404 b.c. 

c After the fall of the Thirty and on the intervention of 
Sparta, 403 b.c. 

d During the Peloponnesian War Pericles kept the people 
inside Athens, and allowed the Lacedaemonians to devastate 
Attica, as he knew that the strength of Athens was on the 
sea, not on the land. "Our friends " may refer to Boeotian 
and Thessalian troops which aided the Athenians in occasional 
attacks on the invaders. Cf. Thucydides, ii. 14, 19, 22, etc. 



(f>v\(LTT€iv iSwdfieOa. eTriuraode Se', to fiovXrj, 
ogol jidXtura ra>v tolovtojv eViueAeicr^e, 77oAAd 
eV €K€Lvcp TO) XP° VC 9 Saae'a ovra loiais Kal /xoptat? 
eAaatS", d>v vvv ra 77oAAd iKKeKoirrai Kal r) yrj 
tpiXr) ytyivryrai' Kal tcov avrtov Kal iv rfj elpr^vrj 
Kal iv rco TToXifxco K€Krr)jjL€va)v ovk ol£lovt€ Trap 
avrcov, irepojv iKKoifjdvrojv, Slktjv Xafi/SdveLV. 

8 Kairoi el tovs Std iravros rod xpovov yeojpyovvras 
rrjs alrias dcfiUre, r) ttov XP^] tovs y iv rfj elprjvr) 
Trpiapiivovs dcf)' vficov d^rj/jilovs yeveaOai. 

9 'AAAd yap, d> fiovXr), nepl fxkv tlov rrportpov 
yeyevrjjjiivojv 7roAAd 'iyojv elneiv tKava vofil^a) ra 
elprjpiiva' ineuSr) S' iyco rrapeXafiov to yi°P lov > 
Trplv -qpiipas rrivre yeveadai, aTTeyLioOcDcra KaAAt- 

10 orpdrcp, iitl YlvOohojpov dpxovros' os Suo 1 ert] 
iyecopyrjaev, ovre Ihiav iXdav ovre piopiav ovre 
or)Kov TTapaXafitov. rplraj Se erei ArjpLrJTpios 
ovrocrl elpydcraro iviavrov to) Se rerdprcp 'AA/aa 
*AvTLo9ivovs direXevdipco ifiLcr9a)cra, os riOvrjKe' 
Kara 2 rpla err) o/xotcu? /cat Upajreas e'/xtcr^axjaro. 
Kal floe Sevp* Ire, ptdprvpes. 


11 'E^eiS^ toLvvv 6 xpovos ovros e'^/cei, avros 
yeojpyaj. (f>rjal Se 6 Karr]yopos eVt Hovvidhov 
apxovros <jt]k6v z vtt* e'/xou iKK€Ko<f)9aL. vpuv Se 
lA€pLapTvpr]Kacnv ol rrporepov ipya^dfievoc Kal 
77-oAAd errj Trap e'/xou /xe/xi(7#a>/zeVoi fir) elvau crrjKov 
iv to) ^coptaj. Kairoi ttojs dv tls (fravepajrepov* 

1 6s 8vo Harpocration : 8vo 5' mss. 
2 K$Ta Meutzner: ravra mss. 
3 arjubv Suidas : oIkop mss. 
4 <pavepd>Tepov Contius : <pai>€pu)s mss. 


personal property. You are aware, gentlemen — 
especially those of you who have the supervision of 
such matters, — that many plots at that time were 
thick with private and sacred olive-trees which have 
now for the most part been uprooted, so that the 
land has become bare ; and although the same 
people have owned these plots in the peace as in the 
war, you do not think fit to punish them for the up- 
rooting done by others. And yet, if you exculpate 
those who have cultivated the land throughout the 
whole period, surely those who bought it in the time 
of the peace ought to leave your court unpunished. 

Well now, gentlemen, although I might speak at 
length on what had previously occurred, I think 
these remarks will suffice : but when I took over the 
plot, after an interval of five days I let it out to 
Callistratus, in the archonship of Pythodorus a : 
he cultivated it for two years, and had taken over no 
olive-tree, either private or sacred, nor any olive- 
stump. In the third year it was worked by Deme- 
trius here for a twelvemonth ; in the fourth I let 
it to Alcias, a freedman of Antisthenes, who is dead. 
After that Proteas too hired it in the same state 
during three years. Now, please step this way, 


Well now, since the termination of that time I have 
cultivated it myself. My accuser says that in the 
archonship of Souniades & an olive-stump was uprooted 
by me. And the previous cultivators, who rented it 
from me for a number of years, have testified to you 
that there was no stump on the plot. I ask you, how 

a 404-403 b.c. • 397-396 b.c. 



i^eXey^eLe ipevhopevov tov Kar-qyopov; ov yap 
olov re, a Trporepov jjlt) tjv, ravra tov voTepov 
ipya^ofjLevov d</>art£etv. 

12 'Eyoj tolvvv, to fiovX-q, iv uev rep rlcos ^pova), 

OCTOt fJL€ (f)d(JKOL€V SeLVOV elVCU /Cat OLKpL^T] /Cat 

ovhev av €LKrj /cat dXoyLOTGJS rroirjoaiy rjyavaKTovv 
av, -qyovfievos pi&XXov XeyeodaL <rj >* cos /u,ot 

7TpOG7JK€- VVV S<E TTOVTaS d\ VfM&S ^OvXoLpLTjV 7T€pL 

epLov ravT-qv tt]v yvujp,7)v eyew, Iva rjyrjoOe ue 
GKOTTelv <dv>, 2 el-Hep tolovtols epyoLs irrexeipovv , 
/cat 6 Tt KepSos eyiyvero [tco] 3 dcfravLoavri /cat 
tjtls £,r]fjLLa TrepLTTonjcravTL, 4, /cat rl av Xa6d>v St- 
eirpa^dpLrjv /cat ri av <j>avepds yevojievog v<f>' vjjl&v 

13 e-naoypv. irdvres yap dvdpwTTOL rd roiavra ovy 
vfipecos dXXa KepSovs cW/ca ttoiovoi, /cat vpLas 
et/co? ovtoj GKOTTelv, /cat tovs dvTLou<ovs e/c tovtojv 
Tas Karrjyopias TTOieludai, aTro^aivovT as tjtls 

14 aV/>e'Aeta rot? dStKijaaaiv eyiyvero. ovtos fievroi 
ovk av eyoL aVoSet^at ovd* to? vtto irevias rjvay- 
KaoQrp> tolovtols epyoLs eTTLyeLpelv, ovd' to? to 
Xojplov /xot Ste^^etpero 6 tov gtjkov ovtos, ovd* to? 
dpireXoLs ejjL7ToScov r\v, ovd* to? ot/cta? iyyvs, ovQ* 

15 to? eyd) direLpos tojv Trap* vplv KLvhvvojv. <eyuj S'> 6 
et rt tolovtov 1 eirpaTTOV, iroXkas av /cat ueydAa? 
epLavTO) L^rjpLLos yevofievas a7TO<f)r]vaLpLL- o? rrptoTOv 
fxev pied* rjfiepav e^eKovTov tov ot)k6v, tooirep ov 
TrdvTas Xadelv Seov, dXXa irdvTas 'Ad-qvalovs 
etSeVat. /cat et puev aloypov tjv pcovov to npaypLa, 
tato? dv tls toov napLovTwv rjpeXi]oe' vvv 8' ov 

1 fj add. Taylor. 
2 &v add. Frohberger. 3 t<2 del. Uobrce. 

* TrepiTronjauvTi Kayser : t<£ iroir}oavTL mss. 



could one convict the accuser more patently of lying ? 
For it is not possible that the cultivator who came 
after cleared away what was not there before. 

Now formerly, gentlemen, whenever people de- 
clared me to be a shrewd, exact man who would do 
nothing at random or without calculation, I would 
take it hard, feeling that these terms were wide of 
my true character ; but now I should be glad if you 
all held this opinion of me, so that you should expect 
me, if I did set about such an act as this, to consider 
what profit I stood to get by clearing away the stump, 
and what loss by preserving it, what I should have 
achieved if I went undetected, and what I should 
suffer at your hands if I were exposed. For in every 
case such acts are done, not for mere mischief, but 
for profit ; and that is the proper direction for your in- 
quiry, and the prosecution should make that the basis 
of their accusation, by showing what benefit accrued 
to the wrongdoers. Yet this man is quite unable to 
show either that I was compelled by poverty to ven- 
ture on such an act, or that the plot was declining in 
value to me while the stump existed, or that it was 
obstructing vines or close to a building, or that I was 
unapprised of the dangers awaiting me in your court. 
And I would make it obvious that many great penalties 
were my lot if I attempted anything of the kind ; for 
in the first place, it was daylight when I uprooted 
the stump, — as though I had not to do it unseen 
by all, but must let all the Athenians know ! If 
the act had been merely disgraceful, one might per- 
haps have disregarded the passers-by ; but the case 

5 8ie<£0etp€TO Herwerden : Sia^eiperai mss 

6 iy<h S' add. Frei. 

7 TOiovTov Hertlein : toutcuv mss. 



rrepl aloxvviqs dXXd rrjg pieylcrrrjs jfyfuas eKtvhv- 

16 vevov. 7Ttos 8' ovk dv rj ddXiojraros avdpojTrojv 
dvavrajv, el rovs ep,avrov depdnovras paqKen 
hovXovs e/xeAAov e^eiv aAAa heoiroras rdv Xoiitov 
filov, roiovrov epyov avvethoras ; a)ore el /cat rd 
pieyiara els €/xe e^rjfidpravov, ovk dv olov re rjv 
SiK-qv fie Trap avrcbv Xapu^dveiv ev ydp dv rjhr) 1 
on €7r' eKeivois rjv koli ifxe npLajprjuaaOai /cat 

17 clvtoIs puqvvoaaiv eXevdepois yeveoQai. en rolvvv, 
el rwv ot/cerojv 2 Trapearr) /xot pLTjhev ^> povr i^eiv y 
ttcjs dv eroAjLt^aa rooovrojv pLepao6ojp.evojv /cat 
drrdvrojv avveihonjjv a<j>avloai rov gt]k6v fipaxeos 
fxev Kephovs eW/ca, TrpoOeopLias he ovhepnas ovorjs 
rep Kivhvvcp rols elpyaopLevois artaoi to ^ojotW 
6p,oia>s TrpocrfJKov etvoiL oa)v rov gtjkov tv', el ns 
avrovs yjti&to, efyov dveveyKelv orco rrapehoaav; 
vvv he. /cat eae dnoXvaavres <f>aivovrai, /cat ocfr&s 
avrovs, elirep ipevhovrat, pLero^ovs rrjs air las 

11101 n f ■> I \ ~ / 

L .g Kauioravres. ei roivvv /cat ravra TrapeoKevaoapL-qv ' t 
TTtos dv otos T rj rrdvras rrelaai rovs Trapiovras , 
rj rovs yeirovaSy ol ov p,6vov dAA^Aojv ravr loaoiv 
a tt&glv opav e^eonv, aXXd /cat 7repl d>v diroKpvTT- 
ropueda paqoeva eloevat,, /cat rrepl itceivcov nvvdd- 
vovrai; eaot rolvvv rovrojv ol p,ev (f>lXoi ol he 
19 hidcfropoL irepl rdv epiujv rvyydvovaiv dvres' ovs 
e\prp> rovrov Trapaayeodai pidprvpas, /cat pLrj 

1 jjSeiv Emperius : 17577 Hude : dod-qv mss. 
2 oiKerdv Scaliger : cIkotuv mss. 

• Cf. V. 5. 

6 In non-religious cases, a limit of time might be prescribed 



was one of my risking, not disgrace, but the severest 
penalty. And surely I must have been the most 
wretched of human creatures if my own servants were 
to be no longer my slaves, but my masters for the 
rest of my life, since they would be privy to that act 
of mine ; so that, however great might be their 
offences against me, I should have been unable to 
get them punished. For I should have been fully 
aware that it was in their power at once to be avenged 
on me and to win their own freedom by informing 
against me." Furthermore, supposing I had been of 
a mind to be heedless of my domestics, how should 
I have dared, when so many persons had rented the 
plot, and all were acquainted with the facts, to clear 
away the stump for the sake of a petty profit, while 
there was no statute of limitations b to protect them, 
so that all who had worked the plot were alike con- 
cerned in the preservation of the stump, and hence 
they would be able, if anyone accused them, to 
transfer the blame to their successor ? But as it 
is, they have manifestly absolved me, c and have thus 
taken upon themselves a share of the charge in case 
they are lying. Again, if I had settled this matter 
by arrangement, how could I have prevailed on all 
the passers-by, or the neighbours who not only know 
of each other what is open for all to see, but even 
get information of what we try to keep hidden from 
the knowledge of anyone ? Now, some of those 
people are my friends, but others are at feud with 
me about my property : these persons he ought to 
have produced as witnesses, instead of merely 

by law beyond which a crime was not chargeable to anyone. 
Cf. Demosthenes, De Corona, 269. 
c By not accusing me for their own exculpation. 



fiovov ovtqjs ToA/x^pd? Kar-qyoplag TTOieladaL' o? 
(f>r)(JLV d>s iyco /xev TrapeiaTrjKr), ol 8' ot/cerat 
e^eTepvov ret rrpepiva, avadep,evos he 6 fiorjAdTrjs 
a>x €ro drtdytov rd ^vXa. 

20 Katrot, to Nt/co/xa^e, XPV V (7€ T ore /cat napa- 
KaXelv tovs TTapovras pLaprvpas, /cat (f>avepov 

7TOL6LV TO 7Tpay\JuQ.' KoX €/XOt fJ,€V OvhepLiaV O.V 

aTroXoyiav vireXiTres / avros he, et p,ev aot iftdpos 
rj, ev tovtcq rep rpoTrcp rjoBa dv p,e TeTipLajprjpLevos, 
el he rfjs iroXecos eW/ca eTrparres, ovrcos e£eXey£as 
ovk dv ehoKeus elvai avKoc/)dvTrjs, el he Kephaiveiv 

21 efiovXov, tot dv TrXeloTOv e'Aa/3es" cfyavepov yap 
ovtos tov TrpdypLaTos ovhepLtav dXXiqv r^yovpuqv 
dv elvai pLOL aajT-qplav t) ae Trelaai. tovtcov tolvvv 
ovhev TTOLTjGas hid tovs gov? Xoyovs d^tot? /xe 
dTToAeodaL, /cat KaT-qyopels a>s vtto ttjs efirjs 
hvvdpLews kclI tcov ificbv xP y ]\ x ^- TLOV ovhels edeXei 

22 CTOt ptapTvpelv. /catrot el <OTe> 2 fyjs p? Ihelv ttjv 
jxopiav dthavl^ovTa tovs ewea dpxovTas eTrrjyayes 
7) dXXovs Tivds tcov i£ *Apeiov ndyov, ovk dv 
eTepcov eSet 001 pcapTvpcov ovtco yap dv 001 
o~vvr]heaav dArjOrj XeyovTi, otirep /cat htayiyvcboKeiv 
ep.eXXov rrepl tov it pay pharos. 

23 Aetvdrara ovv irdox *' OS el ^v 7Tapeox €TO f^ap- 
Tvpas, tovtols dv tj^lov TTiOTeveiVy erreihri he ovk 
elcriv aura), e/xot /cat TavTrjv [ttjv] 3 £r]fjLiav o'ieTai 
Xprjvat yeveodai. /cat tovtov 4 piev ov davpid^w ov 
yap SrjTTOV ovKocpavTcov d/xa 5 tolovtcov re 6 Xoyatv 

1 i/ire'Xnres Franz : d7rAt7res MSS. 

1 ore add. Markland. 3 rr\v del. Bekker. 

4 tovtov Auger : toCto mss. 

5 ti/ia Bekker: &\\a mss. 6 re Bekker: ye mss. 



bringing these hazardous accusations ; for he says 
I stood by while my domestics hewed down the stems 
and the wagoner loaded up the wood and took it 
right away. 

But surely, Nicomachus, you ought, at the time, 
both to have called up those who were present as 
witnesses, and to have exposed the affair : you would 
then have left me without any defence, while on 
your own part, if I was your enemy, you would have 
achieved by this means your vengeance upon me ; 
while if you were acting in the interest of the State, 
you would in this way have convicted me without 
being regarded as a slanderer. If you were looking 
for profit, you would have made the largest then ; 
for, the fact being exposed, I should have decided 
that my sole deliverance lay in seducing you. Well, 
you did nothing of the sort, and you expect that 
your statements will effect my ruin : you put in the 
plea that owing to my influence and my means there 
is no one willing to bear you witness. Yet if, when 
you saw me — as you say — clearing away the sacred 
olive, you had brought the nine archons on the scene, 
or some other members of the Areopagus, you would 
not have had to seek witnesses elsewhere ; for then 
the truth of your statements would have been ascer- 
tained by the very persons who were to decide upon 
the matter. 

So he makes my situation most perplexing ; for if he 
had produced witnesses, he would have expected you 
to believe them, but as he has none, he thinks 
that this also should count to my detriment. And 
I am not surprised — at him ; for, to be sure, in 
his slanderous proceedings he is not going to be as 



aTropiqoei Kal fJLaprvpcov Vfi&s S' ovk ol^loj tt)i 

24 avrrjv tovtoj yvojjxrjv e\eLV. eniuTaoBe yap ev ra> 
nehloj TT-oAAds" jxopias ovcras Kal TrvpKaZds ev tols 
oXXols rots' ipLols xojpiois, a?, elirep erredvpiovv, 
ttoXv r)v dofiaXeoTepov Kal d(f)avL(7aL Kal eKKoiftai 
Kal eTrepydoaadaL, oaoj-nep tjttov to dhLKrj/jLa ttoX- 

25 Xwv ovowv ep,eXXe hrjXou eaeadau. vvv V ovtojs 
avras Trepl ttoXXov 770iou/zai ojunep <Kal ttjv 
7rarpiha> x Kal ttjv d'XXrjv ovatav, -qyovfievos Trepl 
dfi<f)orepa)v tovtojv elvai jjlol rov KLvhvvov. ovtovs 
tolvvv v/jl&s tovtojv \xdpTvpas TTapetjofiai, eiri- 
fieXovfievovs fiev eKaoTov [jLrjvos, eTTLyvojfjLOvas 2 he 

7T€jJL7TOVTaS Kad* eKaOTOV eVLOVTOV OiV 0\)hels 77x6- 

ttot e^rjfAuacre fi ojs epyac^ofievov tol Trepl tcls 

26 jioplas yo*?' 10 -- KaiTOi ov Stjttov tol? jJLev piiKpds 
^-q/jilas ovtoj Trepl ttoXXov TTOLodfiaL, tovs he Trepl 
tov oojjJLaTOS KLvhvvovs ovtoj Trepl ovhevos r)yov- 
[Maf Kal tcls p<ev iroXAds eXdas, els ds ££f}v fiaXXov 
e£apLapTaveiv, ovtoj depanevojv (JyatvopLai, ttjv he 
pLoplav, rjv ov)( otov r rjv XadeZv e£opv£avTa, ojs 
dcfyavl^ojv wvl Kpivojiai. 

27 HoTepov he /xot KpeiTTOv r\v i a> fiovXrj, hrjfjLo- 
KpaTias ovarjs TrapavofxeZv r) errl tojv TpiaKovTa; 
Kal ov Xeyoj ojs Tore hvvdfxevos r) ojs vvv hta- 
fiefiXr]i±evos , dXX d>s to> fiovXopLevo) TOTe pudXkov 
e£6v z dhiKelv r) vvvi. eyd> tolvvv ovh y ev eKelva) 
tw xpovco ovre tolovtov ouVe d'AAo ovhev KaKOV 

28 TroL-qoas </>a^oo/xat. 7760? S' dv, el fir) irdvTOjv 
dvOpojTTOJV ifiavTO) KaKovovararos r) y vpLcbv ovtojs 

1 Kal add. Westermann : t^v irarpiba add. Kayser. 

* tTTL-yvufxovas Harpocration : yuM/novas MS9. 

3 i£6i> Auger : i^rjv mss. 



hard up for statements of this sort as he is for 
witnesses ; but you, I trust, will not be in agreement 
with this man. For you understand that in the plain 
there are many sacred olives and burnt stumps on my 
other plots which, had I so desired, it would have 
been much safer to clear away or cut down or en- 
croach on inasmuch as among so many of them the 
wrongful act was likely to be less evident. 

But the fact is that I have as great a regard for 
them as for my native land and my whole property, 
realizing that it is the loss of both of these that I have 
at stake. And you yourselves I shall produce as 
witnesses to that fact ; for you supervise the matter 
every month, and also send assessors every year, 
none of whom has ever penalized me for working the 
ground about the sacred olives. Now surely, when 
I pay so much regard to those small penalties, I can- 
not so utterly disregard the perils involved for my 
person. You find me taking all this care of the many 
olive-trees upon which I could more freely commit 
the offence, and I am on my trial to-day for clearing 
away the sacred olive which it was impossible to dig 
up unobserved ! 

And under which government was I better placed 
for breaking the law, gentlemen, — that of the demo- 
cracy, or that of the Thirty ? I do not mean that I 
was influential then, or that I am in bad odour now, 
but that there was a better chance for anyone who 
wished to commit a crime then than there is at pres- 
ent. Well, you will find that not even in that time 
did I do anything wrong, either in this or in any 
other way. And how — except in all the world I 
were my own most malignant enemy — could I have 



€7TlfJL€\oVfl€V(DV €K TOVTOV TTjV \LOpiaV dcpCLVL^lV 
€7T€X€Lpr](7a TOV ^COpiOU, €V CO $€V$pOV (Ji€V OuSe €V 

i(TTL, pads 8e eAaa? arrjKos, cos ovtos cfr-qcnv, tjv, 1 
kvkXoOzv 8e 6S6s Trepiiyei, apbcfyoTepcodev 8e 
yeiToves TrepLOLKovatv, aep/crov Se /cat navTaxdOev 


ovtcos exoi'TOJV, €77t^etpr]CTat tolovtco 7TpdyfJLari; 

29 Seivov 8e fxoi 8o/cet elvai vp.ds /xeV, ols vtto 


/jLopiaov iXacov eVt/AcAeta^at, pL-qd* cos eVepya^o/xe- 

VOV 2 7TC07TOT6 1,7) fit COG at < (JL6 > 3 pofjd^ COS dcfxiVLCTaVTCL 

111] els klvSvvov Karaarrjaat, tovtov 8' os oure yecop- 
ycov iyyvs Tvyxdvei out' €TnpL€Xr}Tr)s fjprjpievos 
ovO* r)XiKiav €\cov etSeVat nepl tcov toiovtcov, 
cvnoy pdipai /jl€ e/c y^? 4 pioplav dcpavt^ecv. 

30 *Eya> tolvvv Seo/x-at vpucov /jltj tovs tolovtovs X6- 
yovs muTorlpovs rjyqcrao'daL tcov epycov, paqhe nepl 
lov avrol crvvicrre, Totaur' 5 dvaaxecrOcu tcov ificov 
e^Opcov Xeyovrcov, ivdvpiovpLevovs /cat €/c tcov elpr)- 

31 [xevcov /cat 6K ttjs dXXrjs TToXiTtias . iyco yap 
tol euot TTpoGTeTaypieva drravTa TrpodvpiOTepov 7re- 
7Tolr)Ka <t)> 6 cos vtto ttjs noXecos r)vayKa£6pLrjv , /cat 
TpLrjpapxcov /cat elocpopds elatpepcov /cat x°P r ]y^ )V 
/cat rdAAa XrjTOvpycov ovoevos tjttov noXvTeXcos 


aAAa, yu.77 TrpoOvpLCos out* dv rrepl cpvyrjs ovt* dv 
irepl ttjs dXArjs ovcrtas rjycovi^opLrjv, jrXeico 8' aV 
c/ce/cr^/x^v, ovhkv doiKcov ouS' 6ttlklvSvvov ipuavTcp 
KaTaaTr/aas tov filov TavTa Se Trpd£as, a ovtos 

1 fji> Meutzner: ehai mss. 
2 enepya£6/u.ei>ov Stephanus : airepya^bix^vov MSS. 
• fj.e add. Meutzner. * 4k 777s Jacobs: iyyvs mss. 



attempted, with you supervising as you do, to clear 
away the sacred olive from this plot ; in which there 
is not a single tree, but there was, as he says, a stump 
of one olive ; where a road skirts the plot all round, 
and neighbours live about it on both sides, and it is 
unfenced and open to view from every point ? So 
who would have been so foolhardy, in these circum- 
stances, as to attempt such a proceeding ? And I 
feel it is extraordinary that you, whom the city has 
charged with the perpetual supervision of the sacred 
olives, have never either punished me for encroaching 
on one of them nor brought me to trial for having 
cleared one away, and that now this man, who, as it 
happens, is neither farming near me nor has been 
appointed a supervisor nor is of an age to know about 
such matters, should have indicted me for clearing 
away a sacred olive from the land. 

I beg you, therefore, not to consider such statements 
more credible than the facts, nor to tolerate such 
assertions from my enemies about matters of which 
you are personally cognizant : let your reflections be 
guided by what I have told you and by the whole tenor 
of my citizenship. For I have performed all the duties 
laid upon me with greater zeal than the State 
required : alike in equipping a warship, in con- 
tributing to war funds, in producing drama, and in 
the rest of my public services, my munificence was 
equal to that of any other citizen. Yet, if I had done 
these things but moderately and without that zeal, 
I should not be struggling to save myself at once 
from exile and from the loss of all my property, but 
should have increased my possessions without in- 
curring guilt or imperilling my life : whereas, had 

6 toiclCt Lipsius : ravr mss. • ?) add Taylor. 



fjLov Karr/yopei, eKepSaivov \xev ovhev, epiavTov 8' 

33 els Kivhvvov KadiGTTjv. Kairoi irdvres dv opioXoyrj- 
00UT6 hiKaiorepov elvai rot? p-eydXois xPV G ^ ai 
T€KfjLr)piOLS Trepl tojv pieydXojv, /cat TriOTOTepa 
r)yeicr9ai Trepl a)v aVac/a r) ttoXis jxapTvpel, fiaXXov 
r) Trepl <Lv fiovos ovtos KariqyopeZ. 

34 "Ert roivvv, to ftovXr), e/c tojv dXXa>v OKeifjaode. 
fidprvpas yap exojv 1 avraj TrpoarjXdov, Xeycov oti 
fiou Txdvres <eVt> 2 elolv ol depdnovres, ovs e/ce- 
KrrjpLrjv eTreiSr) napeXaftov to ^oj/hov, /cat eVotuo? 
el/xi, 3 el nva fiovXoiTO, Trapahovvai fiaoavi^eiv, 
r)yovp,evos ovtojs dv tov eXeyxov laxvporepov yeve- 
odai tojv tovtov Xoyojv /cat tcov epyojv tojv e/JLcov. 

35 ovtos S* ovk rjdeXev, ovhev <f>duKojv ttigtov elvai 
tols depaTTOvaiv. epiol he So/cet <#au/xacrTO>> 4 
elvai, el Trepl avTOJV p,ev ol fiaoavi^ojievoi Karrjyo- 
povaiv, ev elhores oti aTrodavovvTai, Trepl he rcov 
heoTTorcbv , ols Tre(f)VKaoi KaKovovGTaroi, pbdXXov 
dv eXoivTO 6 dvex^cxdai fiaoavi^opievoi r) /car- 

36 enrovTes axr^AAa^^at rd>v TrapovTOjv /ca/cdV. /cat 
fiev hr), d> fiovXr], <j>avepdv ot/xat elvai tt&giv* oti, 
el Nt/co/xa^ou e£aiTodvTos tovs dvOpoj-rrovs pir) 
Trapehihovv, ehoKovv dv ifiavTco ovveihevai- eTreihr) 
roivvv ifiov irapahihovTOS ovtos TrapaXafieiv ovk 
rjdeXe, hiKaiov /cat Trepl tovtov ttjv a\)Tr)v yvojfxrjv 
crxeiv, dXXojs re /cat tov Kivhvvov ovk ioov d/x- 

37 <j)OTepois ovtos. Trepl efxov p,ev yap el eXeyov a 
ovtos efiovXeTO , 7 ovh' dv aTroXoyqaauOai fioi e£- 

1 yap Zx^v Reiske : 7rap^x w " MSS. 

1 In add. Westermann. 8 ei/ju Scheibe : f)p.r\v mss. 

4 davixaarbv add. Stephanus. 

* ZXoivTo Rauchenstein : e'iXovro MS3. 



I done what this man accuses me of doing, I stood to 
make no profit, but only to endanger myself. Surely 
you will all acknowledge that it is fairer to judge 
important issues by important proofs, and to give 
more credit to the testimony of the whole city than 
to the accusations of this single person. 

And further, gentlemen, take note of the other 
events in the case. I went with witnesses to see him, 
and said that I still had the servants that I owned 
when I took over the plot, and was ready to deliver 
any that he wished to the torture, thinking that this 
would put his statements and my acts to stronger 
test. But he declined, asserting that no credit could 
be given to servants. To my mind it is surprising 
that, when put to the torture on their own account, 
they accuse themselves, in the certain knowledge 
that they will be executed, but when it is on account 
of their masters, to whom they naturally have most 
animosity, they can choose rather to endure the 
torture than to get release from their present ills 
by an incrimination ! Nay, in truth, gentlemen, I 
think it is manifest to all that, had I refused to 
deliver the men at Nicomachus's request, I should be 
considered conscious of my guilt a ; so, since he de- 
clined to accept them when I offered to deliver them, 
it is fair to form the same opinion regarding him, 
especially as the danger is not equal for us both. For 
if they had made the statements about me that he 
desired, I should not even have had a chance of 

a The offer of one's slaves for the extraction of evidence 
under torture was generally presumed to be a sign of one's 

6 olfxcu etvai iracriv Hude : etuai etreiv MSS. 
' & oDtoj ifiovXero post u/xoXoyovv iiss. : transp. Bekker. 



tyivero' tovtoj S' el fir) oofioXoyovv, o?3S<:/xta ^fiiq 
evo^os" rjv. ware ttoXv fidXXov tovtov TrapaXafi- 
fidveiv £XPV V V e '/ x ^ Trapahovvai TrpoarJKev} iyob 
Toivvv els tovto Trpodvfiias d(f>u<6fir]v } rjyovfievos 
fi€T ifiov elvat /cat £k fiaadvouv /cat e'/c fiapTvpouv 
/cat e'/c T€KfJLr)picov Vfids Trepl tov TrpdyfiaTOS 
38 rdXrjdrj TrvOeodai. ivOvfielodat Se XPV> & fiovXrj, 

7TOT6pOL9 XPV 7Tl(JT€V€LV fidXXov, ots 77oAAot fl€flCLp- 

ruprj/cacrty r) w firjhels reToXfxrjKe, /cat rrorepov et/co? 
fidXXov tovtov a/ctvSiW)? ipev&eoOai r) ae-rd tooov- 
tov klvSvvov tolovtov ifik epyov ipydoaoQai, /cat 
TTOTepov o'UaQe avTOV vnep ttjs ttoXzojs fiorjdeZv 
30 r) ovKO(f>avTOVVTa atrtaaaa^at. iyob fiev <ydp> 2 
vjjl&s r)yodfiai vofilt.eiv otl Nt/co/xa^os' V7to tojv 
i)(9pajv 7T€Lo6els tojv ifiwv tovtov tov dyobva 
dyojvL^eTai, oi>x ^ dSt/couvra iXnL^oov aVoSet^etv , 
dXX* das dpyvptov Trap ifiov XrjipeaOai TrpoorSoKobv. 
oaa) yap <ol> 3 tolovtol elcrcv eVatrtajrarot /cat 


40 (f)€vyovoL jLtdAtcrra. iyob Si, to /3ovXrj, ovk t)£lovv, 

dXX €7T€lhr]7T€p fl€ fjTidcraTO, TTOLpeOXOV iflOLVTOV 6 

rt fiovXeoOe XP 7 ) ® - 1 * KaL T °^ rov eVe/ca tov klv- 
hvvov ovhevl iyob tcov ixOptbv $LrjXXdyrjV, 61 ifie 
rjo^Lov* /ca/ccus" Xeyovcnv r) a^a? olvtovs eVatvoucrt. 
/cat cfyavepous fiev ovhels ttoottote ifie auro? 5 eV- 
e^etp^ae iroirjoai kolkov ovSiv, rotourous" §e eari.-j 
7T€fjL7TOVGi fjLOL, ols vfiels ovk dv St/cata)? Tuareuotre. 

1 TrpoarJKev Markland : TrpoarjKei MSS. 

2 yap add. Fulir. 3 oi add. Reiske. 

4 t)5io v Taylor: 17077 mss. 6 ai)rds Reiske: avrbv mss. 

In prosecutions for impiety, and in certain other cases, 
the accuser was not subject to the rule that he forfeited 1000 


defending myself ; while if they had not supported 
his statements, he was liable to no penalty. It 
behoved him, therefore, much rather to take them 
than it suited me to deliver them. For my part, I 
was so solicitous in the matter, because I felt it was 
in my favour to have you informed of the truth 
regarding this matter, at once by torture, by wit- 
nesses, and by evidence. And you should consider, 
gentlemen, which side you ought rather to credit, 
those for whom many have borne witness, or one for 
whom nobody has ventured to do so ; whether it is 
more likely that this man is lying, as he can without 
danger, 8 or that in face of so grave a danger I com- 
mitted such an act ; and whether you think that he 
is vindicating the cause of the State, or has been 
plying the slanderer's trade in his accusation. 

For I believe it is your opinion that Nicomachus 
has been prevailed upon by my enemies to conduct 
this prosecution, not as hoping to establish my guilt, 
but as expecting to obtain money from me. For 
precisely as such actions at law are most damaging 
and perplexing, so everyone is most anxious to avoid 

But I, gentlemen, disdained that : as soon as he 
charged me, I placed myself entirely at your disposal, 
and came to terms with none of my enemies on 
account of this ordeal, though they take more 
pleasure in vilifying me than in commending them- 
selves. Not one of them has ever attempted, openly 
and in his own person, to do me a single hurt ; they 
prefer to set upon me men of this stamp, whom you 
cannot honestly believe. For I shall be the most 

drachmae and some of his civic rights if he failed to get a 
fifth of the votes of the judges. 

a 165 


41 iravrayv yap ddXicoraros av yevoL\x,r)V > el (f>vyds 
aoiKcos Karaar-qaopai, drrais /xev tbv /cat jjlovos, 

[112] iprj/jLov Se rov olkov yevop,evov, firjTpos 8e Travrcnv 
evoeovs <ovar)s> i 1 TrarplSos Se roiavrrjs in al(7\L- 
orais OT€pT]9eLs atrial?, ttoAXols fiev vau/xa^ta? 
vnep avrrjs vevavpaxrjKws, 7roAAas" 8e /xa^a? 
/xe/xa^^LteVo?, Koopiov 8' e/xaurov /cat eV 817/xo- 
KpoLTLq /cat ey dAiyap^t'a TrapaoyjMV . 

42 'AAAa yap, c5 fiovA-rj, ravra p,ev IvOdoe ovk otS' 
o rt 8et Ae'yeiv direoei^a 8' u/xtV a*? ou/c ein)v gtjkos 
€v r< i ) X^pUpi Kai p-dprvpas rrapecrxd^rjv /cat re/c/xfj- 
pta. a ^p^ p,€pLV7]pevovs hiayiyvtoctKeiv nepl rod 
TTpaypiaTOSy kclI ol£lovv Trapd rovrov TrvQiodai orov 
eVe/ca, i£6v eV avrocfxLpcp iAeytjai, rocrovrco XP ^ 

43 vorepov ei? roaovrov /xe Kareor-qoev dytova, /cat 
fidprvpa ovoeva TrapaaxofJievos e/c raV Aoya>v ^ret 
77-taros" yeveodai, i^ov avrols toIs epyous dSi/couvra 
cwroSerfat, /cat e/xou drravras Sloovtos rous #epd- 
TTovras, ovs <j>r}ai irapayeveodai, TrapaAafielv ovk 

1 offals add. Frohberger. 



miserable of creatures if I am to be unjustly declared 
an exile : I am childless and alone, my house would 
be abandoned, my mother would be in utter penury, 
and I should be deprived of a native land, that is so 
much to me, on the most disgraceful of charges, — I 
who in her defence have engaged in many sea-fights 
and fought many battles on land, and have shown 
myself an orderly person under both democracy and 

But on these matters, gentlemen, I do not know 
what call I have to speak in this place. However, 
I have proved to you that there was no stump on the 
plot, and I have produced witnesses and evidence : 
these you should bear in mind when you make your 
decision on the case, and require this man to inform 
you why it was that, neglecting to convict me as 
taken in the act, he has delayed so long in bringing 
so serious an action against me ; why he seeks to 
be credited on the strength of his statements, un- 
supported by a single witness, when the bare facts 
would have sufficed to establish my guilt ; and why, 
on my offering all the servants whom he asserts to 
have been then present, he declined to accept them. 




This curious speech is almost certainly not the work 
of Lysias. It appears, however, to have been written 
not very long after his time, and may fairly be 
regarded as the actual protest of an outraged member 
of a society which existed, in part at least, for the 
performance of certain ceremonial duties. Its 
members also took a joint responsibility in arranging 
loans and other financial affairs between any two or 
more of their number. In the present case, the 
speaker has lent twelve minae to a fellow-member 
named Polycles, who gave him a sick horse as security. 
The creditor, discovering the animal's condition, 
sought to cancel the transaction at once, but was 
dissuaded by another member, Diodorus, who assured 
him that he would be repaid in due time. The horse 
died, and the creditor found that, instead of getting 
the support of his fellow-members as he had a right 
to expect, he was told that he had got the horse for 
his money, and must put up with his loss. He was, 
in fact, the victim of a trick, and discovered that his 
fellow-members were his enemies and that he could 


get no satisfaction. He proceeds therefore to protest 
against his ill-treatment, principally by taxing the 
members with continual evil-speaking of each other, 
which will soon lead to the disruption of the society. 
He takes the first step towards this by resigning his 
own membership. 

The text of the speech is very uncertain at several 
points, and the details of the quarrel are left in some 
obscurity. One point, however, is quite clear, — that 
this society suffered from a more than ordinary 
prevalence of backbiting amongst its members. 


VIII. kathtopia npos 


1 ^TTtTlfjheLOV flOL Sokw Kaipov elXrj^evaL nepl d)V 
elrrelv efiovXofirjv irdXai' ndpeiGi fiev yap ols errey- 
KaXco, rrdpeioi 8e cov evavriov eiridvfia) fiepajjaodai 

GTTOvSr] TTpOS TOVS TTdpOVTCLS' TOV? fiev yap <TTap > X 

ovSev olfiai rifirfcreiv , el rots' emrr]Belois dvem- 
rrfieioi ho^ovGiv elvai (rr)v yap apx^jv ovh* av 

2 errex^lpovv e^afiaprdveiv els e/xe), rols §€ fiov- 
Xolfirjv av Sofai firjSev olSlkwv rovrovs vtto rovrcov 
a§iK€L<j0aL rrporepov. dvtapov fiev ovv dvay- 
Ka^eadai Xeyeiv rrepl tovtujv, dSvvarov Be fir) 
Xeyeiv, orav evavriov rrjs eXnihos KaKa>s iraa-ftO) 
Kal rovs SoKovvras elvai cf>iXovs dSiKovvras 

3 Upcbrov fiev ovv, Iva fir} ris Vficov ra^a hr) 
fioTjQcbv ols e^rjfidprrjKe rrpofyaoiv 7ropicrrjrai rrjs 
dfiaprlas, elrrdra) ovv ris vfiajv vtt* ifiov KaKtos 
aKiqKoev r) irerrovdev, r) ris ifiov SerjOels ovk ervyev 
ojv eyd) re Swards rj KaKeivos ernqyy eiAe. — ri 
Srjrd fie KaKcos rd fiev Xeyeiv rd he rroieiv im- 

1 wap' add. Emperius. 


It is a suitable opportunity, I consider, that I have 
taken to deal with matters on which I had long been 
wishing to speak ; for we have here present the 
persons against whom I have to complain, and those 
present also before whom I am anxious to reprove 
the men who have done me wrong. To be sure, one 
is far more earnest towards men in their presence ; for 
although I suppose that my opponents will count 
it as nothing to be considered unfriendly by their 
friends (else they would never have made even a 
first attempt to offend against me), to the rest I would 
like to show that I have done no wrong to these men, 
but that they were beforehand in wronging me. 
Now of course it is painful to be compelled to speak 
of these matters ; but it is impossible not to speak, 
when I meet with ill-treatment against my expecta- 
tion, and find that I am wronged by those whom I 
took to be friends. 

Well then, first of all, so that none of you may per- 
chance defend his faults by scraping up an excuse for 
his errors, let him say who among you has been ill- 
treated by me in speech or in act, or who has made 
a request of me without getting what I was able to 
give as he proposed. Why, I ask, do you endeavour 
to do me harm, sometimes in word, and sometimes in 



4 ^etpetre, /cat ravra np6s tovtovs rjfias 8ta/3dAAetv, 
oug irpos rjl-ids olvtovs Ste/JdAAere; /catrot outgo? 
r)va>x\€LT€ / ojare 7rept ttXziovos eiroi-quaro <tis>* 
So/cetv ifAov Krj$€cr9ou, ?} d'AAov 3 e/xot 4 KaTtnreiv. 
a 8' e'Aeye, 7rdvra Liev ovk av etVot/xt (/cat yap 
olkovojv r))(66iJL'qv) ovcV aV d/xtv eVt/caAcDv, OTL 
iXeyere /car' e/xod, tolvtcl Ae^atux 6, /cat yap di> 
diroXvoijii rrjs alrias d/xd?, etWp vpuv ravrd 

5 Aeyotut 77ept ifxavrod' a 8e d/3pt£etv oloLievoi eue 
/caraycAaarous' u/xa? avrovg eVotetre, tolvtcl Ae£a>. 
/?ia yap d/xtv e^dcr/cere /xe ^uyeiVat /cat StaAeyea#at, 
/cat irdvTa iroiovvTes ovk e^etv ottojs a7TaXXayrJT€ 
fjiov, /cat to reAeuratov aKovTCov vficbv 'EAeuotvdde 
^vvdeaypelv. /cat TadYa Aeyoyres' olecrde fiev ifxe 
/ca/coAoyetv, a7ro<f>aiv€T€ Se CT/catordrous' eaurous*, 
otTtves 1 [xtev] 6 dVd rdv adrdv y^povov tov olvtov 
dVSpa XdOpa' fxkv e'AotSopetre, cfxiveptos Se <f>iXov 

6 eVo/xt£ere. XP^^ V* 1 / 3 u/xas' ^ /X17 /ca/ccDs" Ae'yetv 
t) /x^ ^vvelvai, /cat raura (f>avepa>s drreiTTovTas 
d/xtAtav. et Se alaxpov rjyeZcrde tovto, ttcjs 
alaxpov rjv vllZv l^vveZvai, TTpos ov odSe aTTenreZv 

7 /caAdy -qyeZaOe; /cat u^v odSev aurd? i^rjvpov 9 
oTToOev av zIkotcos dVepet'SeTe ttjv €llt)v opaXiav. 
ovt€ yap vfias ao^ajTaTOVs ecopojv SvTag, ifiav- 
tov S' dpLadecTTaTov, ov litjv odSe 7ToXvcf)iXovs d/xd?, 
ipiavTov S' eprjfjiov <j>iXtov, odd' ad TrAourowras", 
e'/xe Se nevofxevov, odd' ad d/xd? /xev vnepevSoKi- 

1 i^wx^ 7 "* Kayser : <;' j>oxX« mss. 

2 rts add. Thalheim. 

8 1) &\\oi> Gernet et Bizos : ical fiaWov mss. 

4 i/jLoi Emperius : ifiou mss. 

8 ravTa X^aifii Markland: ravra 56£aipu mss. 

6 fxh del. Bekker. 7 &p8pa XdOpq. Reiske : \ddpq. dvdpa mss. 



deed ; and, what is more, to traduce me to these 
men, whom you traduced to myself? Nay, indeed, 
you were making so much mischief that one man pre- 
ferred to appear to be concerned for me rather than 
have another give me information of it. I could not 
tell you the whole of what he said — the mere hearing 
of it was grievous to me — nor, for my protest against 
your aspersions on me, would I speak in the same 
terms ; for I should be absolving you of my charge 
against you if I used the same language to you on my 
own behalf. But I will tell you how, in thinking to do 
me an outrage, you made yourselves ridiculous. You 
asserted that it was an intrusion when I associated 
and talked with you ; that despite all your efforts you 
did not know how to get rid of me ; and finally, that 
it was against your will that you went with me on a 
mission to Eleusis. In making these statements you 
think you are defaming me, but you only reveal 
yourselves as utter dunderheads ; for you were 
covertly abusing the same man whom at the same 
moment you were openly treating as a friend ! You 
ought to have refrained either from defaming him 
or from associating with him, and that by an open 
renunciation of his company. But if you felt that to 
be dishonourable, how was it dishonourable for you to 
associate with a man whom you did not even feel it 
honourable to renounce ? And, mark you, I for my 
part have discovered no ground on which you could 
reasonably have despised my company. For neither 
could I see that you were very clever and myself 
very stupid, nor indeed that you were surrounded 
with friends and myself destitute of them, nor again 
that you were wealthy and I poor, nor again that 

8 airrbs itfvpov Schott: o5ros e^evpev mss. 

g2 173 


fjLOVvras, epiavrov he hia^epXy]pievov, ovhe rd piev 

ijJLa TTpdypiara Kivhvvevovra, rd 8' v\.ierepa dcr<f>aXd)s 

13] exovra. voOev av ovv etVora)? virajirrevov dxOecrdal 

8 fioi ovvovri; /cat ravra 8' ore rrpos rovs reXevraiovs 
iXeyer* ovk 1 weode d-rrayyeXeZv rj/JLiv, Kavravda 
GocfiLGfia kolXov rjyovpievoi 2 TrepirjXOere Trdvras 3 
vpicov avrcov Kar'qyopovvres on TTOvqpoZs eKovres 

Wepi p,ev ovv rod Xeyovros ovhev av irepaivoire 
TrvvOavopievoi. TTpcorov piev yap et'Sore? 4 eprjaecrOe 
rov el-rrovra pioi' ttcx)s yap ovk '{.are Trpos ov eXeyere 

9 rov Xoyov; eVetra kolkos av elrjv, el ravra 5 ttoitj- 
crat/xt avrdv airep eKeZvos vpids. ov yap eirl roZs 
avroZs eKelvos y)pXv aTTrjyyeXAev, e</>' oloTrep vpieZs 
eXeyere npos eKeZvov. eKelvos piev yap e/zot X a P L ~ 
^opievos aTrrjyyeiXe rols epioZs dvayKaiois, vpieZs 
he fiXdrrreiv epie fiovXopievoi rrpos eKeZvov eXeyere. 
/cat ravra el piev rjTTiarovv, e^eXeyxeiv av eQrvrovv 
vvv he (£vpiftaivei ydp /cat ravra roZs rrpo rov } /cat 

10 e^Ltot orjpieZa ravra piev eKeivajv eariv, eKeZva he 
rovrojv t/cava) irpcbrov piev arravra hi vpicov 
rrpd^avrd pie rrepl rrjs deoetos rod Ittttov npos 
'Hye/xa^ov, 6 Kapivovra rov ittttov dvdyeiv pie 
fiovXopievov Aiohajpos ovroal aTrorpeTreiv eTreiparo, 
(f>do-KQjv ovhev dvriXe^eiv rrepl rwv ha)heKa pivow 
HoAu/cAe'a, dAA' aTrohcooeiv. rore Xeyajv ravra, 
pier a rov Odvarov rod Ittttov Karearr] reXevra>v 
dvrihiKos pierd rovrojv, Xeyojv (Ls ov hiKaiov pie 

11 e'lrj Kopbiaaodai ro dpyvpiov. Kairoiye ocfitov 1 ye 

1 tire . . . iKiyer' ovk Sauppe : tin . . . ZXeyev, ovs mss. 
2 ijyov/xevoL Dobree : thai ei MS3. 
3 iravras Sauppe : wdvrej mss. 
4 d86res Rciske: dirovres MSS. 6 ravra Scaliger: ra mss. 



you were in particularly good repute and myself in 
ill odour, nor were my interests in danger and yours 
in safety. What reasonable ground, then, had I for 
suspecting that you were annoyed by my associa- 
tion with you ? Moreover, when you made these 
statements to our newest members, you did not expect 
that they would report them to us, and there you 
were, supposing it a fine stroke of cleverness to go 
round accusing yourselves to everyone of consenting 
to be in the company of evil men ! 

As to my informant, it would be vain for you to 
inquire. For, first of all, you know the person who 
told me, before you ask : how can you not know 
him, the man to whom you made your statement ? 
In the second place, I should do wrong to deal with 
him as he did with you. For he had not the same 
view in reporting it to me as you had in making it to 
him. He reported it to my relatives out of kindness 
to me, but you made it to him with the intention of 
injuring me. And if I disbelieved his words, I 
should seek to test them : as it is, they tally with 
the former reports, and I find in them corrobora- 
tion of those, as those amply corroborated them. So, 
first of all, dealing entirely through you with Hege- 
machus about the deposit of the horse, I wished to 
return the horse because the animal was in a sickly 
state : Diodorus here tried to dissuade me, asserting 
that Polycles would make no objection to refunding 
the twelve minae. So he said at the time ; but 
after the death of the horse he ranged himself in the 
end with these men as my opponent, saying that I 
had no right to recover the money. Yet in fact they 

6 Trpos 'Hye'/Ltaxov Dobree : Trpoarjyt /xaxofxevov MSS. 
7 o-^aJv Dobree : £<f>' cov mss. 



avra>v Kariqyopovv. el yap a fierd rovroov Kerrpar- 

TOV> X dSiKOVfJLCl'Cp /JLOL pi7]heV T)V hlKCLLOV €l7Telv , 
rj 7T0V KCLKCOS 2 GwilTpCLTTOV. Kol iyd) [JL€V CppLTjV 

(^■iXoGO(j)OVvras avrovs irepl rod 7rpa.yp.aTOs dvn- 
Xlyeiv rov evavriov Xoyov ol 8' apa ovk dvreXeyov 
1- dXX avreirparrov, Kal hid rovro dvreXeyov, 3 Iva 
rov ipiov Xoyov elheirj UoXvKXfjs- ehrjXa)dr] ydp 
ravra. rrapovrojv roov hiairrjrojv dpyi^opievos* 
6 TLoXvkXtjs eiirev on Kal roZs ifiolg eTTirijheiois 

OLOLKelv hoKOlTjV, OJS TTpOS €K€LVOV XeyOieV . dpd 

ye ravra t;vpifiaivei rols dnayyeXXopievois ; 6 ydp 
avros dirqyyeiXev cos rovs vrrep ifiov fieXXovras 
Xeyeiv drrorpei/jeiv 6 ^daKoire, rovs he rivas rjh-q 
KooXvaatre. 6 /cat ravra ri pie Set (f>avepojrepov 
e£eXeyXeiv en 1 ; (f>epe ydp, fjhei iror' eKeZvos on 

13 IvXeirohiKOV heiqOels eiriXeyeiv 8 ovk erv^ov ; ov 
yap hrj rraprjv rovrois' rj ri 9 Kephos rjv avrw 
hiafidXAeiv epie rrpos vpias ovroo rrpodvpLcos, ooorre 
OTTOvhavai rrpos rovs epiovs dvayKaiovs rrXdcracrdai 
ravra ; 

14 TiyvajoKO) he vvv rjhr] Kal rrdXai t.-qrovvras 
rrp6(f)aaiv, rjviKa Spaovpiaxov vp,as i(f)doKere 
KaKoos Xeyeiv hi ipce. Kal eyoo piev rjpooroov avrdv 
el hi e/xe KaKtos Xeyoi Aiohoopov 6 he rooovrov 
vrrepeZhe rd hi ep.e' rroXXov yap heZv ecf>7] hi* 
ovnvovv elprjKevai kiohujpov KaKtos. Kal ravra 

1 Z-rrpaTTov add. anon. Fritzschii. 

8 kclkQs Gernet et Bizos : ko.\u>s mss. 

* avrt\eyoi> Emperius : avriirpaTTov mss. 

4 op-yi^op-evos Markland: opifupLtvos mss. 

5 airoTpixl/eiv Contius : aworptTreiv mss. 



were merely accusing themselves. For if I had no 
rightful claim in regard to a wrong suffered through 
an arrangement shared with them, surely they were 
wrong in so sharing it. And I also thought it was 
for the mere theory of the thing that they took up 
the argument in opposition : but I found they were 
not arguing but acting against me, and the purpose 
of their argument was to enable Polycles to know my 
argument. This became evident : in the presence 
of the arbitrators Polycles angrily said that even my 
friends considered that I was in the wrong, — so they 
told him. Now, does this tally with what was reported 
to me ? My informant himself reported that you 
declared you would hinder those who intended 
to speak on my behalf, and had prevented several 
others already. What need have I to set the proof 
of these facts in a yet clearer light ? I ask you, 
could that man know that, having asked Cleitodicus 
to speak next, I was refused ? I was told he was not 
present at the meeting. Then what interest had he to 
be so zealous in getting me into disgrace with you that 
he busied himself with fabricating such a story for 
my relatives ? 

And I observe that not only now, but for a long 
time past, you have been seeking a pretext- 
when you declared that Thrasymachus was defaming 
you because of me. Well, I asked him if it was 
because of me that he was defaming Diodorus ; and 
how he disdained that " because of me " ! For 
he said he was far from having defamed Diodorus 
because of anybody. If I should prefer this charge, 

• K(a\v<xaiT€ Reiske: KuAvaere mss. 7 £n Reiske : 6Vt ms3. 
8 €7ri\eyeii> Emperius : eK\£yeiv MSS. 
9 t) tL Emperius : iwel mss. 



Trpoodyovros ipov npoOvpos 6 Qpaovuaxos fjv 

15 i^eXeyx^aOai, Trepl cov ovros eXeyev ovros Se 


Kpdrrjs ipov napovros Spacrvpdxco eXeyev Kvpv- 
TTToXepLOv avrco pepfieaOat, (f)daKovra kclkojs aKovetv 
vit* avrov' rov airayyeXXovra he elvai ^lr]v6(f)iXov . 
evdvs o' eKelvos enl rov hlrjvocfyiXov efidhi^e pier* 
epov' KaKelvos ovre d/coucrat irojirore efiaahcev 
ovre dirayyelXai Trpos JLvpvTrroXepov, /cat ov ravra 
povov, aXX ovhe hieiXexQai ttoXXov xP ovov - 

16 roiavras Trpo<f)doeis rrpocjiaoi^opevoi rore p,ev e/c 

TTJS iprjS Kdl QpOLGVpaXOV GVVOVGtaS £<JT€ <jxiV€pOL } 

vvv he iiT€L$r) e/cAeAotVacrtv vp,as at tt po^daeis , 
eXevdepiwrepov p,e /ca/ccDcrat XeiTrere rjhrf ovhev. 
Xpfjv P'tv ovv rore pue yiyvwoKeiv 6(f)eiX6pevov pot, 
ravra Tradelv, ore /cat Trpos epe irepi vpa>v avrtbv 
eXeyere 3 /ca/ccos" erreira /cat irepl HoXvi<Xeovs, a) 

17 vvvl Boi]deLT€, Trdvr ecprjKa Trpos vpas. /caret Tt 
hr) ravra <ovk> 4 i(j)vXarr6pr]v; evades Tt eiraOov. 
tpprjv yap aTroOeros vplv elvai <f)lXos rod prjhev 
d/coucrat /ca/co> St' avro rovro y Start Trpos epe rovs 
dXXovs eXeyere /ca/ccos", 6 TrapaKaradrjKrjv ex a)V vpcov 

.114] 77-ap' eKaorov Xoyovs Trovrjpovs irepl dXXtjXajv. 

18 'Eyto roivvv eKwv vplv it; tora/xat rrjs (jytXias, eirel 
rot pa rovs Oeovs ovk otS' o Tt ^rjpLajOrjOopai pr) 
^vvojv vplv ovhe yap d)(fieXovp,r)v £vvd>v. TTorepov 
yap, orav fj ri p,oi Trpaypa, rore rtoQeoopai rov 
epovvra /cat tows' p,aprvpr\oovr as; /cat vvv dvrl 
pev rov Xeyeiv vnep epov rov Xeyovra rreipaade 

1 iravr av Markland: iravruv, wavra MSS. 

2 Xeiwere tfdr) Scheibe : \eiTrere, \^tttl8l MSS. 

3 4\£y€T€ Contius : ZXeye mss. 
4 ovk add. Reiske. 8 Ka/cws Foertsch : teal mss. 



Thrasymachus was anxious to be put to the test in 
regard to this man's statements ; but to settle it thus 
was the last thing that the latter would have done. 
After that Autocrates told Thrasymachus in my 
presence that Euryptolemus was complaining of him, 
with the assertion that he was being defamed by 
him, and that the reporter of this was Menophilus. 
Immediately Thrasymachus walked over with me to 
see Menophilus ; who asserted that at no time had 
he either heard it or reported it to Euryptolemus, and 
what was more, that he had not even talked with 
him for a long time. Such were the pretexts that 
you clearly invented then from my association with 
Thrasymachus ; but now that pretexts have failed 
you, in more straightforward oppression you show 
that you stop at nothing. I ought indeed to have 
understood then that this fate was in store for me, 
when you were actually defaming to me your own 
members ; and then I have told you my whole 
opinion of Polycles, whom you are now supporting. 
What can have made me so incautious ? It was a 
fatuous lapse in me. I thought I was a friend of 
yours who was exempt from all defamation for the 
very reason that you defamed the others to me, since 
I held a pledge from each of you, — your malicious 
statements about one another. 

I therefore willingly resign your friendship, since, 
by Heaven, I cannot see what penalty I shall suffer 
by not associating with you ; for neither did my 
association with you bring me benefit. Shall I find, 
when I have some suit, that I feel the lack of a 
pleader and witnesses ? At present, instead of 
pleading in my defence, you try to prevent anyone 



KCoXveiV, OLVTl $€ TOV /3oY]0€LV CpOt Kdl [JLOLpTVpetV 

ret St/cata £vve(jT€ rots' e/xot? avrihiKois /cat 

19 fiapTvpelre. dXX cog evvoi 1 ovres epot ret fieXriOTa 
ipelre Trepl ipiov; dAAa /cat vvv u/xets* jite pdvot 2 
kclkcos Xeyere. to /jlgv ow 6/xov ovk ifiTroScov 
up,tv ecrrat. Totourov 8' apa 3 7rpds" up.a? aurous" 
rreioeode, 677etS^ 77ep u/xtv e#os" icrrlv eVa tojv 
^vvovtcov del kclkcos Xeyeiv /cat 77-otetv €7T£tSav 
vjjuv eyco {ifj ^vvco* irpos vjjlcls clvtovs rpeipeaOe, 6 
Ka.7T€ira /ca#' eVa eKaorov up,tv auTots" a77€^- 
drjaecrOe, to Se reAeuratov ef? d Aet77-d/xe^os" awrds" 

20 aurdy kclkcos epet. KepSavco Se rooovrov, on 
T,pcuTOS vvv 6 vpLCov ctTraAAayets" eAa^toTa kclkcos 
u</>' vpLCov 77€tCTOjLtaf tous" p*ey yap xpojpeVous" vplv 
/ca/cco? /cat Xiyere /cat 7rotetre, tojv 8e p.17 y^pcoiiivcov 

Ovhiva 7TC07TOT€. 

1 edvoi. Reiske: el'vovs mss. 2 /u^oi Bekker: yuoyov mss. 

3 5' apa Thalheim : yap mss. 

* /rJ) £vv<2 Markland : u-qvuaw, /x7]vI<tlj mss. 

6 Tptyeade Markland: rpeweade mss. 

• TrpQros vvv Thalheim: irpwrov fxh mss. 



from doing this, and instead of supporting me and 
bearing just witness, you associate with my opponents 
and bear witness for them. Or, as my well- 
wishers, will you speak the best you can about me ? 
Why, to-day you are the only persons who speak ill 
of me ! Well, for my part I shall not hinder you. 
And this is what will happen to you among yourselves, 
since it is your habit to be ever injuring one of your 
associates in speech and in act : when I have left 
your association, you will turn against yourselves ; 
then you will conceive a hatred of each one of your 
number in turn ; and finally the last one left will 
defame himself. And my advantage will be at 
least this, — that, by being the first to rid myself of 
you now, I shall suffer the least injury at your hands : 
for you injure both in speech and in act the people 
who have to do with you, but never a single one of 
those who have not. 



This speech is the defence of a man named Polyaenus, 
who has been summoned before the court on a writ of 
confiscation (diroy pa<fn]) for having failed to pay a 
fine to the Treasury. He explains that after returning 
home from a campaign he was very soon placed on 
the list for service again. He protested against the 
unfairness, but was treated in an insulting manner 
by the general who had enrolled him : he then dis- 
cussed the matter with a friend at a banker's in the 
market-place, and was reported to the generals as 
having abused them in public. They unlawfully im- 
posed a fine on him for this, but did not try to exact 
it : at the close of their year of office, however, they 
gave notice of it to the Treasury clerks, who decided 
that it had been wrongfully imposed and cancelled 
it outright. Notwithstanding this decision, he is 
now sued, more than a year after, as a State debtor, 
and is threatened with the confiscation of his property 
and virtual loss of citizenship. The date of the suit 

a Probably an ordinary democratic court of diKaarai pre- 
sided over by the Eleven, who had special jurisdiction in 
serious criminal cases, or else by the Syndics, who were 
magistrates specially appointed in the fourth century to deal 
with cases involving confiscation of property. 



is probably to be placed in the Corinthian War 
(395-386 b.c). 

After pleading the provocation given him by the 
spiteful action of the generals, and the fact that the 
law only forbids abuse of a magistrate in open court, 
Polyaenus relies mainly on the point that the fine 
was cancelled by the Treasury officials, who evidently 
found that it had been imposed in an irregular way. 
He adds that the suit is brought by his personal 
enemies, who are in league with the generals : their 
enmity is due to the friendship that he had formed 
with Sostratus, a man of great influence in the State ; 
and while their bitterness against him is quite in the 
ordinary course of things, an adverse decision of the 
court would be ruin to him and a great discredit to 
the city. 

The speech lacks the clear reasoning and simple 
exposition of Lysias, but it was probably composed 
for an actual trial of the fourth century. Part of its 
obscurity is due to the unsound condition of the text. 



1 Tt irore hiavoijBevTes ol dvTihucoi tov piev irpdy- 
fiaros Trapi-ijieX^KaGi, tov he rpoirov jjlov lireytipf)- 
oav hiafidXXeiv ; iroTepov dyvoovvTes oti irepl tov 
TrpaypLdTOs Trpo<jr\K£i Xeyeiv ; tj Tohe \xkv eirioravrai, 
rjyovpievoi he Xiqueiv irepl [rov^ ttclvtos irXeico 


epiov Karacf)povqaavr€g dXXd rod Trpdy/JLaros tovs 
Xoyovs TTOiovvrai, aacfxjjs eir iGTapiai' el pievTOi 
Vfias olovTai hi dyvoiav 2 viro twv hiafioXoov 
TreicrdivTOLS KaTaiJsri<f>ieZodai piov, tout' 3 civ dav- 

3 pLacrai/Jii. wfirjv fiev ovv, (L dvhpes hiKaaTai, irepl 
tov eyAcA^/xaros", ov irepl tov Tpoirov tov dydjvd 
fioi 7T poKelod ai % hiafSaXAovTCov he fxe twv dvTihiKtov 
dvayKalov eoTi irepl irdvTtov <TrjV>* diroXoy lav 
TTOirjcraadai. irpcoTOV p,ev ovv irepl ttjs diroypa<f)rjs 
vjids hihd^to. 

4 'A^iKo/xei/o? irpoirepvatv 6 els ttjv iroXiv, ovirco 
hvo pifjvas iirihehrj[Ar]Kdjs KdTeXeyrjV crTpaTicoTrjs. 
aloOojievos he to irpaxGev vireTOirov\xy]v evOeoos 
eirl paqhevl vyiei KaTeiXeyQai. irpooeXdwv ovv 

1 tov del. Markland. 

2 dyvoiav Rauchenstein : evvoiav mss. 

8 tovt" Markland: ovk mss. * ttjv add. Franz. 

5 irfioirepvaiv Reiske : irpoTepov MSS. 

Yet, in what follows, we are spared the usual commenda- 


What could have been the view of my opponents 
in disregarding the point at issue, and in seeking to 
traduce my character ? Is it that they are unaware 
that their business is to speak on that point ? Or, 
though well aware of this, do they consider it will 
pass unobserved that they take more account of any- 
thing than of that which is their business ? That their 
statements are made in a spirit of contempt, not 
for me, but for the point at issue, I clearly under- 
stand : if, however, they suppose that from mere 
ignorance you will be induced by their aspersions to 
condemn me, this to me would be a surprise. I did 
indeed suppose, gentlemen of the jury, that I had 
to face my trial on the charge preferred, not on 
my character ; but, as my opponents are traducing 
me, it is necessary to deal with all a of their points 
in my defence. So then, to begin with, I will inform 
you as to the writ against me. 

The year before last, after I had arrived in the 
city, I had not yet been in residence for two months 
when I was enrolled as a soldier. On learning what 
had been done, I at once suspected that I had been 
enrolled for some improper reason. So I went to the 

tion of the speaker's character. He means, apparently (see 
the next sentence), the whole story of how he came to be 



rep arpar-qya) e'SrjAojoa on iaTparevfievos et^r, 
ervypv Se ovSevos tGjv uerptojy. Trpom^XaKL^o- 

5 fievos Se rjyavdKTOW \xiv, rjGV)(iav S' et^ov. 0.77-0- 
pov/jL€vos Se /cot ovpifiovXevoiJLevos tlvl rd>v 7toXltcop 
tl xP 7 j <7a> l JiaL T <? irpaypLariy lrrvQ6[Lr\v cos Kal 
h-qoeiv fie aneiXolev, Xdyovres otl ouSeV iXdrTto 
Xpovov KaAAiKparovs HoXvawos ivhrjfiolr). kol/jlol 

6 fi€v to TTpoeip-qfieva Stet'Ae/cro eVt rfj OtAt'ou 
rpdirit^' ol Se /zero K.T7]glkX4ovs rod dpxovTos, 
arrayyeiXavTOS twos cos iyco AotSooot/xt, rod vofiou 
airayopevovros edv res &pxh v e ' v crvveSplcp XoiSopfj, 
irapd rov vopiov ^rjjjutocrai r)£itocrav. emfiaXovTes 
Se to dpyvpiov Trpd^audau ueV ovk eVe^etp^oav, 
i^iovarjs Se rrjs dpxfjs ypdipavres els XevKcofia 

7 rots rapLioLLs TrapeSocrav. otSe /xeV TaSe hieirpd^avTO. 

OL Se TCLfJLLOLL 0?3SeV OflOLOV TOtoSe hiaV07]deVT€S , 

dvaKaXeud[X€VOL [Sej tojj? Trapa&ovras [/cat] 1 r^v 


aKovcravres Se to yeyzvqpLevov, evvoovpievoi ota 


dtfielvai, StSao/covres' cos ovk eVtet/ces 1 et'77 toji-' 

115] ttoXitcov Ttvas Std TO? exOpas dvaypdtpeadai, 

diropovvTCs Se uera7retoat auTOus, tov 7rap' vjjlcou 


8 "Ort /iey ouv d(f>€idr)v vtto tlov TajXLtov, iTTLcrraade- 

1 [5e] tous Trapabovras [/cat] Reiske : ak tovs TrapdvTas /ecu MSS. 

Whose duty it was to make up lists of citizens of military 
age, with instructions for specific service, and post them on 
statues in the market-place. 

6 Apparently Polyaenus had complained that a man 
named Callicrates, who had not been enlisted, had enjoyed a 
longer leave at home than himself. 



general, and pointed out that I had already served 
in the army ; but I met with most unfair treatment. 
I was grossly insulted but, although indignant, I kept 
quiet. In my perplexity I consulted one of our citizens 
as to the measures that I should take : I was told 
that they even threatened to put me in prison, on the 
ground that " Polyaenus had been as long a time in 
residence as Callicrates." & Now my conversation just 
mentioned had been held at Philius's bank : yet 
Ctesicles and his fellow-officers, on a report from 
somebody that I was abusing them, — although the 
terms of the law only forbid the abuse of a magistrate 
at session of his court, — decided unlawfully to punish 
me. They imposed the fine, but instead of attempting 
to exact it, at the expiration of their term of office they 
recorded it on a register which they handed over to 
the clerks of the Treasury. d So much for their opera- 
tions ; but the clerks of the Treasury, taking a very 
different view from theirs, demanded an explanation 
from the persons who had handed over the record, 
and inquired into the grounds of the charge. Hear- 
ing what had occurred, and impressed by the strange 
treatment I had received, they at first urged them to 
let me off, pointing out that it was not reasonable 
that any of our citizens should be registered as public 
debtors out of personal enmity ; then, failing to 
dissuade them, they took upon themselves the risk 
of a trial before you, and ruled that the penalty was 
null and void. . . . e 

Well, that I was let off by the Treasury clerks, you 

e i.e., the generals, who made the selection of men for 
military service. 

d In the temple of Pallas on the Acropolis. 

■ A gap follows in the text, which should show that 
witnesses were called. 



7TpoGTjK€iv he r)yovfievos kcu 8id ravTTjV rr)v 
o,7t6$€l£iv a7TT]\\dx9a.L rod eyKX-qfiaros, ert TrXeiovas 
Kal vdfiovs koll dXXas hiKaidoaeis Trapauxqcjoixai, 
/cat fioL Aa/Se rov vofiov. 


9 Tov fiev vofiov hiapprjhrjv dyopevovros rovs ev 
ru) ovvehpico Xothopovvras t,r)fiiovv aKTjKoare' eyto 
8' or i fiev ovk elarjXdov els rd dpxelov, fidprvpas 
rrapecr)(6fir)v, dhiKcns he ^rffiiajdels ovr* o^eiXco 

10 ovr* eKrelcrat hiKaios elfii. el yap (f>avepos elfii 
fir) eXQajv els to ovvehpiov, 6 he vofios rovs evros 
r;Xy)iifieXovvras dyopevei rr)v ^rjfilav 6<f>eiXeiv, 
r)hLKr)K(hs fiev ovhev <f>aivofiai, e^^pa he dvev 
rovrov TrapaXoyojs ^rjfiiojQeis. vvveyvtooav he 

11 Kal avrol o<j)ioiv cos r)hiKr)Kores' ovre yap evdvvas 
vnecrxov, ovre els hiKaurripiov elaeXdovres rd 
rrpaxdevra iftr)(f)cp Kvpia Karecrrr)Gav. el 8' ovv 
e^rffiicooav fiev olhe Trpoa-qKovrajs, eKvpajoav 8' ev 
VfiXv rr)v emfioXrfVy rdjv rafiitov d(f>evra>v elKorcos 

12 dv rod eyi<Xr)fiaros drrrjXXayfievos etrjv. 1 el fiev 
yap <fir)> 2 Kvpioi rjcrav 7rpdi;ao9ai r) d(f)etvat, 
evvofiajs t,r)fiLa)6els evXoycos dv cb(f)eiXov' el 8' 
e^ecrru fiev avrols d(f>eZvaL, SiSoaox he Xoyovs 3 vrrep 
ojv dv Sta^ctpt^ctxrti^, el tl r)hu<r)K.aoi, rrjs rtpoo- 
t)KOVGi)s paSlajs $LKr)s rev^ovrai. 

1 airrjWayfxevos etr)v Schott : airrfWay u€i>oi tiei> MSS. 
1 /xr] add. Thalheim. 3 \6yovs Dobree: avroh mss. 

At the investigation of their acts (evdvvai held by etidwoi, 
officials chosen by lot from the tribes), to which all magistrates 


now know. But although I consider that merely on 
the strength of this demonstration I ought to stand 
cleared of the impeachment, I will put in a yet 
stronger array both of laws and of other justifications. 
Now, please, take the law. 


You have heard how the law expressly enjoins the 
punishment of those who utter abuse at a session of 
the court. But I have produced witnesses to the 
fact that I did not enter the magistrates' hall, and 
that, as the fine was unjustly imposed on me, I 
neither owe it nor in justice ought to pay it. For 
if it is evident that I did not go into the court, and 
the law enjoins that the fine is to be due from 
those who misbehave inside it, it is manifest that 
I have done no wrong, but because of enmity, 
and for no such act, have been fined against all 
reason. They knew in their own hearts that they 
had done wrong ; for they neither submitted their 
act to investigation, nor went into a law-court to get 
their proceedings confirmed by a vote. However, 
supposing they had been correct in imposing a fine 
on me, and had got the imposition confirmed in your 
court, I should stand fairly cleared of the impeach- 
ment by the release of the Treasury clerks. For if 
they were not competent to exact or remit it, being 
lawfully fined I should reasonably owe the payment ; 
but if they have power to remit, subject to rendering 
an account of their proceedings, they will easily be 
visited with the proper penalty for any wrong they 
have done. 

had to submit, they omitted this fine, on the ground that the 
matter had been referred to the Treasury. 



13 r Q.L fJL€V TpOTTCQ rrapeoodiqv Kdl i^rjfJLLCodrjV, €7Ti<JTa- 

crde' Set 8' vpuas p,rj p.6vov rod eyKXijfjLaros rrjv 
air lav dXXa /cat rrjs e\9pas rrjv rrpo^aoiv etSeVat. 
Hcoorpdrco yap <j>iXos eyevopaqv rrporepov p,ev rrjs 
rovrcov e'xdpas, elScos Se rrepX rr)v ttoXlv d^iov 

14 Xoyov yeyevqyievov . yvcopiiios 8e yevopievos Std 
rrjs e/cetVou hvvaoreias ovr exOpov iri\x<x>pr\<ja\xr)V 
ovre (f)i,Xov rjvepyerrjcra' £,covros fJL€V yap [Std rrjv] 
avayKrf Std rrjv rjXiKiav luypXat^ov, eKXirrovros 
Se rdv fiiov ovre Xoycp ovre epyco efiXai/ja ovSeva 
rcov Karrjyopovvrajv, e^a> Se /cat rouadra etVetv, i£ 
cov tofieXolfirjv av ttoXv St/catdrepov vtto rcov avri- 

15 Slkcov r) /ca/cd)? rrdoxoipn. rrjv ixev ovv opyrjv Std 
rd rrpoeiprjp.eva ovvearrjaavro , rrpo^doecos oi)Se- 
fiias rrpds ex6pav VTrapxovGiqs . oixoaavres [xev 
ovv rovs darparevrovs KaraXe^euv rrape^iqoav 
rovs opKovs, irpovdeoav he rep 7rXrj9eL fiovXev- 

16 cracr#at 2 7repl rod ocoixaros, ^rj/JLLcooavres ixev cos 
rrjv dpxrjv XouSopovvra, KaroXiycoprjoavres Se rod 
St/catou, fiia^o/jLevoi fiXdirreiv i£ arravros \rovf 
Xoyov rrdv <S'> 4 aV enpa^av p^eXXovres ueydAa [xev 
iixe pXai/jetv, rroXXd 8' eavrovs co^eX-qoeiv , drives 
ovSerepov rovrcov vrrdpxovros rrdvra rrepl eXdrrovos 

17 rroLovvrai rod dSi/ceti-'. 5 dXXa yap ot 6 Kare^povqaav 
rod vixerepov TrXrjBovs, ovSe <f>oftr]drjvai rovs deovs 
r)£lcocrav, dAA' ovr cos 1 oXiycopcos /cat rrapavopicos 
npocrrjvexdrjaav, coore dTToXoyrjuaodai p,ev rrepX 

1 Slcl T7]v avaynyv MSS. : xai avdyKri EmperiuS. 

2 j3ou\€v<Taadai Reiske : j3oi>\ed(rai mss. 

8 tov del. Dobree. * 5' add. Franz. 

5 &8ik€~iv Reiske: SckciIov mss. 

8 ot Markland: a mss. 7 oItus Aldus: ovre mss. 



Of the manner in Munich my name was handed over, 
and the fine imposed on me, you are now informed : 
but you must be apprised, not only of the charge 
preferred, but also of the pretext for this enmity. I 
had made friends with Sostratus before their enmity 
began, because I knew he had done remarkable ser- 
vice to the State. I became well-known through his 
personal influence, but did not make use of it either to 
avenge myself on an enemy or to serve a friend : for 
while he lived I was necessarily inactive on account 
of my age ; and when he passed away I injured none of 
my accusers either in word or in deed, and I can give 
such an account of myself as will show that in justice 
I ought much rather to receive benefits than ill- 
treatment from my opponents. Well, the circum- 
stances that I have mentioned had the effect of ac- 
cumulating their anger, though they had no real 
excuse for enmity. And so, having taken their oaths 
to enrol only those who had not served in the field, 
they violated those oaths, and then brought my case 
before the people for decision on a capital charge, 3 
after having fined me for abusing the magistrates, 
and having utterly disregarded the claims of justice : 
they were exerting themselves to injure me on any 
sort of plea, and they would have stopped at nothing so 
long as they could do me grievous injury and also win 
great advantage for themselves, seeing that when they 
are sure of neither of these ends they make everything 
of less account than their injustice. Nay , the men who 
showed their contempt for the people of your city 
disdained also to show fear of the gods : so reckless 
and lawless were their proceedings that they did not 

The penalty being the loss of civic rights consequent on 



TCOV 7T€7Tpayil€l'COV OuS' €7T€X€LpTjGaV f TO he TcAeV- 

toXov, vojjLi^ovres oi>x t/cavto? \xe TerifAajprjodai,, 

18 to trepag e'/c rrjg TToAews e^rjAaoav . htaredevres 
he ovrcx) napavofico? /cat fiialcos eTTLKpvipaoOai 
ttjv dhiKLav Trepl ovhevos eiroii^oavro , 7rapayay6vres 
he TrdAiv Trepl rtov avrcov rfhiK-qKora fie ovhev 
eTTiheixvvovoi /cat Aoihopovcrc, rots uev ijJLols 
e7TiTrjhevpLa(JLV ov Trpocrr]Kovoas hiafioAas em- 
(j>epovres, rols h* avrcov rpoirois ras OLKelas /cat 

19 Otoe fxev ovv e/c rravros [tou] 1 rpoTxov rrpoOvpLOvv- 
rat fie rfj hiKT] dAcovai' Vfiels he prqre rats rovrojv 
hiafioAals errapOevres epuov Karai/j7](f)Lcrr)crde, paqre 
rovs fieAriov /cat hiKaioos fiovAevvapLevovs aKvpovg 
KaraaT7](jr)Te. olhe p,ev yap diravra /cat /caret 
rovs vo/jlovs /cat /card to etKos eirpa^av, /cat 
rjhiKrjKores fiev ovhev <f>aivovrai, Aoyov he TrAelvrov 

20 rod hiKaiov TTOiiqodpLevoi. rovroov p,ev ovv dSt- 
kovvtojv fjuerpLajs [dv] 2 r\yavaKrovv y rjyovpLevos re- 

[116] rdxOai rovs [xev exOpovg /ca/cai? iroielv, rovs he 
<f>iAovs ev' nap* vficuv he rod St/catou orrepr]9els 
ttoAv dv fiaAAov AvTT7]6eL7]v. St' ex&P av ^ v V^P 
ov ho^oj kclkcos ireTTOvdevai, hid /ca/ctav he rfjs 

21 TToAeojs. Aoycp fiev ovv Trepl rijs a7roypa(f)r)s 
dycovl^ofjLOU, epyep he Trepl TroAireias. tvxojv fiev 
yap ra>v hiKaicov (TTiorevoj he rfj vp,erepa yvojp,rj) 
p.elvaip.1 dv <ev> 3 rfj TroAei' napaxOels 4, he vtto 

1 rod del. Dobree. 2 cu> del. Baiter. 

3 iv add. Stephanus. 
4 irapaxOeh Markland: irpaxdels mss. 

° He means, by implication, if their suit for the fine should 
be successful. b He refers to the Treasury officials. 



even attempt to defend their actions ; and finally, 
considering the revenge that they had taken on me 
insufficient, they took the last step of expelling me 
from the city. a In this mood of lawless violence they 
have not cared at all to conceal their injustice, but 
have summoned me here again on the same charge ; 
and although I have done no wrong, they denounce 
me and abuse me with a shower of calumnies that 
have no connexion with the tenor of my life, but are 
conformable and habitual to their own character. 

These persons, then, are endeavouring on any sort 
of plea to get me cast in this suit. But you must 
neither be incited by their calumnies to condemn me, 
nor invalidate the decision of those who have acted 
on a better, and on a just, consideration. 6 For 
their action was entirely in accordance with the laws 
and fair dealing, and it is plain that they have com- 
mitted no injustice, but made most account of what 
is just. The injustice of these men only caused 
me a moderate annoyance, as I considered it or- 
dained that one should harm one's enemies and serve 
one's friends ; c but to be deprived of justice at your 
hands would cause me a far deeper distress. For it 
will be thought that my evil plight is due, not to 
enmity, but to an evil condition of the State. Pro- 
fessedly, indeed, I am on trial for the matter d of this 
writ, but actually for my citizenship. If I obtain 
justice — and I have confidence in your verdict — I 
may remain in this city ; but if the summons of 

c This doctrine was accepted by Greek thought as part of 
the fixed order of things : it appears in Hesiod, Works and 
Days 351, Pindar, Pyth. ii. 83, and a saying of Simonides to 
this effect is taken by Plato as the starting-point of his 
discussion of justice in Republic i. 332. 

a Namely, confiscation. 



rojvhe el clSlkws aXoirjV, aTTohpair)v dv. tlvl yap 
iirapdevra e'Am'Si Set /xe ovpLrroXireveodai, rj ri 
fie XPV biQ-vorjOevTa, eldora fiev tGiv 6lvtlSlkcjv 

TT)V TTpodvjJLLOLV, OLTTOpOVVTa 8' SdeV XPV T ^ )V ^Kal(x)V 

22 rivos Tvytw; Trepl irXeiorov ovv TToirjodixevoi ro 
hiKaiov, koll ivOvpaqOevTes on kol virep tojv 
7T€pi4>av(Jov ahiKiqpLaTaiv ovyyvcopjqv TTOieloOe, rovs 
/x^Sev ahiKriaavras Sta ras e^Opas pirj 77€pitS^re 
aSiKws tols fieyLOTOis arir^/xacri 1 TTepnreoovras. 

1 dri^xwao't Reiske : dSi/cT^icao-i MSS. 



these men should lead to my unjust conviction, I 
should run away. For with what hope to bear me 
up must I mingle with the citizens, or with what 
purpose in life, when I knew the zeal of my oppo- 
nents, and could not tell where to look for any of my 
just rights ? Put justice, therefore, above everything 
else ; reflect that you grant pardon even for glaring 
acts of injustice ; and do not allow those who are 
guilty of no injustice to be unjustly entangled in the 
greatest misfortunes because of private feuds. 




In this private action Theomnestus is accused of 
having slandered the speaker by charging him with 
parricide. Some time before, Theomnestus had been 
impeached by Lysitheus for speaking in the Assembly 
after throwing away his shield in battle, — a reproach 
of cowardice which is familiar to us in Aristophanes ° : 
he had been acquitted, and had taken proceedings 
for perjury against one of Lysitheus 's witnesses, 
Dionysius, who was convicted and disfranchised. 
The present speaker had been accused of parricide 
by Theomnestus in the same action, and now prose- 
cutes him for slander, after a preliminary hearing 
before an arbitrator. 

In Athenian law certain defamatory statements 
were expressly forbidden, and among these were the 
charges of murder, of beating a parent, and of 
throwing away one's shield : actions for such de- 
famation, like the present, were heard before an 
ordinary court. 6 From the speaker's remark about 

° Wasps 191 ; Birds 290, 1481. 

6 Composed of Athenian citizens serving as 5iKa.<TTal. The 
case has been heard first by the Forty, who had to deal with 
most private suits, and then referred to an official arbitrator 
(5taiTr]TTjs, § 6), from whose decision an appeal is now made 
to an ordinary court. 



his age in the time of the Thirty (4) we gather that 
the speech was delivered in 384-383 B.C. His lively- 
argument first dismisses the possibility of his having 
killed his father (4-5), and then proceeds to his main 
business of ridiculing the pedantic excuse put for- 
ward by Theomnestus for his admitted obloquy, — 
that the law forbids the use of the word "murdered," 
and he only said "killed." One might expect, on this 
principle, to escape punishment for any kind of 
slander, if only the words actually mentioned in the 
law are to be punishable (6-9). And so all sorts of 
quibbles might be allowed in regard to other offences 
and crimes (10-14). To make the matter still clearer, 
let us take some of the antiquated words in the laws 
of Solon : some of these have been abandoned alto- 
gether, but we observe the intention of the law none 
the less (15-20). Theomnestus obtained redress 
when he had been accused of cowardice in the field : 
much more should the speaker obtain it, when he 
has been charged with the awful crime of parricide 
(21-26). He recalls the valiant services of his father, 
and contrasts them with the poltroonery of the de- 
fendant and his father (27-29). Theomnestus has 
another excuse, — that he made the charge in the 
heat of ill-temper : but this cannot be allowed in 
law (30). The speaker in his youth impeached the 
Thirty Tyrants : son and father alike deserve a just 
sentence upon their maligners (31-32). 

The vigour, directness and accomplished ease of 
the speech proclaim it a genuine and excellent work 
of Lysias. 



1 M.aprvpcov p,kv ovk airopiav p,oi eaeaOai Soko), to 
dvSpes SiKauTal' noXXovs yap vpitov opto Slkol- 
t,ovras Ttov tot€ TrapovTOJV, ore AvoLdzos 0eo- 
fjLvrjorov etcrrjyyeAAe tol onXa aiTofiefiXiqKOTa, ovk 
i£6v aiiTto, Srjpurjyope'iV' ev eKeivto yap rip aytbvi 
tov narepa [x etfraoKev drreKTOvevat tov ipuavTod. 

2 iyd> 8', el fiev tov eavrov p,€ aireKTOvivai rpiaro, 
crvyyva)[ir]v av el)(ov avTto Ttov elpiqjjLlvojv (cfyavXov 
yap avrov Kal ovoevos d^iov r^yovpaqv)' ouS' et tl 
dXXo Ttov a7Topprjra)v TjKovoa, ovk av iTre^rjXdov 
avrto (dveXevOepov yap Kal Xiav tfriXooiKov 1 eivat 

3 vopLL^a) KaKTjyopias hiKat,€.odai)' vvvl Se alo"%pov 
fjioi elvai Sok€l irepl rod irarpos, ovtoj noXXov 
d^iov yeyevr/pievov Kal vpuv Kal rfj rroXei, purj rcpLO)- 
piquaodai tov TavT elprjKOTa, Kal Trap* vfxtbv €L- 
SeVat povXojJLac Trorepov Scoaet $Ikt)v, t) tovto) 
fiovcp 'AOrjvalajv i£atp€TOV eoTi Kal TTOielv Kal 
Xeyeiv Trapd tovs vopuovs 6 tl av ftovXrjTat,. 

4 'EjLtot yap, to dvopes St/cacrrat, €tt) earl <Svo 
i<al> 2 TpiaKovTa, e£ otov <8'> 3 vpLels KaTtXrjXvQaTe, 

tlKOOTOV TOVTl. (f)aLVOjJLai OVV TpiOKaiO€K€TrjS tov 
OT€ 6 TTaTTJp V7TO TtOV TpiaKOVTa a7TedvTjGK€. 

1 aveXevdipov . . . <Pi\o51kov Marklnnd: -ov . . . -ov mss. 
2 ovo Kal add. Contius. 3 o add. Markland. 



I believe that I shall not be at a loss for witnesses, 
gentlemen of the jury ; for I see many of you in this 
place of judgement who were present at the time 
when Lysitheus was prosecuting Theomnestus for 
speaking before the people, since he had lost the 
right to do so by having cast away his armour. Now 
it was during that trial that he asserted that I had 
killed my own father. If he accused me of having 
killed his own, I should forgive him his statement, 
regarding him as an insignificant and worthless 
person ; nor, if I had heard him apply any other 
forbidden term to me, should I have taken steps 
against him, since I consider it a mark of a mean and 
too litigious person to go to law for slander. But in 
the present case I feel it would be disgraceful, — as it 
concerns my father, who has deserved so highly both 
of you and of the State, — not to take vengeance on 
the man who has made that statement ; and I wish 
to know from you whether he will be duly punished, 
or whether he alone of the Athenians has the privi- 
lege of doing and saying whatever he pleases in 
defiance of the laws. 

My age, gentlemen, is thirty-two, and your return 
to the city was nineteen years ago. It will be seen, 
therefore, that I was thirteen when my father was 
• 403 b.c. 



TavTTjv oe €.x cov T V V ^XtKiav ovre ri 1 ecrriv dAtyap^ta 
rjTnaTdfjLrjv, ovre av eKelvco dotKovjievco eovvdjjirjv 
5 fiorjOrjcraL. /cat fiev orj ovk opdtos tcov xprj/JLartov 
eVe/ca erre^ovXevoa <av> 2 aura)' 6 yap npeofivrepos 
doeXtfios HavraXecov amavra TrapeXafie, /cat eVi- 
rpoTrevaas rjp,6is tcov rrarpcpcov aTTeoreprjoev, ware 
noXAcov eW/ca, co dvopes oiKaarai, 7rpoor\Kei jLtot 
avrov (3ovXecr6 'at £77 v. dvdyKrj p.ev ovv irepl 
avrcov pLvrjodrjvaL, ovSev oe Set ttoXXcov Aoyatv 
ax^oov <ydp> 3 eVtaraa^e aTravres ort dXrjOij 
Xeyco. ofJLots oe fxaprvpas avrtov 7rape'£o/xat. 


8 "laws' toivvv, co dvSpes St/caarat, 7T€pl rovrcov 
fjLev ovoev a77oAoy7]aerat, epet ok ttpos vfias airep 
eroAua Xeyeiv /cat irpos tov otaLT7]rrjv } a*? ovk cart 
tcov aTTopprjTOJv, idv rt? et'7777 tov irarrepa dn- 
eKTOvevai' tov yap vopiov ov ravr dirayopeveiv y aAA' 

7 dvopothovov ovk idv Xeyeiv. eyco oe otuat u/xas", 
d) dvopes St/caarat, ov rrepl tcov ovopidTCov Sta- 
tf>epeodai dXXa rrjs tovtcov oiavoias, /cat Trdvras 
eloevaiy on 6'aot KaneKTovaui rivas, /cat dvopotpovoi 
ctat, /cat 6aoL> A dvopocpovoc etat, /cat dneKTOvaal 
Ttyas\ 7roAu yap epyov r\v rep vo/jLoderr) airavra rd 
ovofjiara ypdcpeiv oaa rrjv avrrjv ovvapuv e^er 

8 dAAa 776pt evos elircbv nepl Trdvrajv eStjXtocrev . ou 
yap S^770i>, co Qeofivrjare, el fiev ris oe e'iiroL 

1 Ti Ziel : ei mss. 2 hv add. Markland. 

8 7ap add. Reiske. 
4 aireKTbvaoi . . . 8aoi add. Auger. 

* The speaker was thus too young either to be implicated 
in the political murder of his father or to aid in his protection. 


put to death by the Thirty. At that age I neither 
knew what an oligarchy was, nor would have been 
able to rescue him from the wrong that he suffered. 
Besides, I could have had no true motive in the 
monetary way for making designs upon him : for 
my elder brother Pantaleon took over everything, 
and on becoming our guardian he deprived us of our 
patrimony ; so that I have many good reasons, gentle- 
men, for wishing my father alive. Now, although it is 
necessary to mention those reasons, there is no need 
to dwell on them at length ; for you all know well 
enough that I am speaking the truth. Nevertheless 
I will produce witnesses to those facts. 


Well, it may be, gentlemen, that he will make no 
defence on these points, but will state again to you 
what he had the boldness to say before the arbitra- 
tor b — that it is not a use of a forbidden word to say 
that someone has killed his father, since the law does 
not prohibit that, but does disallow the use of the 
word " murderer." For my part, gentlemen, I hold 
that your concern is not with mere words but with 
their meaning, and that you are all aware that those 
who have killed someone are murderers, and that 
those who are murderers have killed someone. For it 
was too much of a task for the lawgiver to write all 
the words that have the same effect ; but by men- 
tioning one he showed his meaning in regard to 
them all. For I presume, Theomnestus, you would 
not go so far, while expecting to get satisfaction from 

b At the preliminary trial, which was subject to appeal to 
a higher court. See Introduction, p. 196, note 6. 



irarpaXoiav 77 fi^rpaXolav, r/^iovs av avrov o^Xelv 
crot hiK-qv, el 8e ns enrol to? ttjv reKovaav rj rov 
(f>voavra ervrrres, coov av avrov d^rjpuov oelv 
q elvat wg ovoev rdJv aTTopp-qrwv elprjKora. rjoeojs 
yap av gov irvQoi\xr)v (rrepl rovro yap Seuvos el Kal 
p,ep,eXerr)Kas Kal rroielv /cat Xeyetv)- el rls ere 
ebrroi plifjai ttjv darrioa (ev oe rep vopup e'lprjrai, 1 
"edv ns cf)daKr) aTTo^e^XrjKevac, V7t68lkov etvat"), 
ovk av eoiKa^ov avrco dAA' e^-qpKei av crot eppi- 
<f>evai ttjv dcnrloa Xeyovn ovSev crot peXeiv ; ouSe 

10 yap to avro earn plifiai /cat a7Toj3ef3Xr]KevaL' dAA' 
ov& av tu)v eVSc/ca yevopevos aTrohe^aio, et Tt? 
andyoi nvd <f)doKa>v dolpdnov aTrohehvodai rj rov 
yiTOiviaKov e'/cSeSucr#at, dAA' dcfreLrjs av rov avrov 
rpoTToVy on ov Xa)TroSvrr]s oVotxd^eTat. ouS' et TIS 
nalSa e^ayayebv XrjfiOelrj, ovk av <j)duKois avrov 
avopaTTohiorr)v elvai, e'iirep /za^et rots' dvopaoiv, 
dXXd p,r) rot? epyots rov vovv rrpocre^eLs, tov eW/ca 

11 Ta ovopara ndvreg rldevrau. en roivvv GKeipacrOe, 
a) dvopes St/caorar ovroal yap jitot So/cet vtto 
padvpiias Kal pbaXaKias ouS' els "Apeuov ndyov 
dvaftefirjKevaL. rrdvres yap enioraode on ev 
eKelvco rep ^copt'eu, orav ras rod cf)6vov 8t/ca? St/cd- 
^ojvraiy ov Std rovrov rod ovoparos rag Stoj/Aoata? 
rroiovvraL, dXXd St' ovrrep eyd) /ca/ca>? 2 d/crj/coa- d 
piev yap oiojkojv d>s eKreive hiopvvrai, 6 he <f>evycov 

12 ojs ovk eKreivev. ovk ovv drorrov av elr\ rov hpd- 
1 etp-qrai Dobree : eiprjro mss. 2 /ca/cwj Contius : /caXtDs mss. 

Magistrates who had powers of summary arrest and 
judgement in capital and other serious cases, and also the 
charge of prisons and executions. 

6 The speaker suggests that Theomnestus's ignorance 


a man who called you a father-beater or a mother- 
beater, as to consider that he should go unpunished 
for saying that you struck your male or your female 
parent, because he had spoken no forbidden word ! 
And I should be glad if you would tell me this, — 
since of this affair you are a past master, both in 
action and in speech : if a man said that you had cast 
your shield (in the terms of the law it stands, — " if 
anyone asserts that a man has thrown it away, he 
shall be liable to penalty "), would you not prosecute 
him ? Would you be content, if someone said you 
had cast your shield, to make nothing of it, because 
casting and throwing away are not the same thing ? 
Nay, if you were one of the Eleven, you would refuse 
to accept a prisoner arrested on the charge of having 
pulled off the accuser's cloak or stripped him of his 
shirt : by that same rule, you would rather let him 
go, because he was not called a clothes-stealer ! Or 
if somebody were seized for the abduction of a child, 
you would declare him to be no kidnapper, since your 
contention will be about words, and you will have 
no thought to spare for deeds, — objects for which 
all men make their words ! Then, again, consider 
this, gentlemen, — for I believe that this man, from 
indolence and enervation, has not even gone up to 
attend the Areopagus b : you all know that in that 
place, when they try cases of murder, they do not 
use this term in making the sworn statements, but 
the one which was used for slandering me ; the 
prosecutor swears that the other party has killed, and 
the defendant that he has not killed. Well now, it 
would be absurd to acquit the doer of the deed when 

shows that he has never attended a sitting of the Areopagus, 
the most august tribunal of Athens. 



aavr* d(f>eZvai x <f)dcrKovTa dvopo<J)6vov elvat, on 6 
olcokcov, cos €KT€lv€, tov (f>evyovTa Stoj/xoo-aro; ri 
yap ravra, cov ovtos epel, 8ta</>epet; /cat avrog 
p,ev AvuiBeco 2 KaKrjyopias ehiKaaco elirovTi ae 3 
eppicjilvai ttjv aoTTiha. /catrot rrepl fxev tov plifjou 
ovbev <eV> 4 rep popup elpryrai, idv Se tls cwrg 
aTTofiefiArjKevaL rrjv doTu'Sa, TrevTaKooias Spa/^ud? 

13 6(j)€iXeLV KeAevei. ovk ovv Seivov, el orav fxev berj 
ok kolkcos OLKOvaavra rovg e.)(6povs TiyLCopeluOai, 
ovtco tov? vofjiovs coorrep eyco vvv Aa/x/?dVets", otov 
S* erepov rrapd tovs vofiovs eiTTflS kclkcos, ovk 
a^Lols Sovvac Slktjv; TTorepov ovtco? ov heivos el 
wore, ottcos dv fiovAr], olos t el xprjcrQai rot? 


tov? aoLKovpLevovs vno oov Tijicoplas Tev£eo9ai; 

14 eiT ovk aloxvvr) ovtcos olvotJtojs oiaKeipievos , cooTe 
ovk e£ cov ev 7Te7Tolr]Kas ttjv ttoAlv, aAA' i£ cov 
olSikcov ov hehcoKas hiK-qv, o'Ul Selv TrAeoveKTelv ; 
/cat jLtot 6 dvdyvcoOt tov vdfiov. 


15 'Eyoj ToivvVy co dvbpes 8t/cacrrat, vfias ptev rrdvTas 
elbevai, rjyovp,ai otl eyco pcev SpOcos Aeyco, tovtov 
8e ovtco OKOLiov elvai cooTe ov ovvaoOai pbadelv tcl 
Aeyd/zeva. /SouAo/xat ovv glvtov /cat e£ eTepcov 
voficov Trepl tovtcov StSd^at, idv ttcos dAAd vvv 
€7Tt tov fiyjfioLTOs rraiSevdj} /cat rd Aolttov i)plv flT] 

1 SpdiTcivT d(peiuo.L Dobson : Sel^avra Kreivai MSS. 

2 \vot0iu) Frohberger : Qtwvi mss. 

8 tiirdvTi ae Taylor: etVe rls ae MSS. 

4 ev add. Markland. 

6 kolI /jlol Markland: naiTot. mss. 



he declared he was a murderer, on the ground that 
the prosecutor deposed on oath that the defendant 
killed. And is not this the same thing as what this 
man's plea will amount to ? Why, you have taken 
proceedings yourself against Lysitheus for slander, 
because he said that you had cast your shield : yet 
there is nothing in the terms of the law about casting, 
whereas, if anyone says, that a man has thrown away 
his shield, it imposes a penalty of five hundred 
drachmae. How monstrous it is, then, that when 
you have to avenge yourself on your enemies for 
slander you take the laws in the sense that I do now, 
but when you slander another in defiance of the laws 
you claim to escape punishment ! Tell me, are you 
so clever that you are able to turn the laws about to 
suit your pleasure, or so powerful that you suppose 
that the people whom you have wronged will never 
get their revenge ? And then, are you not ashamed 
of such a senseless vagary as to presume on advan- 
tages due to you, not for any services done to the 
State, but for your unpunished offences ? Please 
read me the law. 


Well, gentlemen, I think you have all perceived 
that my statement is correct, whereas this man is so 
stupid that he cannot understand a word that is said. 
So I would like to avail myself of some other laws for 
his instruction on these points, in the hope that even 
now, on the dais, 6 he may learn a lesson, and may 

About £30. 

6 There were separate raised seats for the prosecutor and 
the defendant. 

h2 205 


napexj] TTpdyfiara. /cat /xot dvdyva>9i tovtovs 
tovs I'Ofiovs rovs HoXtovos tovs ttolAcllovs. 


16 " AeSe'o^at 8' iv rf\ TroSoKaKKj] rj/iepag tt€vt€ tov 
rrooa, idv [fir]] 1 7TpoGTi\xr]GJ) r) 7]Atata." 


/caAetrat iv rep ^vXcp SeSdadac. el ovv 6 SeOels 
i^eXdcbv iv rat? evdvvous tujv eVSe/ca Kanqyopoir] 

OTL OVK iv TJj TTohoKOLKKT] eSeSeTO dAA' il> TO) £vXcp , 

ovk av rjXidiov avrov vofAL^OLev ; Xeye erepov 


17 " 'Eneyyvav 8' iiriopKr^GavTa tov 'AttoXXoj. SeSt- 
ora he Slktjs eW/ca 8oaa/cd£etv." 

Tovro to iTTiopK-qaavra opbooavrd 2 icm, to t€ 
Soao7cd£t«>, o vvv a7roSt8pdo7cetv 6vop,dl,opLev. 

'"DoTt? he dmAAet tjj dvpa, evhov tov kX4tttov 

To dmAActy tovto 3 diroKXeieiv vofAL^eTOLL, /cat /XT^- 
hev Std tovto hiacfiepov. 

18 " To apyvpiov GTaaLfiov etvau &f> ottogoj av f3ov- 
XiiTai 6 havei^ojv." 

To ardcrt/xov tovto €gtlv, a> jSeAnoTC, ov t,vyco 
lordvai dXXd tokov irpaTTeGdai ottogov av fiovXijTai. 
en 8' dvdy vojOl* tovtovI* tov vo/jlov to TeXev- 


19 " "Qaai he ire^aafxevajs TroXovvTai," 

" olktjos [/cat] fiXdfirjg ttjv hL7rXr)v* etvai o^eiXeiv.*' 


henceforward cease from his vexatious proceedings 
against us. Please read me those ancient laws of 


" He shall have his foot confined in the stocks 
for five days, if the court shall make such addition 
to the sentence." 

The " stocks " there mentioned, Theomnestus, are 
what we now call " confinement in the wood." So 
if a person confined should on his release accuse the 
Eleven, at their public examination, of having him 
confined, not in the stocks, but in the wood, they 
would take him for an idiot, would they not ? Read 
another law. 


" He shall vow by Apollo and give security. If 
he dreads the course of justice, let him flee." 

Here to " vow " is to " swear," and " flee " is what 
we now call " run away." " Whosoever debars with 
his door, when the thief is within," — Here to " debar" 
is taken to be " shut out " ; no dispute, now, on that 
score ! " Money shall be placed out at whatever 
rate the lender may choose." " Placed out " here, 
my fine fellow, is not a case of placing in the balance, 
but of drawing interest to such amount as one may 
choose. Once more, read the final clause of this same 
law. " All women who ply about overtly," and " for 
hurt to a varlet the redress shall be double." Pay 

1 fj.T] del. Auger. 

2 oixbaavTa Harpocration : d/xocat mss. 

3 tovto Markland: to mss. 

* Zti 5' avayvwOi P. Miiller: eiravdyvwdi MSS. 

6 tovtovI Markland : tovtI mss. 

e [k<lI\ . . . dnrMjp Schelling: kclI . . . BovXrjv mss. 



Upooex^re rov vovv. rd fiev Trefiacrfievajs iari 
(fravepaJs, rroXelodai he fiahi^eiv, rd he olktjos depd- 

20 770VTOS. TToXXa he TOLCLVTa KOLL CtAAa €<JTLV t (L 

dvhpes hiKaarai. dAA' el /jlt) oih-qpovs eariv, 

oiofiai avrdv evvovv yeyovevai on rd [lev rrpdy- 

18] /xara raura eart iw re /cat 7rdAat, raw Se ovo- 


-nporepov. hrjXojorei he' olx^crerai yap dniajv oltto 

21 rod Prjfiaros oiooTrfj. el he paq, Se'ouat vpicov, oj 
dvhpes hiKaarai, rd 8t/cata ijjrjfiiaaoOai, evdvpiov- 
l±ivovs on 7to\v piel^ov kclkov eariv aKovaai 
riva 1 rov Trarepa aireKrovevai 7) rrjv dcrrriha airo- 
fiefiX-qKevai. eycb yovv he£aip,i]v dv irduas rds 
dorrihas eppi(f>evai 7} roiavrrjv yvajpuqv ex^iv nepX 
rov Trarepa. 

22 Ovros ovv evoyos /A€i> d)v rfj atria, eXdrrovos he 
ovorjs avrcp rrjs crvfifiopas, ov fiovov vfr vpLcuv 
r)Xer]6r), dXXd /cat rov pLaprvprjcravra r)rip,a)crev. 
iyoj he ecopaKchs fjiev e/cetvo rovrov TTonjaavra o 
/cat vpieis 'lore, avrds Se crcboas rr\v do7u'8a, 
aKTjKodjg he ovrais dvocriov 2 /cat heivdv Trpayfia, 
fjieyior-qs he ovarqs /xot rrjg ovjicjiopas, el diro- 
(f)ev£erai, rovrco 8' ovhevds a^ias, el KaK-qyopias 
aXojoerai, ovk dpa hiK-qv nap avrov Xityopiai; 

23 rivos ovros euot irpos vfiag ey/cA^uaros" ; rrorepov 
on St/cata*? d/ci]/coa; dAA' ouS' av avrol <j>iqoaire. 
dXX on fieXricov /cat e/c fieXriovajv 6 <j)evyojv epiov; 
dAA' oOS* av avros d^iwoeiev. dAA' ort dTTofiefiXrj- 
Ktos rd oirXa St/cd£o/xat KaKiqyopias ra> ocucravn; 

1 d/coOcaf riva Foertsch : anovaavTa mss. 


attention : " overtly " is " openly," " ply about " is 
" walk about," and a " varlet " is a " servant." We 
have many other instances of the sort, gentlemen. 
But if he is not a numskull, I suppose he has realized 
that things are the same now as they were of old, 
but that in some cases we do not use the same terms 
now as we did formerly. And he will show as much, 
for he will leave the dai's and depart in silence. If 
not, I beg you, gentlemen, to vote according to 
justice, reflecting that it is a far greater slur to be 
told that one has killed one's father than that one has 
thrown away one's shield. I, for one, would rather 
have cast any number of shields than entertain such 
thoughts regarding my father. 

Now this man, on a charge which was well-founded, 
but which involved less disaster to him, obtained not 
only your pity, but even the disfranchisement ° of 
the witness for the prosecution. But I, who have 
seen him do that h which you likewise know, who have 
saved my own shield, who have been accused of a 
proceeding thus unholy and monstrous, and whose 
disaster will be overwhelming if he is acquitted, while 
his will be inconsiderable if he is convicted of slander, 
— am I not to obtain satisfaction from him ? What 
imputation have you standing against me ? Is it 
that I have been justly accused ? No, not even your- 
selves can say so. That the defendant is a better 
man and of better birth than I ? No, not he him- 
self can claim this. That having thrown away my 
arms I am suing for slander a man who saved his ? 

a For perjury. h Namely, throw away his shield. 

1 dvocriov Hertlein : dvo/xov mss. 



dAA' ovx ovtos 6 Xoyog iv rfj -noXei /carea/ceSaoTat. 1 

24 dvapv-qaO-qre he otl peydXr/v /cat KaXr)v eKeivqv 
hajpeav 2 avro) SeSto/care- iv fj rls ovk av eAe^crae 
Alovvolov, tololvtt) fiev avpcfropa TrepnreTTTCJKOTa, 
dvhpa he apiorov iv rots KLvhvvoLS yeyevqpevov, 

25 amovTa he oltto rod St/caar^ptou [/cat] 3 Xeyovra otl 
SvarvxearoLTriv iKeivqv elr/pLev arparelav iarparev- 
fievoL, iv fj 77oAAot fiev rjfitjjv OLTredavov, ol he crtooav- 
T€s rd orrXa vtto rcbv a7rof3aX6vTcov ipevhop^aprvpiajv 
eaXtoKaai, Kpelrrov he rjv ai3ra> rore drrodavelv 

26 t? ot/caS' iXdovTL TOtavrr) rvxj) XPV (T @ aL > H-V TOl ~ 
vvv oLKovcravrd <re> 4 SeopLvrjarov kclkcos rd npoo- 
rjKovra iXeelre, /cat vfipl^ovri Kal Xiyovri irapd 
rovs vdfjiovs ovyyvGo^rjv exere. ris yap av ipiol 
fxet^ajv TavTTjs yivono avpcfropd, Trepl tolovtov 

27 Trarpds ovrtos alaxpd? atrtas- a/cr^/coort; os" 5 
7ToXXaKis fiev iarparrjyrjcre, ttoXXovs he /cat dXAovs 
klvSvvovs fied* vptbv iKivovvevae- /cat ovre rot? 
TroAe/xtot? to if<€Lvov Utopia VTTOX^Lpiov iyevero, 
ovre rot? TroXirais ovheplav 7to)7tot€ dxjyXev ev- 
dvvrjVy err) he yeyovtbs eVra /cat e^rjKovra iv 
SXcyapxta St' evvoiav rod vpLerepov TrXijdovs 

28 dnedavev. dp* d£iov opyioOrjvai rep <rotaur'> 6 
etp-qKOTL /cat /3o7]6rjoai rep TrarpL, d)s Kal e/cetVou 
/ca/ctD? aKTjKooTOs; ri yap av tovtov dviaporepov 
yevoiro aura), r) redvdvai p,ev vtto rcbv ixOp&v, 
alriav hi* ex €LV vtto rcbv -rralhajv < dvrjprjcrd at > 7 ; 
ov kri Kal vvv, co dvhpes St/caarat, rrjg dperrjs rd 

1 KaTeaxiSacrTa i Brulart : KareaKevaarai MSS. 

* bwpeav Contius: 8&pov mss. 3 Kal del. Reiske. 

4 re add. Bekker. 6 6.ktjko6ti ; 8s Reiske : clk^kootos mss. 

6 roiavr' add. Frohberger. ' dvjipijadai add. Brulart. 



This is not the story that has been disseminated in 
the city. Remember that there you have presented 
him with a rich and goodly gift a : in that respect, who 
would not pity Dionysius for the disaster that over- 
took him, after he had proved himself a man of the 
highest valour in times of danger, who on leaving 
the court remarked that that was our most calamitous 
campaign, in which many of us were killed, and 
those who saved their arms had been condemned for 
false witness at the suit of those who threw theirs 
away ; and that it had been better for him to be 
killed on that day than return home to meet with 
such a fate ? Do not, then, if you pity Theomnestus 
for the obloquy that he deserves, forgive him for out- 
rages and expressions whereby he has broken the 
laws. For what greater misfortune could befall me, 
after I have had such shameful charges brought 
against me, and in relation to such a father ? He was 
general many times, and shared your peril besides in 
many a conflict : neither did his person fall into the 
hands of the enemy, nor was he ever convicted by his 
fellow-citizens at any audit of his service, but at the 
age of sixty-seven he lost his life under the oligarchy 
for loyalty to your people. Is there not good cause to 
feel anger against the man who has made such state- 
ments, and to defend my father as included in this 
calumny ? For what more distressing fate could over- 
take him than this, — after being slain by his enemies, 
to bear the reproach of having been destroyed by his 
children ? Even now, gentlemen, the memorials 

a i.e., his success in securing the condemnation and dis- 
franchisement of Dionysius, the other witness in the previous 



fivrjixeia npog Tolg v/jLerepoig <lepolg> 1 avaKeirai, 
ra he tovtov /cat rod tovtov TraTpog Trjg /ca/a'as" 
npog Tolg tcov TToXefiicov ovtco avp.(hvTog avTolg 
29 77 SeiAta. /cat fiev 807, c5 dvopeg Slkolgtcli, ocjco 
jieitovg elol koI veaviai Tag oifjeig, toctovtco fiaXXov 
opyrjg d^iol elai. orjXov yap otl Tolg p,ev ocofxacrL 
ovvavraiy rag Se ipv^dg ovk <ev> 2 exovorLV. 

'Akovco 8' avrov, c5 avopeg St/caorai, errl tovtov 
tov Xoyov Tp€7T€cr6ai, d>g opyiodelg elpiqKe TavTa 
€[jlgv fxapTvpiqaavTog tt)v ai)Tr)v \xapTvplav Ato- 
vvgloj. vfielg 8' evOvpLelaOe, to dvhpeg Si/cao-rai, otl 
6 vojxoOeTrjg ovo€p.iav opyfj ovyyvcopurrv SlScoctlv, 
dXXd £,rjfjuol tov AeyovTCL, idv fir) dirothaLvr) cog 
eoTLV dXrjOrj to, elprjfxeva. iyco oe Slg 77807 Trent 
tovtov \xe\xapTvpr\Ka' ov yap ttco 07817 otl Vfiecg 
Tovg {iev loovTag TLjicopeloOe, Tolg he drro^aXovcn 
ovyyvcofx-qv €\€T€. 

31 Tlepl fjbev ovv tovtcov ovk 018 ' o tl Set TrXeito 
Xeyeiv iyco 8' vficov Seofiau KaTaipy]<f>ioacjdai 
QeofivrJGTOV, ivOvfiovfievovg otl ovk av yevoiTO 
tovtov fiei^cov dycov fioL. vvv yap Slcokco <fiev> 3 
KaKTjyopiag } ttj 8' avTjj ifjijcfrcp <j>6vov cpevyco tov 
TraTpog, og fiovog, eTreiSr) -ra^ioTa iooKifidod-qv, 

32 eTre^rjXdov Toig TpiaKovTa iv *ApeLcp Trdyco. cbv 

fjLefjLvrjpLevoi Kal epLol /cat tco ttotoX fiorjOijoaTe /cat 

Tolg voiioug Tolg KeipLevoig Kal Tolg opKoig olg 


1 iepoh add. Contius. 
* ed add. Emperius. 3 fiev add. Scheibe. 



of his valour are hanging in your temples, while those 
of this man's and his father's baseness are seen in 
the temples of the enemy, so ingrained is cowardice 
in their nature. And indeed, gentlemen, the taller 
and more gallant they are in looks, the more they 
are deserving of anger. For it is clear that, though 
strong in their bodies, they are ill in their souls. 

I hear, gentlemen, that he is resorting to the argu- 
ment that he has made these statements in a fit of 
anger at my having borne witness to the same effect 
as Dionysius. But your reflection on this, gentlemen, 
must be that the lawgiver grants no indulgence to 
anger ; he punishes the speaker, unless he proves the 
truth of the statements that he has made. I myself 
have now borne witness twice in regard to this man ; 
for I was not yet aware that you punished the persons 
who had seen the deed, but pardoned those who had 
done the throwing away. 

I doubt if on these points there is need to say any 
more. I request you to condemn Theomnestus, 
reflecting that no trial could be more serious for me 
than the present. For although I am now prosecuting 
for slander, yet at the same casting of your vote I am 
prosecuted for murdering my father, — I who alone, 
as soon as I was certified to be of age,° indicted the 
Thirty before the Areopagus. Remembering these 
reasons, vindicate me and my father, and also the 
established laws and the oaths that you have sworn. 

a By the Council, when he was eighteen years old. 



1 "On [lev tov narepa jjl ecfxicrKev 1 direKrovivai, 


on Se ov 7T€7TOL7]Ka, orjXov err) yap earl jjlol Svo 
teal rpiaKovra, i£ ov S' vfielg Kar-qXdere, eiKoarov 

2 TOVTl. (fxiLVOflCLL OVV OOJ$€Ka€Tr]S 0>V } OTe 6 7TaT7)p 

V7TO rcbv rptaKovra d7Te6vr)GK€v, ajar ovo* 6 tl 
SAiyapxiCL r\v rjor], ovoe rco irarpl fiorjOelv olds T 
rj. dXXa pL7]v ovoe tGjv xpr)\iaTOiv eVe/ca eVe- 
ftovXtvcra avTtp' 6 yap Trpeofivrepos doeXfios ndvra 
Xaficbv airearipriaev rjfi&s. 

3 "laajg 8' ipel cu? ovk eon rajv aTropprjTOJv, idv 
tis (f)fj rov Traripa direKTOvevai- tov yap vojjlov ov 
ravr airayopeveiv, dXX dvopo(f>6vov ovk idv Xiyetv. 
iyd> 8' otfjiaL oelv ov irepl rd)v dvopbdrajv oiafiepe- 
odai, aAAa irepl rrjs rd)V epycov oiavolas, Kal irdvras 
eloivai on ottogol 2 dneKTovaai nvas, Kal dvopo- 
(f>6voi rcbv avrcov etcrt, /cat oaoi dvopocf>6voi rivos, 

4 Kal direKTOvaoi tovtov. ttoXv yap dv cpyov elr) 
rCp vopLoderr] irdvra ypdt\>eiv ra dvofxara, ocra ttjv 
avrrjv ovvapav e^er dXXa rtepl ivds enrdjv rtepl 
TxavTOiv loj]Xaioev. ov yap hrjrrov idv /xeV ns" 
TrarpaXoiav t) LirjTpaXocav KaXrj ore, 3 vttoSikos 

1 ?cpa<jK(i> Taylor : ecpaaKov mss. 

2 bwdaoi Stephanus : ottoioi mss. 

3 /ca\?7 ae Markland : KaX^crj? MSS. 


(An Abstract of the preceding Speech, made perhaps 
as late as 200 a.d.) 

That he asserted that I had killed my father is in 
the knowledge of many of you, and they are my 
witnesses. But that I have not done it is evident ; 
for I am thirty-two years old, and this is the twentieth 
year since your return to the city. You see, then, 
that I was twelve years old when my father was put 
to death by the Thirty, so that I did not even know 
what an oligarchy was, nor was I capable of defending 
my father. Nor, again, was his property a motive 
for my having designs upon him ; for my elder 
brother got everything, and left us destitute. 

Perhaps he will say that it is not among the for- 
bidden things to say a man has killed his father, since 
the law does not prohibit this, but disallows the word 
" murderer." But I think our dispute ought not 
to be over mere terms, but over the intention 
shown in acts, and that everyone knows that all 
who have killed others are murderers of those same 
persons, and those who are murderers of another 
have killed that man. For it would be too great a 
task for the lawgiver to write all the terms that have 
the same meaning : he preferred to mention one 
which should indicate all. I presume it cannot be 
that, if anyone who calls you a father-beater or a 



ioTLv, edv he ns rrjv reKovoav 77 rov <f>vrevoavra 

5 TV7TT6LV <(f)f}>, 1 d&jfJUOS eGTOLl. Kdl idv 2 TIS €i7TTj 

pli/jacrmv, dOojos eorai' rov yap vo/jlov, edv res 
€L7ttj drrofiefiXrjKevai rrjv do-rrcSa, ^rjpLLav rdrreiv, 
dXX ovk av ns plipou (f)fj avrr)v. opLolcus 8' ay /cat 
tG)\> erSe/ca yevopcevos ovk av drreSexov rov arr- 
ay optevov, on Ooifidriov e^eSve twos 3 r) tov X ltco ~ 

6 v'igkov, el pur) Xwrrohvrrjv ojv6p,a£,ev. oi)S' et res 
77atS' e£fjyev, d)s dvo parrot iott]V' /cat avros puev 
ioihcdcrco KaKTjyoplas rep elrrovri ere plifiai rrjv 
doTTioa. /cat-rot ev rep vopap ov yeyparrrai, dAA' 
edv ris (f>fj dTTofizfiArjicevaL. rrcos ovv ov heivov, 
edv p.ev tls ere €17777, T0V S vopiovs eKXafJifidveLV 
ovrws wcrrrep eyo) vvv, /cat TLpLcopetcrO at* rovs 
exdpovs, edv 8' avros eirrrjs, ovk d£iovv 5 Sovvau 

7 Slktjv; ^o-qdiquare ovv p,oi, ev9vp.ovjievoi on pLeiL,ov 
eon KaKov <d/coucrat> 6 rov rrarepa drreKrovevai 
7) rrjv dorriha plipai. eyw yovv oe^aipuqv <dv>' ! 
rrdcras aTTofiefiXrjKevai rj roiavrrjv yvojpaqv rrepl rov 
rrarepa exetv. /catrot 8 ye rovrov pcev etopaKa 
rroiovvra, <hs /cat vp.els icrre, avros 8' eaxocra rrjv 
dorriha. djcrre 8td rl ovk av Xdfioipu Slktjv Trap 

8 avrov ; rivos eyKXrjpLaros /xot ovros; norepov d>s 
St/catoj? rjKovoa; dAA' ouS* av avrol (fyrjoaire. dAA' 
(x>s fieXriajv ovros 9 ; dAA' ouS' av avros di^iuioeiev . 
dAA' on drrofiefiXrjKtos rd orrXa odjcravn 8t/cd£o/xat; 

1 TVTrreiv (f>rj Emperius : tvtttol mss. 

2 edv Hermann : et mss. 

a i%48v4 twos Emperius : ££w dt/xevos mss. 

4 Ti/xwpeicrOai Baiter et Sauppe : Ti/xojpelv MS3. 

6 a^iovv Taylor : d^iov mss. 

6 ciKova-at add. Baiter et Sauppe. 

7 b\v add. Markland. 



mother-beater is liable to a penalty, at the same time 
a person who says that you strike your male or female 
parent is to escape punishment. So, if someone calls 
a man a shield-caster, he is to be immune, since the 
law imposes a penalty for saying that a man has thrown 
away his shield, but not for saying he has cast it. 
Similarly, if you were one of the Eleven, you would 
not accept a prisoner arrested for stripping a man of 
his cloak or his shirt, unless he were given the name 
of clothes-stealer. Nor, if someone abducted a child, 
would you accept him as a kidnapper. Now you have 
yourself taken proceedings for slander against the 
person who said you had cast your shield : yet it is 
not so written in the law, but the phrase is " saying a 
man has thrown it away." How monstrous, then, 
that if such a thing is said about you, you should make 
play with the laws in the way I am doing now, and 
should be avenged on your enemies ; but if you say 
such a thing yourself, you should claim to escape 
punishment ! I ask you, therefore, gentlemen, to 
protect me, reflecting that it is a greater injury to be 
accused of killing one's father than of having cast 
one's shield. I, for one, would rather admit to having 
thrown away any number than to entertaining such 
thoughts regarding my father. Yet I have seen this 
man acting in the way that you know, while I myself 
saved my shield. So on what ground should I fail to get 
redress from him ? What imputation stands against 
me ? That I have been correctly spoken of ? No, 
not even yourselves can say so. That the defendant 
is a better man ? No, not even himself can claim 
this. That having thrown away my arms I am suing 

8 kcu'toi Contius : koll mss. 
8 ^eAri'cuv ovtos Sluiter : jSeAn'ovos ovtos mss. 



dAA' ot>x ovros 6 Adyo? hieoTraprai Kara rr)v ttoXlv. 
9 fir) Sr) KaKcos aKovovra rd TrpocrqKovra eXeelre, 
fxr)o y vfipi^ovri re /cat Xeyovri rrapd rovs vopiovs 
ovyyvajpuqv exere, /cat ravra els dvSpa os TroXXds 
fiev urpar-qylas eurpanqyqKe, ttoXXovs he p,ed y 

VfJLCOV <KLvhvVOVS> X K€KLvSvV€VK€ , /Cat OVT€ TOt? 

TToXejxiois VTToxelpios yeyovev ovd* evdvvav 
dxfiXev, ifiSopLrJKOVTa 8' ercov tbv e-77-' 2 dAtyap^ta? 
ereXevrrjae Std rr)v vpcerepav evvoiav. a^tov he 

10 opyiaOrjvai vrrep avrov- ri yap av rovrov dvca- 
porepov aKovoeiev, el reOvrjKcbs vtto tcjv exOpoJV 
alriav e\oi vtto rcov reKvajv avrjprjadai; ov rrjs 
dperrjs rd fjLvrjjjLeta rrpos rot? vpierepois lepols 
aVd/cetrat, rrjs he rovrojv /ca/cta? npos rols rd>v 


11 'Epet Se d)s opyiodels etprjKev. vfiels 8' evdv- 
jxelade on 6 vofMoOerrjs ovhepiiav avyyvcopLrjv opyfj 
hihajuiv, aXXd tpqpuol rov Xeyovra, edv jjlt) oltto- 
SeiKvvr) dXrjdrj. eyd) he St? irepl rovrov izeuap- 
rvprjKa- ov ydp fjhrj on vp,els rovs fiev Ihovras* 
npiojpelode, rols he aTTofiaXovcri avyyvoopirjv e\ere. 

12 Seo/xat ovv Karaipr)(f>ioao9ai avrov. vvvl ydp 
I J 8ta>/ca> fxev /ca/c^yoptas", rfj 8' avrfj iftrjcfxp <f>6vov 

<f>evya> rod rrarpos, ov /xet£ajv dycijv ovk av yevoiro 
pLOL, os [jlovos hoKLp,ao6els rols rpiaKovr eTretjrjXdov 
ev Kpeicp 7Taya). fiorjdijcrar' ovv /ca/cetVa) /cdyaot. 

1 kivSuvovs add. Taylor. 

* <?7r' Baiter : &*■' mss. 

8 i86vTa$ Contius : idnvrai M89. 



a man who saved his ? This is not the story that has 
been dispersed over the city. Do not, then, pity 
him for obloquy that he deserves, nor forgive him for 
outrages and expressions whereby he has broken 
the laws, especially in regard to a man a who has held 
many generalships and shared many of your perils ; 
who has neither fallen into the hands of the enemy 
nor been convicted by you at the audit of his service, 
and who at the age of seventy lost his life under the 
oligarchy for loyalty to you. There is good cause 
to feel anger on his account : for what more distress- 
ing repute could he have than this, — after being 
slain by his enemies to bear the reproach of having 
been destroyed by his children ? The memorials 
of his valour are hanging in your temples, while 
those of these people's baseness are seen in the 
temples of the enemy. 

He will say that he has made the statement in a fit 
of anger. But your reflection on this must be that 
the lawgiver grants no indulgence to anger ; he 
punishes the speaker, unless he proves the truth of 
his words. I have borne witness twice in regard to 
this man : for I was not aware that you punished the 
persons who had seen the deed, but pardoned those 
who had done the throwing away. I therefore 
request you to condemn him. For although at this 
moment I am prosecuting for slander, yet at the same 
casting of your vote I am prosecuted for murdering 
my father : no trial could be more serious for me than 
this ; and I alone, when certified of age, indicted 
the Thirty before the Areopagus. Vindicate, there- 
fore, both my father and me. 

• The speaker's father. 




This speech, the most important of the extant works 
of Lysias, is full of interest alike to the student of 
revolutionary movements and to the amateur of 
literary art. Its traditional title records that it 
was " spoken by Lysias himself," and there is no 
reason to doubt this fact. For a short period after 
the restoration of the democracy in 404 b.c. he 
enjoyed the citizenship ; and it is possible that even 
when deprived of this status, and reduced to that of 
an " isoteles " or alien with certain rights, he was still 
able to come forward with an incrimination at the 
public inquiry, held before an ordinary court com- 
posed of citizens, into the acts of a retired official. 
Eratosthenes, the defendant, had been active in the 
cause of oligarchy in 411 b.c, when amid the troubles 
that followed the Sicilian disaster the government 
of Athens was controlled by a Council of Four Hun- 
dred. The democracy was soon afterwards restored, 
and Athens recovered some of her power by the 
victory of Arginusae (406) : but in 405 she was 
crushed to impotence by the Spartan victory at 
Aegospotami, and in the following year she lay 
under the crippling domination of thirty oligarchs 
established by the aid of Sparta. Eratosthenes 



was one of the Thirty, and through this speech we 
get a vivid impression, first of their dealings with 
private persons whom they decided to put out of the 
way, and then of the general tenor of their conduct 
in the possession of power. The object of Lysias 
is to discredit the character and administration of 
Eratosthenes, although the latter is seeking to 
ingratiate himself with the people and to regain the 
full status of a citizen on the grounds of his general 
moderation and his sympathy with Theramenes. 

After a brief introduction (1-3) Lysias gives his 
personal reasons for making the accusation, by re- 
counting how the Thirty determined to obtain 
funds by putting a number of wealthy persons to 
death and seizing their property. Lysias and his 
brother Polemarchus were two of the selected victims : 
the former contrived to escape with his life, but 
the latter was executed and buried with haste and 
indignity ; in spite of their good services to the 
State, their property was abstracted by the Thirty 
(4-22). Some argument follows on the responsi- 
bility of Eratosthenes, who says that he arrested 
Polemarchus through fear of the Thirty, but opposed 
the unjust execution of the brothers. Yet it is 
unlikely that he would have been chosen to arrest 
them if he had really been known to be opposed to 
their execution ; and the arrest was made in the 
open street, where he was under no necessity of 
carrying out the order, and might rather have 
warned Polemarchus of his danger. Eratosthenes 
is convicted out of his own mouth, and instead of 
having any public services to plead in extenuation, 
he is an associate of those who brought the final 
humiliations upon the city (23-H). 



The speech then proceeds to a historical review of 
the agencies and aids by which the Thirty rose, held 
sway, and fell. Eratosthenes and Critias, with three 
others, were set up irregularly by the political 
clubs as " overseers " with absolute powers, and 
soon the number of these governors was enlarged 
to thirty. Erastosthenes belonged to the more 
moderate section of them led by Theramenes, who 
shortly succumbed to the extremist attacks of 
Critias : thereafter Eratosthenes joined the Thirty 
in their most cruel excesses, including the murder 
of Polemarchus already related. But in September 
404 the democratic party under Thrasybulus seized 
Phyle, a commanding position near Athens : they 
succeeded in repelling the oligarchs and increasing 
their own strength. The Thirty, anxious to secure a 
place of refuge, went to Eleusis, captured 300 of the 
citizens, whom they afterwards put to death, and 
made themselves masters of the place. Thrasybulus 
then forced an entrance into the Peiraeus, and occu- 
pied it with over 1000 men. A series of struggles 
ensued, in the last of which Critias was killed. 
After some negotiations the Thirty were deposed 
and, with the exception of Pheidon and Eratosthenes, 
withdrew finally to Eleusis : their place was taken 
in Athens by ten magistrates or commissioners who 
were expected to make terms with the democrats 
(42-55). But, instead of doing this, they sought the 
aid of Sparta against the growing forces in the Pei- 
raeus. Pheidon then showed himself to be as bad 
as Eratosthenes, and no credit to his friend, as the 
latter claims, by seeking a new lease of power in 
opposition both to the Thirty and to the democracy. 
By the courage of some loyal men the Spartan 



menace was averted, and an arrangement was made 
for an amnesty (from which the Thirty were excluded) 
and a general restoration of confiscated property 

The conduct of Theramenes, the other man with 
whom Eratosthenes was specially associated, is next 
described. He was first a promoter of oligarchy in 
411 b.c, and revealed then his shifty and treach- 
erous character. After Aegospotami (405) he ar- 
ranged the humiliating terms of peace with Sparta, 
purposely crippling Athens so as to facilitate the 
ascendancy of the Thirty. Thus he twice en- 
slaved Athens (62-78). It is time now to decide on 
the punishment of Eratosthenes, whose illegal con- 
demnation of others might fairly be visited with a 
condemnation equally illegal. The extreme penalty 
is not severe enough for him and his children. He is 
so audacious as to appear now before those who have 
been his victims : he must either despise them, or 
trust in the support of other ill-disposed persons who 
have schemes of their own. His witnesses should 
not think that the past troubles and dangers have 
been so soon forgotten. If they say that he was the 
least harmful of the Thirty, that does not lessen their 
corporate villainy (79-91)- 

Members of the two parties — of the town and of 
the Peiraeus — are then addressed separately, and 
reminded of their respective grievances against the 
Thirty. The former were involved in a dreadful 
strife against their own people, and got only a share 
in the shame of the tyranny. As to the latter, a 
picture is drawn of the awful consequences that 
would have resulted from the defeat of the demo- 
crats in the last struggles for their return to Athens. 



But the facts are sufficient in themselves, if they are 
but felt in their full reality : judgement must be 
given with a proper sense of the injuries done to the 
temples, the arsenals, and the dead, — who may be 
listening even now, and expecting their vengeance 

What verdict was given is unknown, but it is prob- 
able that owing to the strong support always ac- 
corded to Theramenes during his life and to his 
friends after his death, and also because of the 
general tendency towards pacification, Eratosthenes 
was acquitted. The trial or inquiry at which the 
speech was delivered evidently took place shortly 
after the amnesty had been ordained by Sparta (end 
of 403). 

The speech is remarkable for the range of its elo- 
quence. The opening sentences of rather ordinary 
preface are cast in a formal mould derived from the 
lessons of Gorgias. The vivid narrative of the arrest 
and death of Polemarchus is given in a simple, running 
style, and there is little attempt at pathos. It is 
when Lysias turns to the public concernment with 
the proceedings of the Thirty that he brings all the 
strength of a well-rounded and resonant style to the 
task of arousing national indignation against the 
tyrants, and shows himself a masterly pleader in 
representing the wrongs and sufferings of the average 



1 Ovk dp£acr9ai uot So/cet diropov etvat, a> dvhpes 
St/caarat, rrjs Kariqyopias, dXXd Travoaadai XiyovrC 
TOLavra avrols to fieyeOo? /cat roaavra to ttXtjOos 
tLpyacrrai, toore psfyr dv ifjev$6p,€vov Seivorepa rtov 
V7TapxovTtov Karrjyoprjuai, paqre rdXr]6rj fiovXopievov 
€L7T€lv diravra hvvauOai, dXX dvdyKrj rj rov kolt- 

2 rjyopov drreiTTeiv r) tov xpdvov liriXiTrelv. rovvavriov 
Se jjlol hoKodfiev TreioeoBai r) iv rep irpo rod ^povep. 
TTporepov p,ev yap e'Set rr)v ex®P av ™vs kolt- 
rjyopovvras emSet^at, r)ris cltj rrpos rovs cf)€vyovras' 
vvvl Se Trapd rtov <j>evy6vrcov XP^) TrvvOdv eodai jjres 
tjv avrols irpos rrjv 7t6Xlv exdpa, av#' orov roiavra 
eroXfjirjcrav els clvttjv i^apiaprdveiv . ov pcevrou <bs 
ovk ex^v ot/ceta? exdpas /cat avp,cf>opds rovs Xoyovs 
7rotou/xat, aAA' cos diraai 7roXXrjs d(f>6ovias ovoiqs 
virep rtov IhLtov rj irnep rtov h-qpoaitov dpyLttcrQ ai. 

3 iyth fxev ovv, co dvhpes St/caorat, ovr e/xaurou 
TTconore ovre dXAorpua tt pay pear a Trpd^as vvv rjvdy- 
/caoyxat vrro rtov yeyevrjpievtov rovrov Karr/yopelv, 
wore TToXXaKis els 7toXXtjv dOvpiLav Kareart]v > pur] 


The difficulty that faces me, gentlemen of the jury, 
is not in beginning my accusation, but in bringing 
my speech to an end : so enormous, so numerous are 
the acts they have committed, that neither could lying 
avail one to accuse them of things more monstrous 
than the actual facts, nor with every desire to speak 
mere truth could one tell the whole ; of necessity 
either the accuser must be tired out or his time must 
run short. It seems to me that our positions will be 
the reverse of what they were in former times : for 
previously the accusers had to explain their enmity 
towards the defendants ; but in the present case 
inquiry must be made of the defendants as to the 
motive of their enmity towards the city in committing 
such audacious offences against her. It is not, in- 
deed, from any lack of private enmities and suffer- 
ings that I make these remarks, but because of the 
abundant reasons that all of us have for anger on 
personal grounds, or in the interest of the public. 
Now as for myself, gentlemen, having never engaged 
in any suit either on my own account or on that of 
others, I have now been compelled by what has 
occurred to accuse this man : hence I have been 
often overcome with a great feeling of despondency, 



Slol rrjv direipiav dva£ia)S /cat dovvdrws VTrep rov 
doeXcfrov /cat epiavrov rrfv Karr\yoplav 7rot^crojLtat. 
oficos Se Tretpdcro/xat L>/xa? e£ dpx?]S d>S aV ovvajfiai 
St' iXax^TOJV StSd^at. 

4 Outios" TTarr)p Ke</>aAo? irreioOr} fiev vtto YieptKXe- 
ovs els ravrrjv rrjv yrjv d(f>LKeo6aL, err] oe rpiaKOvra 
tpK7]G€, /cat ouSeyt irtoTTore ovre rjfjLels ouVe enceZvos 
8tK7]y oure e'St/cacra/xe^a oure ecfrvyofiev, aXX ovrws 
tpKOVfJcev Srj/jLOKparovixevoL ware {jlt]t€ els rovs 
dXXovs e^a/JLaprdveiv \ir\re vtto rcov aXXcov dSt/cet- 

5 a#at. eTTeior) 8' ot rpiaKovra Trovrjpol [p-ev] 1 /cat 
au/co^dVrat ovres els rr)v dpxr)v Karearrjaav , 
cbdoKOvres XPV vat T ^ )V a8t/cojv KaOapav TTOirjaat 

TT]V TToXlV /Cat TOVS XoiTTOVS TToXlraS €V dp€TT)V /Cat 

St/catoauV-^v rpaTreaOai, [/cat] 2 rotavra Xeyovres ov 
roiavra rroieZv eroXpLOJV, chg eyd> Trepl rwv ifiavrov 
TTpwrov €ltt<jjv /cat TT€pl rwv vpuerepwv dvapLvrjaat 

6 TTeipdoojiaL. Qeoyvis yap /cat Hetawv eXeyov ev 
rot? rpiaKovra Trepl rwv fjLerotKwv, ws elev rives rfj 
TToXireiq axOofxevot' KaXXianqv ovv elvai Trpofyaaiv 
ri\xwpeZadai [lev hoKeZv, rw 8' €pya> xP r ll xar ^ e " 
aOat' Trdvrws oe rrjv p,ev ttoXlv Treveadai 3 rr)v <8'> 4 

7 dpxty oeZaOai xP r H x( ^ rajv - Kai TOV S aKovovras ov 
XaXeTTO)s €7T€l6ov aTTOKTivvvvai fxev yap dvdpw- 
ttovs Trepl ovSevos r)yovvro, Xap,fidveiv he ^p^ttara 
Trepl ttoXXov eTTOLOvvro. e$o£ev ovv avroZs Se/ca 
ovXXafielv , rovrwv Se hvo Treviqras, tva avrols fj 
Trpos rovs dXXovs aTToXoyia, ws ov xP r )l JL ° LTa)U 
eVe/ca raura TreTTpaKrai, dXXd ovpLcfxEpovra rfj 

1 fiiv del. Reiske. 2 ical del. Markland. 

• wtveaOcu Markland: -ytviadai mss. * 5' add. Scaliger. 

a From Syracuse. 



from a fear lest my inexperience might cause me to 
fail in making a worthy and able accusation on my 
brother's and on my own behalf. Nevertheless I will 
try to inform you of the matter from the beginning, 
as briefly as I can. 

My father Cephalus was induced by Pericles to 
come to this country, and dwelt in it for thirty years : 
never did he, any more than we, 6 appear as either 
prosecutor or defendant in any case whatever, but 
our life under the democracy was such as to avoid 
any offence against our fellows and any wrong at 
their hands. When the Thirty, by the evil arts 
of slander-mongers, were established in the govern- 
ment, and declared that the city must be purged 
of unjust men and the rest of the citizens inclined 
to virtue and justice, despite these professions they 
had the effrontery to discard them in practice, as 
I shall endeavour to remind you by speaking first 
of my own concerns, and then of yours. Theognis 
and Peison c stated before the Thirty that among 
the resident aliens there were some who were 
embittered against their administration, and that 
therefore they had an excellent pretext for appear- 
ing to punish while in reality making money ; in 
any case, the State was impoverished, and the 
government needed funds. They had no difficulty 
in persuading their hearers, for those men thought 
nothing of putting people to death, but a great 
deal of getting money. So they resolved to seize 
ten, of whom two should be poor men, that they 
might face the rest with the excuse that the 
thing had not been done for the sake of money, 

* i.e., his sons, Polemarchus, Lysias and Euthydemus. 
• Two of the Thirty. 

I 229 


TToXireia yeyevqrai, axjirep Tt tcov dXXcov evX6ya)S 
8 7T€7TOLr)KOT€s. hiaXafiovres he TO.? ot/cta? efidhil,ov 
/cat efie fiev ^evovs i(JTi(jjvTa KareXafiov, ovs e£- 
eAdoavTes 1 IleicraW fie irapahihoacnv oi he dAAot eis 
to epyacrrrfpiov eXBovres tol dvhpaTroha direypa- 
(f)Ovro. eyd) he Ueioajva fiev rjpcoTiov el fiovAoiro 
fie oojaat ^p^/xara Xafitbv. d 8' e</>acr/cev, el 7roAAd 
et'77. elirov ovv on rdXavrov dpyvpiov erot/xo? eif]v 
hovvav 6 8' (hjioXoyqoe ravra Troirfoeiv. rjmcrTa- 
fir\v pJev ovv on ovre deovs ovt dvOpcoirovs vofiil.ei, 
ojjlcos 8' e/c tCjv Trapovrojv e'So/cet fioi dvay/cato- 

10 raTov efyat ttlutlv Trap* avrov Xa^elv. eVetS?) he 
ojjjLOoev, e^chXeiav eavrto /cat rots' iraiaiv eirapoj- 
fxevos, Xafiajv to rdXavrov fie acooeuv, elaeXdtbv els 
to hcofidnov ttjv Kifiajrov dvolyvvfju. lielaajv 8 
aloQofievos eluepyerai, /cat Ihcbv rd evovra /caAet 
rcjjv VTTripercjv hvo, /cat ret eV rfj Kifia)Tcp Xafteiv 

11 eKeXevoev . eVet Se ou^ ooov cbfioXoyrjro et^ey, 
to dvhpes St/caoTat, dAAd rpia TaAavTa dpyvpiov 
/cat rerpaKooiovs kv^lktjvovs /cat e/caroV Sapet/coz)? 1 
/cat <j)idXas dpyvpas rerrapa?, eheofiiqv avrov 

12 e</>o8td jioi hovvai, 6 8' dyaTT^aetv /xe ecfxicrKev, et 
to oai/xa gwooj. e^iovoi 8' e'/xot /cat Iletorawt 
kmrvyydvei MrjXofiios re /cat Mvr^ot^etS^? e'/c tou 
ipyaorrjpiov dmovres, /cat KaraXafi^dvovcrt 77-00? 
avrals rat? Bvpais, /cat epajrwuiv ottoi fiahi^oifiev 
6 8* e(f)aoKev et? [rd] 2 tol? d8eA</>ou tou e'/xou, tva 
/cat Ta eV eKelvrj rfj ot/cta OKeijsiqraL. eKelvov fiev 

1 8apeiKous Maussac : Kapiuous MSS. 
2 Td del. Scheibe. 

Where Lysias and his brother carried on the manufacture 
of arms. 


but had been brought about in the interest of 
the State, just as if they had taken some ordinary- 
reasonable action. They apportioned the houses 
amongst them, and began their visits : they found me 
entertaining guests, and after driving these out they 
handed me over to Peison. The others went to the 
factory ° and proceeded to make a list of the slaves. 
I asked Peison if he would save me for a price : he 
assented, on condition that it was a high one. So I 
said that I was prepared to give him a talent of silver, 
and he agreed to my proposal. I knew well, indeed, 
that he had no regard either for gods or for men ; 
but still, in the circumstances, I thought it impera- 
tive to get him pledged. When he had sworn, in- 
voking annihilation upon himself and his children if 
he did not save me on receipt of the talent, I went 
into my bedroom and opened the money-chest. 
Peison noticed it and came in ; on seeing its contents 
he called two of his underlings and bade them take 
what was in the chest. Since he now had, instead of 
the agreed amount, gentlemen, three talents of silver, 
four hundred cyzicenes, a hundred darics 6 and four 
silver cups, I begged him to give me money for my 
journey ; but he declared that I should be glad enough 
to save my skin. As Peison and I were coming out, 
we were met by Melobius and Mnesitheides, c who 
were on their way from the factory : they lighted 
upon us just at the door, and asked where we were 
going. Peison declared that he was off to my brother's, 
for the purpose of examining the property in that 
house also. So they bade him go his way, but told 

b A stater of Cyzicus was a coin equal to 28 Attic drachmae, 
and a Persian daric was one of slightly less value. 
• Two of the Thirty. 



ovv eKeXevov jSaSt'Jctv, e'/xe Se ju,e0* avroov a/coAoi>- 

13 Oelv els AafxvL7T7TOV. Tleicrcov Se irpooeXdchv ocyav 
/Ltot rrapeKeXevero /cat Oappelv, cos t^^oji^ e/cetcre. 
/caraAa/x/^aro/xez-' Se auro#t ©e'oyytv erepovs (j>vXdr- 
rovra- a> irapaSovres e'/ze 7raAtv cpxovro. ev 
roiovrco S' 6Wt /xot /ctrSuveuety e'So/cet, cos rod ye 

14 aTToOavelv virdpxovros rjSr]. /caAe'cra? Se Aa/xvt7r- 
7rov Xeyco rrpos avrov raSe, " eTrtT^Seto? /xeV ju.ot 
ruy^avets" aw, t^'/co) 8' et? t^v cr^v oikLclv, oSlkco 8' 
ouSeV, xpr)fjLaTCOv 8' eVe/ca a77oAAu/xat. cru ow 
ravra iraaypvTi /xot npoOvfiov irapaoypv rr\v creav- 

TOV SvvaflLV €LS TTjV efLTjV GCOTTjpLaV." 6 8' U77" 

€GX €TO Tavra rroi-qoeiv '. e'So/cet 8' aura) fieXriov elvat 
7rpds Oeoyviv pLvrjcrOrjvai' rjyelro yap dnav TTOfqaeuv 

15 avrov > el ris dpyvpiov StSot'77. eKeivov Se StaAeyo- 
fxevov QeoyviSi (efnreipos yap cov ervyxo.vov rr)s 
oiKLas, Kal rjSr] on dfi(f)i6vpos elrj) e'So/cet fioi 
ravrrj rreipaudai orcodrjvau, evOvfjLOVfxevcp 6n t eav 
fxev XdOco, GcnOrjaopiai, eav oe Xr}(f)9co, -qyovfir^v p,ev, 
el Qeoyvis elrj TreTTeiGfxevos vrro rod Aa/xviV-JTOu 
Xprj/jLara XafieZv, ovSev r)rrov acfreOrjcreaOaL, el Se 

16 jxrjy 6/jlolcos air oQ avelo 6 ai. ravra SuavorjOels ecfiev- 
yov, ihceivajv eVt rfj avXeico dvpa rr)v cf)vXaKr)v 
TTOLovfxevojv rptcov Se Ovpcov ovcrcov, as eSet /xe 
SteA#etv, airaoai aVea>y/xeVat ervypv. dc^LKOfievos 
Se et? 'Apxeveaj rod vavi<Xiqpov eKeivov nep/nco els 
dorv, Trevaofievov rrepl rod dSeX(f)ov' tJkcov Se 
eXeyev on ^paroiOeviqs avrov ev rfj 6Sa> Xaftcbv 

17 els ro SeopLcorrjpiov dnaydyoi. /cat eyoh roiavra 

a The front door, or gate on the street, opening into the 


me to follow along with them to Damnippus's house. 
Peison came up and urged me to keep silent and have 
no fear, as he was coming on to that place. There 
we found Theognis guarding some others ; they 
handed me over to him, and went off again. Situ- 
ated as I was, I decided to take a risk, since death 
was already my portion. I called Damnippus and 
said to him : " You are in friendly relations with me, 
and I have come into your house ; I have done no 
wrong, but am being destroyed for the sake of my 
money. In my great trouble, lend your own zealous 
efforts for my salvation." He promised to do 
so ; and he decided that he had better mention it to 
Theognis, as he believed that he would do anything 
for an offer of money. While he was in conversation 
with Theognis — I happened to be familiar with the 
house, and knew that it had doors front and back — I 
decided to try this means of saving myself, reflecting 
that, if I should be unobserved, I should be saved ; 
while, if I were caught, I expected that, should 
Theognis be induced by Damnippus to take money, 
I should get off none the less, but should he not, I 
should be put to death just the same. With these 
conclusions I took to flight, while they were keeping 
guard over the courtyard door a : there were three 
doors 6 for me to pass through, and they all chanced 
to be open. I reached the house of Archeneos the 
ship-captain, and sent him into town to inquire after 
my brother : on his return he told me that Erato- 
sthenes had arrested him in the street and taken him 
off to prison. Thus apprised of his fate, I sailed 

6 Probably these divided the courtyard from the inner 
court, the inner court from the garden, and the garden from 
the back street. 



TT€7rvayiivos rrjs eTTiovoiqs WKros hienXevcra Meya- 
pdhe. UoXefxdpxco he 7rap7?yyetAav ol rpiaKovra 
TOV7T* 1 €K€iva>v eldtofievov rrapdyyeXpia, irlveiv 
Ktbveiov, irplv rrjv alriav elrrelv St' r)vriva efieXXev 
dirodavelodai' ovru> 7roXXov eheiqoe KpidrjvaL /cat 

18 dnoXoyqoaoOai. /cat eneLhr) drte^epero e/c rov 
heofiojrrjpLov redveojs, rpicbv tjjmv oIkl&v ovgcov 
<i£>* ovhepads e'taorav e^evex^vai, dAAd /cAetcrtoi> 
l±io9a)od\Jievoi Trpovdevro avrov. /cat ttoXXcov 6v- 
rojv IfjuiTUOV alrovoiv ovhev ehocrav els ttjv rafy-qv, 
dAAd ra>v </>tAa>v 6 fiev Ifidriov, 6 he irpoo- 
Kej)d\aiov, 6 he 6 n eKaoros exu^ey ehcoKev els 

19 ttjv eKeivov ra^V. /cat e^ovres jJiev enraKOOLas 
daTrihas rdv r)p,erepojv, exovres he dpyvpiov /cat 
Xpvcrlov ToaovroVy x^Xkov he /cat /cdoyxov /cat emTrXa 
/cat t/xdrta ywat/ccta ocra ovheTramore coovro 
KTiqoeodai, /cat dvopdrroSa ct/cocrt /cat e/cardv, 
a>v rd /Ltcv fieXriora eXafiov, rd he Xoirrd els to 
hrjfioGiov aTrehoaav, els rooravrrjv dirX-qcrrlav /cat 
alcrxpoKephetav dcfaiKovro /cat tol» rpoirov rov 
avrcov aTTohei^LV eiroirjoavro' rrjs yap UoXep,dpxov 
yvvaiKos xP V(J °vs eXiKrrjpas, ovs exovoa ervy 

„ ft x av€v > ore ro TrpGiTov rjXdev els tt]v ot/ctav M17- 
r|o«i Xoftios eK ro>v corojv e^eiXero. /cat ovhe Kara ro 
eXdx^TOV fiepos rrjs ovoias eXeov Trap avrcov 
eTvyxdvopLev. dAA' ovrtos els r)jjL&s hid rd xp r ]l xara 
i^rjfidpravov, tocnrep dv erepoi p,eydXtov dSt/07- 
\idrtov dpyrjv exovres, ov rovrcov d^iovs ye ovras* 
Tfl TToXei., dAAd irdoas <fiev> i rds X P r )y Las 

1 toiV Fritzsche : t6 vtt' mss. 

1 g add. Cobet. 
' ye 6vtcls edd. : (x 0VTai M99 » 


across on the following night to Megara. Polem- 
archus received from the Thirty their accustomed 
order to drink hemlock, with no statement made as 
to the reason for his execution : so far did he come 
short of being tried and defending himself. And 
when he was being brought away dead from the 
prison, although we had three houses amongst us, 
they did not permit his funeral to be conducted from 
any of them, but they hired a small hut in which to 
lay him out. We had plenty of cloaks, yet they re- 
fused our request of one for the funeral ; but our 
friends gave either a cloak, or a pillow, or whatever 
each had to spare, for his interment. They had 
seven hundred shields of ours, they had all that 
silver and gold, with copper, jewellery, furniture and 
women's apparel beyond what they had ever ex- 
pected to get ; also a hundred and twenty slaves, 
of whom they took the ablest, delivering the rest to 
the Treasury ; and yet to what extremes of insati- 
able greed for gain did they go, in this revelation 
that they made of their personal character ! For 
some twisted gold earrings, which Polemarchus's wife 
chanced to have, were taken out of her ears by Melo- 
bius as soon as ever he entered the house. And not 
even in respect of the smallest fraction of our 
property did we find any mercy at their hands ; 
but our wealth impelled them to act as injuriously 
towards us as others might from anger aroused by 
grievous wrongs. This was not the treatment that we 
deserved at the city's hands, when we had produced 
all our dramas for the festivals, and contributed to 

a Referring to the expensive duty, imposed on wealthy 
citizens, of equipping a chorus for a dramatic performance. 

4 fjiev add. Reiske. 



XoprjyrjGavras , 77oAAa? 8' elcrcfropas tloeveyKOvras , l 
koo/jllovs 8' r)}JLQ.S olvtovs 7TapexovTas /cat rrdv to 
TrpocrraTTOfJievov ttoiovvtcls, eyflpov 8' ouSeVa /ce- 
Krr)fji€vov5, tto/\Xovs 8' * Adrjvaicov e/c tG>v 77oAe/xtojy 
Xvcrapevovs' tolovtoov rj^LCucrav oi>x d/xo to*? /xer- 

21 oi/couvTas' tooirep avrol €.7To\irevovTo. ovtol yap 


rjXaaav, ttoXXovs 8* olSlkojs drroKTeivavTes drd(f)OVS 


TToAecosY Karearrjaav, 77oAAa)v 8e dvyarepas /xeA- 

22 Aoucra? e/cSiSocr#at eKtoXvcrav. /cat els tooovtov 
etax roXji-qs dcjuypiivoi (Zcrd* tjkovgiv aTroXoyrjaopLevoL, 
/cat Ae'youerty a»? ouSev /ca/cov ouS' aloxpov elpya- 
oyxeVot elaiv. iycb 8' i^ovX6fir]V av olvtovs aXr/df) 
Xeyeiv fierrjv ydp av /cat euot tovtov rdyaOov ovk 

23 iXdxi<o~TOi' fiepos. vvv 8e ovt€ rrpos ttjv rroXiv 
avTols roiavra virapx^i ovre rrpos e/xe* rov dSeA- 
(f>6v ydp /xou, axjTrep /cat rrporepov tlrrov, 'EpaTO- 
aOevrjs diriKreivev, ovre avros t8ta. d8t/cou/xevo? oure 
et? t^v 7t6Xlv optov i^apLaprdvovra, dXXd rfj iavrov 

24 rrapavofxla TrpoOvficos i^VTnqpercov. dvofiifiaod- 
jjlzvos 8' avrov povXopLai ipecrOai, to dvhpes St/ca- 
crrat. roiavriqv ydp yvojp,t]v ex *' e>7TL ^ v r V to ^~ 
rov oj^eAeta /cat rrpos erepov ire pi tovtov 8ta- 
XeyecrOaL doeftes etvat vo/xt£a>, em 8e T77 toutou 
fiXdfir) /cat Typos' aurov tovtov doiov /cat evoefies. 
dvdfir)6t ovv /xot /cat diroKpivai, 6 rt dV <re epojTtb. 

25 A77^yayes" noAe/xap^ov t) ou; Td U770 raw 

1 daeveyKdvTas Markland : iveyKdvras mss. 
2 r?}s 7ro\ea's del. Markland. 

° Property-taxes were levied in times of war or other 




many special levies ; when we showed ourselves 
men of orderly life, and performed every duty laid 
upon us ; when we had made not a single enemy, 
but had ransomed many Athenians from the foe. 
Such was their reward to us for behaving as resident 
aliens far otherwise than they did as citizens ! For 
they sent many of the citizens into exile with the 
enemy ; they unjustly put many of them to death, 
and then deprived them of burial ; many who had 
full civic rights they excluded from the citizenship ; 
the daughters of many they debarred from being- 
given in marriage. And they have carried audacity 
to such a pitch that they come here ready to defend 
themselves, and state that they are guilty of no vile or 
shameful action. I myself could have wished that their 
statement were true ; for my own share in that benefit 
would not have been of the smallest. But in fact they 
have nothing of the sort to show in regard either to the 
city or to me : my brother, as I said before, was put 
to death by Eratosthenes, who was neither suffering 
under any private wrong himself, nor found him 
offending against the State, but eagerly sought to 
gratify his own lawless passions. I propose to put 
him up on the dais and question him, gentlemen of 
the jury. For my feeling is this : even to discuss 
this man with another for his profit I consider to be 
an impiety, but even to address this man himself, 
when it is for his hurt, 6 I regard as a holy and pious 
action. So mount the dais, please, and answer the 
questions I put to you. 

Did you arrest Polemarchus or not ? — I was acting 

b There was risk of pollution in addressing an unpurified 
murderer ; cf. Aeschyl. Eumen. 448, Eurip. Orestes 75. 

12 257 


dpxovrcov rrpoGraxOivra SeStco? enolovv. T Hcr#a 
S' ev rep fiovXevTi]picQ t ore ol Xoyoc eyiyvovro rrepl 
rjfitov; T H. Yiortpov crvvqyopeves rots KeXevovoiv 
aTTOKTeZvou r) dvreXeyes ; 'AvreXeyov. "Iva pur) 
OL7To6dva>pi€v ; " lva pir) aTroddvrjre. 'Hyou/xeyos" T)p,as 
aSt/ca 77ciCT^ett' rj Ot/cata; "ASt/ca. 

26 Etr', oj ox^TXtcorare 7toivtq)v, dvreXeyes fxev 
Iva crcvaeias, ovveXdpifiaves Se tva aTTOKreivys ; 
/cat ore /xev to irXrjBos rjv vpicov Kvpiov rrjs uajr^pias 
rrjs rjpLerepas, dvnXeyetv <f>f]s rots fiovXopLevois 
rjpL&s arroXeaai, erreihr) Se eVt crot pLovcp eyevero 
/cat oaicrat rioAe'/xap^oi-' /cat ju/zy, els to Seoucor^ptov 
dnrjyayes; eld* on fiev, <hs <f>fis, avrenrcbv ovhev 
oj^eXrjoras, aftot? ^p^aro? vopLi^euOai., on oe 
avXXafiobv a.7T€KT€Lvas, ovk [otet] 1 efxol /cat TOUTOtot 
Sowat Slktjv; 

27 Kat pLT]v ovSe rovro et/co? avra) mcrreveLV, elirep 
dXrjOrj Ae'yet c/xzct/cojv dyTet7reti>, cos auTai rrpoa- 
erdxOr]. 2 ov yap hrjnov ev rols [xerotKOLs ttiotiv 
Trap avrov iXdpifiavov. erreira ra> rjrrov 3 eiKos 
rjv TrpoGTaxBrfvai r) Sons dvTet770JV ye irvyxave 
/cat yvcopaqv drroSeSeLypLevos ; riva yap et/co? rjv 
rjrrov ravra i>7rr]peTrjcraL r) rov avrenrovra ols 

28 e'/cetVot IfiovXovro 7Tpax0rjvai; en 8e Tots fiev 
dXXois ' Adrjvalois LKavrj jitot So/cet 7rp6<f>acris elvai 
rtov yeyevqpLevujv els rovs rpiaKovra dva(f>epetv rr)v 
atTtav avrovs oe tou? rpiaKovra, edv els cr<f)as 

1 ofei del. Madvig. 2 Trpoaeraxdv Reiske: iT&xOr) MS3. 

3 fjTTov Canter : irlanv mss. 

a After such opposition, they would surely test him by 
ordering him to arrest a citizen of standing. 



on the orders of the government, from fear. — Were 
you in the Council-chamber when the statements 
were being made about us ? — I was. — Did you 
speak in support or in opposition of those who were 
urging the death sentence ? — In opposition. — You 
were against taking our lives ? — Against taking your 
lives. — In the belief that our fate was unjust, or just ? 
— That it was unjust. 

So then, most abandoned of mankind, you spoke 
in opposition to save us, but you helped in our arrest 
to put us to death ! And when our salvation de- 
pended on the majority of your body, you assert that 
you spoke in opposition to those who sought our de- 
struction ; but when it rested with you alone to save 
Polemarchus or not, you arrested him and put him 
in prison. So then, because you failed to help 
him, as you say, by your speech in opposition, you 
claim to be accounted a good citizen, while for having 
apprehended him and put him to death you are not 
to give satisfaction to me and to this court ! 

And further, supposing he is truthful in asserting 
that he spoke in opposition, observe that there is no 
reason to credit his plea that he acted under orders. 
For I presume it was not where the resident aliens 
were concerned that they were going to put him to 
the proof. And then, who was less likely to be 
given such orders than the man who was found 
to have spoken in opposition to what they wanted 
done ? For who was likely to be less active in 
this service than the man who spoke in opposition 
to the object that they had at heart ? Again, 
the rest of the Athenians have a sufficient excuse, 
in my opinion, for attributing to the Thirty 
the responsibility for what has taken place ; but if 



clvtovs avcufyeptocri, 770)9 v/jlols eli<6s aTrohex^crOat ; 

29 €L fxev yap rig rjv ev rfj rroXet apx^j l(JX v P°" 
Tepa [avrrjs], 1 vcf)' rjg avrcu TTpoaerdrrero Trapa 
to hii<aiov avOptoTTOVs anoXAvvai, tcro)? civ elKorws 
ai)Tco (Tvyyva)[xrjv ei^eTe* vvv Se Trapa tov 2 ttot€ 
Kal Xrjipecrde SiKrjv, elrrep e^euTai toIs rpta/covra 
Xeyeiv otl tol vtto twv TpiaKovTa TTpoaraxOevTa 

30 irroiovv ; Kal fxev Srj ovk ev tjj oIklo. aAA' ev tt} 
68to, aoj^etv re ai)TOV Kal tol tovtols eifj^^LGfieva 
rrapov, 3 ovXXafttov drr-qyayev. voxels oe ttololv* 
opyi^eode, octol els tols oi/aas" rjXOov tol? vjieTepas 
^rjTrjGLv TToiovfJievoi r] vficov r) to)v vfieTepcov TLVOS. 

31 KaiTOi el xpr) rot? 5 Slol ttjv eavT&v GO)Tt]piav 
[123] erepovs aTroXeoaai crvyyvajpLrjv eyew, eKeivois av 

hiKaioTepov eypiTe' klvSvvos yap rjv Tre/jLcfrOeicn firj 
eXOelv Kal KaTaXafiovoiv e^dpvois yevecrOai. rep 
Se 'Eparocr^eVet i£y}v elirelv otl ovk aTTfjvTrjo'ev, 
errevra otl ovk elSev raura yap ovr* eXeyyov ovre 
fidcravov zlyev, cocrre [ir\V vtto to)v exOpoJV jSouAo- 

32 fxevajv olov t elvai e^eXeyxOrjvai. XP1 V ^ G€ > *** 
'KpaToaOeves, elrrep rjvOa xP 1 l Gro ^y rroXv /jlolXXov 
toIs fieXXovaiv doLKcos arrodaveluBai {irjVVTrjv 
yeveaOai r) tovs dStVco? drroXovfJievovg crvXXafi- 
fidveuv. vvv Se gov tol epya <j)avepd yeyevqraL oi>x 
d>s aviajfievov dXX cog rjhopLevov toIs yiyvofievois, 

33 ojcrre rovahe e/c twv epycov XPV fiaXXov r) eK tcov 

1 avr?]s del. Dobree. 
2 7rapd rod Canter : Trap* clvtov mss. 
8 aw'^eiv re et irapbv Sauppe : crdi^ovTa et 5f MSS. 
4 waaiis Reiske : irdvTes MSS. 
5 roh Reiske : tovtols mss. 

9 i.e., he could have let him escape there without any breach 
of lli<- orders of the Thirty; but the people feel anger even 



the Thirty actually attribute it to themselves, how 
can you reasonably accept that ? For had there been 
some stronger authority in the city, whose orders 
were given him to destroy people in defiance of 
justice, you might perhaps have some reason for 
pardoning him ; but whom, in fact, will you ever 
punish, if the Thirty are to be allowed to state that 
they merely carried out the orders of the Thirty ? 
Besides, it was not in his house, but in the street, 
where he was free to leave both him and the decrees 
of the Thirty intact, a that he apprehended him 
and took him off to prison. You feel anger against 
everyone who entered your houses in search either 
of yourselves or of some member of your household : 
yet, if there is to be pardon for those who have 
destroyed others to save themselves, you would be 
more justified in pardoning these intruders ; for it 
was dangerous for them not to go where they were 
sent, and to deny that they had found the victims 
there. But Eratosthenes was free to say that he had 
not met his man, or else that he had not seen him : 
for these were statements that did not admit of either 
disproof or inquisition ; so that not even his enemies, 
however they might wish it, could have convicted 
him. If in truth, Eratosthenes, you had been a good 
citizen, you ought far rather to have acted as an 
informant to those who were destined to an unjust 
death than to have laid hands on those who were to 
be unjustly destroyed. But the fact is that your 
deeds clearly reveal the man who, instead of feeling 
pain, took pleasure in what was being done ; so that 
this court should take its verdict from your deeds, not 

against those who sought their victims indoors, where there 
was little possibility of conniving at their escape. 



Aoycov rr)v iJjrj(f)ov (frepeiv, a tcraat yeyevrjfjLeva rcbv 
rore Xe,yop.4vcov reKpL-qpia Xapufidvovras , i^euSr) 
fiaprvpas rrepl avrcov oi>x olov re TTapaux^Oat. 
ov yap fiovov j]pXv irapelvai ovk e£r}v, dAA' ovSe 
7rap avTols et^at, wcrr* errl tovtols earl rrdvra rd 
kclkcl elpyaojjiivois rrjv ttoXlv rrdvra rdyaOd irepl 

34 avrajv Xeyeiv. rovro fxevrot ov <f>evyoj, dAA* 
ofioXoyo) (joi, el fiovXei, avrenreZv. Qavpd^oj 8e 
Tt av rtor €7Toir)&as ovvenrojv , oirore avremeZv 
$doKO)V a7T€KT€LV0LS HoAejjLapxov. 

Oepe St), ri av, el Kal dSeX(f>ol ovres €rux ere 
avrov r) Kal veZs; aTTeiprj^iaaade ; Set yap, d> avopes 
StKaaral, 'EparooOevqv SvoZv Odrepov aTrooeZ^ai, 
t) cos" ovk arnqyayev avrov, rj to? St/catajs 1 rovr 
errpa^ev. ovros Se ojfjioXoyqKev dSt/ca>S" orvXAafieZv, 
ware paoiav vjjlZv rrjv hia\jjrj<j)toiv 7T€pl avrov 

36 7T€7TOLr)K€. Kal fxev $T) ttoXXol Kal rcov dara)v /cat 
ra>v £evojv tJkovglv elcropLevoi riva yvwfirjv nepl 
rovrwv e^ere. cov ol fiev vp.ire.poi ovres rroXZrai 
ixadovres drriao'iv on r\ Slkt^v Scoctovolv cdv 
av e^afidprwoLv, 77 rrpd^avres uev (Lv e<f>ievrai 
rvpavvoi rrjs 7r6Xea)S eaovrai, Svcrrvxijvavres oe 
to lgov vfjilv e^ovoiv OCTot 8e feVot eVtS^/XOUCTtV, 
eXoovrai rtorepov dSt/coj? rovs rpiaKovra eKKrjpvr- 
rovcnv e/c rcov noXetov r) Si/cato)?. et yap St) avrol 
ol KaKws ireirovBores Xafiovres d^tfoovcriv, rj ttov 
0(f>as <y > x avrovs rjyqaovraL rrepiepyovs virep 

1 y add. Fuhr. 

By stating that he spoke against it. 


from your words. They should take what they know 
to have been done as evidence of what was said at the 
time, since it is not possible to produce witnesses of 
the latter. For we were restricted, not merely from 
attending their councils, but even from staying at 
home ; and thus they have the licence, after doing 
all possible evil to the city, to say all possible good 
about themselves. That one point, however, I do 
not contest : I admit, if you like, that you spoke in 
opposition. But I wonder what in the world you 
would have done if you had spoken in favour, when 
in spite of your alleged opposition you put Polem- 
archus to death. 

Now I would ask the court, even supposing that you 
had happened to be brothers or sons of this man, 
what would you have done ? Acquitted him ? For, 
gentlemen, Eratosthenes is bound to prove one of 
two things, — either that he did not arrest him, or 
that he did so with justice. But he has admitted that 
he laid hands on him unjustly, so that he has made 
your voting on himself an easy matter. And besides, 
many foreigners as well as townsfolk have come 
here to know what is to be your judgement on these 
men. The latter sort, your fellow-citizens, will have 
learnt before they leave, either that they will be 
punished for their offences, or that, if they succeed 
in their aims, they will be despots of the city, but, if 
they are disappointed, will be on an equality with you. 
As for all the foreigners who are staying in town, they 
will know whether they are acting unjustly or justly 
in banning the Thirty from their cities. For if the 
very people who have suffered injury from them are 
to let them go when they have hold of them, of 
course they will consider it a waste of pains on their 



36 vj.l(x)v nqpovpevovs- ovk ovv heLvbv el rovs fiev 
arparr^yovs, 61 ivcKtov vav^iaxovvres, ore Sid 
Xei/zcova oi>x oloi r ecjxicrav elvai rovs e'/c rrjs 
daXdrrrjs dveXeorOaL, Oavdrco e^rj/jLLwcrare, i)yovuevoi 
Xprjvou rfj tojv redvecorcov dperfj -nap* €K€W(x)V Slktjv 
XafieZv, tovtovs he, ol iSiajrai p,ev ovres ko.9^ ooov 
ehvvavro erroL-qaav r\TTf)Br\vai vavfjLaxovvras, eVetS^ 
Se el? tt)v dpX"Q v Kare(JTT\oav , ofjioXoyovcnv eKovres 


dpa XPV avrovs koi tovs TraZoas v<j> 9 v\xG)V tolls 
eaxdraLs ^/xtats" KoXd^eudaL; 

37 'Eya> tolvvv, co avhpes hiKaarat, tj^lovv iKavd 
elvai rd Karrjyopi^fieva' /xe^pt yap rovrov vojjlll^co 
Xprjvou, KarrjyopeZv, ecos av Oavdrov oo^rj rtp 
<j>evyovTi d^La elpydcrdai. ravrrjv yap eaxdri)v 
olkt)v ovvdueda Trap* avrcov Aaj3eZv. ioor ovk 
olS' 6 rt Set 7roAAa Karrjyopelv tolovtojv dvopdjv, 
ol ovh* VTrep evos eKaorov rcov TreTrpayfievajv Sis 
drrodavovres Slktjv hovvai ovvaivr* av <a^iav> x . 

38 ov yap Srj ovSe rovro avra> irpoo-qKei TTOLrjoai, 
o-nep ev rfjoe rfj rroXet eWLapLevov earl, rrpos fiev 
Ta Karrjyoprjueva pLifiev arroXoyeZodaiy irepl Se 
0(j>a)v avrcov erepa Xeyovres eviore e^aTTarcooLV, 
vjjlZv aTTooeiKvvvTes cLs arparitorai ayaOoi eloiv, 
rj ws 7ToXXas rcov noXefilajv vavs eXafiov rpirjp- 
apxtfcroLVTes , <r)> 2 TroXeLs 7roXefJLLas ovoras tblXas 

39 eTTOL-qaav eVet KeXevere avrov dnooeZ^aL orrov 


1 a^lav add. Frohberger. 2 f) add. Markland. 

• At Arginusae, 406 b.c. 

b It was suspected that both at Arginusae and at Aegos- 



own part to keep watch on your behalf. And how 
monstrous it would be, when you have punished 
with death the commanders who won the victory 
at sea° — they said that a storm prevented them 
from picking up the men in the water, but you felt 
that you must make them give satisfaction to the 
valour of the dead — if these men, who as ordinary 
persons used their utmost endeavours towards your 
defeat in the sea-fights, b and then, once established in 
power, admit that of their own free will they put to 
death many of the citizens without a trial, — if these 
men, I say, and their children are not to be visited by 
you with the extreme penalty of the law ! 

Now I, gentlemen, might almost claim that the 
accusations you have heard are sufficient : for I con- 
sider that an accuser ought to go no further than to 
show that the defendant has committed acts that 
merit death ; since this is the extreme penalty that 
we have power to inflict upon him. So I doubt if 
there is any need to prolong one's accusation of such 
men as these ; for not even if they underwent two 
deaths for each one of their deeds could they pay the 
penalty in full measure. And note that he cannot 
even resort to the expedient, so habitual among our 
citizens, of saying nothing to answer the counts of 
the accusation, but making other statements about 
themselves which at times deceive you ; they 
represent to you that they are good soldiers, or have 
taken many vessels of the enemy while in command 
of war-ships, or have won over cities from hostility to 
friendship. Why, only tell him to point out where 
they killed as many of our enemies as they have of 

potami members of the oligarchic party had been working 
for the defeat of Athens by Sparta. 



iroXircbv, tj vavs onov rocravrag eXafiov oaag avrol 
irapioooav, rj ttoXlv r\vriva rotavr-qv TTpoaeKr-qoavro 

40 oiav tt)v v/xerepav KareSovXcLaavro. dXXd yap 
oVAa ra>v 7ToXep,ia)v <rooavra> 1 eoKvXevoav ocra 
7T€p vp,u)v d^eiXovro, dXXd reix 7 ] Toiavra elXov ota 

[124] rfjs iavrwv Trarpioos KaridKaipav ; olrives /cat 
rd rrepl tt]v 'Attlktjv (f>povpLa KaOelXov, /cat vpXv 
e'S^Aaxrav on ovhe rov Iletpata AaKeSatfiovLcov 
TrpocrraTTOVTCUv 7TepielXov y dXX on iavrols 2 rr)v 
apX*] v ovtoj fiefiaiorepav ivofii^ov elvai. 

41 YIoXXolkls ovv idavfiacra rfjs roXfi-qg rGiV Xeyovrcov 
VTrep avrov, 3 ttXtjv orav evBvpnqda) ore rtov avrcov 
iartv avrovs re irdvra ra /ca/cd ipyd^eadai /cat 

42 rovs tolovtovs eiraiveiv. ov yap vvv 7rpd)rov ra> 
vfierepa) 7rXrjd€L ra, ivavria eirpa^ev, aAAd /cat enl 
tu)v rerpaKOGLajv iv rep arparo7T€oa) dAtya/r^tav 
Kad terras e^evyev e£ c EAA770770 vrov rpaqpap^os 
KaraXnrtbv tt)V vavv, fiera 'larpohtXeovs /cat irepojv, 
a>v ra ovofiara ovoev oiopiai Xeyew. a^iKOjievos ok 
oevpo ravavria rots fiovXopiivois hiqpLOKpariav etvat 
€7TparT€. /cat tovtojv jxdprvpas VfUV Trape^ofjiai. 


43 TdV pikv TOIVW jxera^v filov avrov 7raprjaa>' 
irreiorj 8e rj vau/xa^ta /cat r) crvp,(f)opa rfj rroXet, 
iyevero, hrjfioKparias en ovoiqs, oOev rrjs ordoecos 
rjp^av, rrevre avopes €<j)opoi Kareanqaav vtto rcov 
KaXovjjievajv iraipwv, ovvaycjyels fJLev rcov rroXirtov, 

1 roaavra add. Reiske. 2 6ti eavrois Sluiter : oh aureus mss. 
3 avrov Dobree : avrCjv mss. 

"411 b.c. b The battle of Aegospotami, in 405 b.c. 

c In imitation of the " Ephors," who were the five chief 
magistrates of Sparta. 


our citizens, or where they took as many ships as 
they themselves surrendered, or what city they 
won over to compare with yours which they enslaved. 
Nay, indeed, did they despoil the enemy of as many 
arms as they stripped from you ? Did they capture 
fortifications to compare with those of their own 
country which they razed to the ground ? They are 
the men who pulled down the forts around Attica, 
and made it evident to you that even in dismantling 
the Peiraeus they were not obeying the injunctions 
of the Lacedaemonians, but were thinking to make 
their own authority the more secure. 

I have often wondered, therefore, at the audacity of 
those who speak in his defence, except when I reflect 
that the same men who commit every sort of crime 
are wont also to commend those who act in a similar 
way. For this is not the first occasion of his work- 
ing in opposition to your people : in the time of the 
Four Hundred ° also, seeking to establish an oligarchy 
in the army, he abandoned the war-ship which he 
was commanding and fled from the Hellespont with 
Iatrocles and others whose names I have no call to 
mention. On his arrival here he worked in opposition 
to those who were promoting a democracy. I will 
present you with witnesses to these facts. 


Now his life in the interval I will here pass over : 
but when the sea-fight b took place, with the disaster 
that befell the city, and while we still had a democracy 
(at this point they started the sedition), five men 
were set up as overseers by the so-called " club- 
men," to be organizers of the citizens as well as chiefs 



apxovTes oe to)v avrcopoTtov, evavTia Se tgj 

vfjuerepa) TrXijdeL npaTTOVTes' <Lv 'EpaTooOevrjs /cat 

4 1 KpiTias rjorav. ovtol Se cf>vXdp)(ovs re eirl ras 

cfrvXds 1 KaTeorrrjGav, /cat 6 Tt SeoL x €L P 0T0V€L * <J @ aL 

/Cat OVGTIVaS XP e ' lr f &PX €LU TTO-prfyyeXXoV , /Cat €L TL 

ttoXltcuv ovtcov eirefiovXeveoQe ottojs psrpr dyaOdv 

45 p,i]Sev iprjcfyLelcrOe 3 ttoXXojv re evSeels eoeode. tovto 
yap kolXcos* rjTTLOTavTO, on dXXoJs pLev oi>x olol 
re eaovrai Trepiyeveadai, kolkws Se npaTTovTOjv 
hvvqoovrai' /cat vp,ds rjyovvTO tcov irapovTOJV kclkojv 
e7TL0vpLovvTas aTraXXayrjvaL rrepl row pLeXXovTOjv 

46 OVK ip9vpLTlG€o9aL. OJS TOLVVV TOJV 6(j)6pOJV iy€V€TO, 

udprvpas vplv 7Tape£opLaL, ov tovs rore avpLTrpdr- 
rovras (ov ydp dv Swaiu-qv), dXXd tovs clvtov 

47 'Eparoodevovs aKovoavras . kclltol el ecrajcf)p6vovv 
KarepLapTvpovv dv olvtwv, /cat tovs SiSaorKaXovs 
TOiv G(f>erepojv dpLapr7]p,drojv cr^oSp' dv eKoXa^ov, 
/cat rovs dpKovSy el eoaj(f>p6vovv, ovk dv em p,ev 
tols rcov ttoXltcov /ca/cots 1 ttlgtovs evopLL^ov, em 
oe toZs rrjs TToXecos dyadols paSlojs irapefiaLvov. 
Trpds pLev ovv tovtovs ToaavTa Xeyojy tovs Se 
p.dprvpds ju,ot /caAet. /cat vpLels dvdfiryre, 


48 TGjv pLev pLaprvptov d/c^/coaTe. to Se TeXevralov 
els ttjv dpxyv /carac/rd? dyaOov pLev ovSevos 
p.eTeGyev y dXXwv Se ttoXXojv. /catrot elirep rjv 

1 0i'\ds Taylor : <pv\a.Kas mss. 2 x/ 3 ^ 7 ? Bekker : xph M ss. 

3 \jn]<ptei<rde Cobet : ^rjcpiarjcrde, \J/7i<pl<Te<rde mss. 
4 ku\u>s Frohberger: ko.1 mss. 


of the conspirators and opponents of your common- 
wealth ; and among these were Eratosthenes and 
Critias. They placed tribal governors over the tribes, 
and directed what measures should be passed by their 
votes and who were to be magistrates ; and they had 
absolute powers for any other steps that they chose 
to take. Thus by the plotting, not merely of your 
enemies, but even of these your fellow-citizens, you 
were at once prevented from passing any useful 
measure and reduced to a serious scarcity. For 
they knew perfectly well that in other conditions 
they could not get the upper hand, but that if you 
were in distress they would succeed. And they sup- 
posed that in your eagerness to be relieved of your 
actual hardships you would give no thought to those 
that were to follow. Now, to show that he was one 
of the overseers, I will offer you witnesses ; not the 
men who then acted with him, — for I could not do 
that, — but those who heard it from Eratosthenes 
himself: yet truly, if they ° were sensible, they would 
be bearing witness against those persons, and would 
severely punish their instructors in transgression ; 
and as for their oaths, if they were sensible they would 
not have held them as binding to the detriment of the 
citizens, and would not so have made light of breaking 
those oaths for the advantage of the city. So much 
then, I would say in regard to them : now call my 
witnesses. Go up on the dais. 


You have heard the witnesses. Finally, when he 
was established in power, he had a hand in no good 
work, but in much that was otherwise. Yet, if he 

° i.e., the accomplices of Eratosthenes. 


dvrjp ayaOos, expfjv avT ov l irpcorov fxev firj Trapa- 
vofAcus apx^v, erreira rfj fiovXrj pirjVVTrjv yiyveoQai 
irepl Tcbv elaayyeXicbv diraaoov, on i/jevhelg elev, 
/cat BaTpa^os- /cat Ato^uAtS^s' ov rdXrjdrj fxrjvv- 
vvovcrw, dAAd rd vtto rwv TpLOLKovTa irXaudevra 
eloayyeXXovoi, crvyKeipieva eVt rfj rGsv ttoXltoov 

49 PXdfir). /cat p,ev 077, a> aVSpe? St/caarat, oaot 
kolkovoi rjcrav ra> vp.ere.ptp TrXrjdeL, ovhev eXarrov 
elxov oi(xyna)VT€s' erepoi yap rjaav ol Xeyovreg /cat 

7TpOLTTOVT€S CJV Ol>X OLOV T TjV U€t£a> /Ca/CCl yeveudai 

rfj rroXei. OTToaoi 8' evvoi fyaoiv elvou, ttcos ovk 
evravda e'Sctfav, avroi re ret fieXrwra Xeyovres 
/cat rovs e^aptaprdvovrag dnorperrovres; 

50 "lotos 8' aV e^ot elrrelv ort e'SeSoi/cet, /cat vp,tov 
rovro eviois lkovov carat, drrtos toLvvv /xt) <f)avr)- 
orerat ev to) Aoycp rot? rpiaKovra evavnovpLevos' 
el he prr\ y evravdol SrjXos carat ort e/cetvd re aura) 
rjpeoKe, /cat roaovrov ehvvaro toore evavnov- 


avrov virep rrjs vp,erepas atorrjptas ravrrpf rrjv 
TTpodvpiiav £X €lv > aAAd pbrj virep ®7]pap,evovs, os 
els VfJids TToXXd e^iqp,aprev. dXX ovros rrjv fiev 

51 ttoXlv exOpdv ev6put,ev elvai, rods S' vpierepovs eX" 
dpovs </)lXovs, ojs dpi(f)6repa ravra eyd> ttoXXols reK- 

\125] WpLOLS TTapaanqoix) , /cat rds rrpos dXXr/Xovs Sta- 
(f>opds oi>x virep vpuajv dAA* virep eavra>v yiyvo- 
l±evas, oTTorepoi rd irpdypiara* irpd£ovcn /cat rrjs 

52 TToXeoDS dp£ovcnv. el 3 ydp virep rdv dhiKovp,eva>v 

1 avrbv Bekker: av mss. 
* rd Trpdy/xara Gebauer: ravra mss. * el Schott: nai mss. 


was really a good man, it behoved him in the first place 
to decline unconstitutional powers, or else to lay infor- 
mation before the Council exposing the falsity of all 
the impeachments, and showing that Batrachus 
and Aeschylides, so far from giving true information, 
were producing as impeachments the fabrications 
of the Thirty, devised for the injury of the citizens. 
Furthermore, gentlemen, anyone who was ill-disposed 
towards your people lost nothing by holding his 
peace : for there were other men to speak and do 
things of the utmost possible detriment to the city. 
As for the men who say they are well-disposed, how 
is it that they did not show it at the moment, by 
speaking themselves to the most salutary purpose 
and deterring those who were bent on mischief ? 

He could say, perhaps, that he was afraid, and to 
some of you this plea will be satisfactory. Then he 
must take care that he is not found to have opposed 
the Thirty in discussion : otherwise the fact will declare 
him an approver of their conduct who was, moreover, 
so influential that his opposition would bring him 
to no harm at their hands. He ought to have shown 
this zeal in the interest rather of your safety than of 
Theramenes, who has committed numerous offences 
against you. No, this man considered the city his 
enemy, and your enemies his friends ; both of these 
points I will maintain by many evidences, showing that 
their mutual disputes were not concerned with your 
advantage but with their own, in the contest of their 
two parties ° as to which should have the administra- 
tion and control the city. For if their quarrel had 
been in the cause of those who had suffered wrong, 

i.e., the extremists led by Critias, and the moderates led 
by Theramenes. 


LYS : 

evrauiatov , ttov KaXXiov rjv dv&pl apyp VTl > V ®pa- 
crvfiovXov QvXrjv KaretX^oros, rore emdei^aGOai 
rr)v avrov ew'OLdv 1 ; 6 8' dvrl rod eTTayyeLXavBal 
n tj TTpd^at dyaOov TTpos rovs eirl OuAtJ, iXOcov 
fierd rcov Gvvapxovrcov els SaAautVa /cat 'EAeu- 
atraSe rpiaKoaiovs rcov TroXtrcov airrjyayev els to 


Odvarov Kareiprjc^laaro. 

53 y E,TT€iSrj Se els rov rietpata TJXOofxev /cat at 
rapa^at yeyevrnxevai tjgolv /cat rrepl rcov SiaXAaycov 
ol Xoyoi eylyvovro, ttoXXcls e/carepot iXmoas etx°" 
jLtev TTpos aXXrjXovs eoeoOai, cos aficporepoL eoetfay. 2 
ol fxev yap e'/c Yieipaicos Kpelrrovs ovres eiaGciv 

54 avrovs aireXdeiv ol Se els to aorv eXBovres rovs 
jxev rpiaKovra e£ef3aXov ttXj]v Qeiocovos /cat 'Epa- 
roaOevovs, apxovras he rovs e/cetVot? ixOlarous 
elXovro, 7]yovjX€voi Slkollcos av vtto rcov avrcov rovs 
re rpiaKovrcx pLivelaOaL /cat rovs iv Iletpatet </>tAet- 

65 o$at. rovrcov roivvv Qelhcov [o rcov rpta/covraj 3 
yevofievos /cat '\ttttokX7Js /cat 'Eth^c^? 6 Aa/x- 
Trrpevs koll erepot ol hoKovvres elvai ivavricoraroi 
Xapt/cAet /cat Kptrta /cat rfj eKeivcov eratpela, 
eVetoi] aurot 4 els rrjv apxty Karecrrrjaav, ttoXv 
fiel^co ordaiv /cat rroXepLov irrl rovs iv Iletpatet 
50 [■$)]* rots i£ aorecos eVot^aav. a> /cat (fravepcos 
eneSeL^avro on oi>x vnep rcov iv Iletpatet ovh' 
VTrep rcov dhiKcos aTToXXvfievcov earaala^ov, ouS' ot 
1 evvoLav Markland: avpovaiav mss. 

2 Z8e(.£av Canter : Z5o£a.v mss. 
3 6 ruv TpiaKovra del. Frohberger. 
4 avrol Markland: avrovs, avroh mss. 5 t) del. Reiske. 

° In the autumn of 404 b.c. Phyle commanded the road 
from Thebes to Athens, about twelve miles from the latter. 


at what moment could a ruler have more gloriously 
displayed his own loyalty than on the seizure of 
Phyle by Thrasybulus ° ? But, instead of offering 
or bringing some aid to the men at Phyle, he went 
with his partners in power to Salamis and Eleusis, 
and haled to prison three hundred of the citizens, 
and by a single resolution b condemned them all to 

After we had come to the Peiraeus, and the com- 
motions had taken place, and the negotiations were in 
progress for our reconciliation, we were in good hopes 
on either side of a settlement between us, as both 
parties made evident. For the Peiraeus party, 
having got the upper hand, allowed the others to 
move off : these went into the town, drove out the 
Thirty except Pheidon and Eratosthenes, and 
appointed their bitterest enemies as leaders, judging 
that the same men might fairly be expected to feel 
both hate for the Thirty and love for the party of the 
Peiraeus. Now among these c were Pheidon, Hip- 
pocles, and Epichares of the district of Lamptra, 
with others who were thought to be most opposed to 
Charicles and Critias and their club : but as soon as 
they in their turn were raised to power, they set up 
a far sharper dissension and warfare between the 
parties of the town and of the Peiraeus, and thereby 
revealed in all clearness that their faction was not 
working for the Peiraeus party nor for those who 
were being unjustly destroyed ; and that their vexa- 

6 An illegality like that of the condemnation of the generals 
after Arginusae. The law required that each accused person 
should be voted on separately. 

c The ten chief magistrates appointed after the expulsion 
of the Thirty to arrange terms with Thrasybulus and the 
democrats ; but they only tried to win credit with Sparta. 



TeOvecores clvtovs i\v7Tovv 01)8' ol fieXXovres ano- 
daveladai, dAA' ol fiei^ov Svvdfievoi Kal ddrrov 

57 7tXovtovvt€£ . Xafiovres yap rag dpxas /cat ttjv 
ttoXlv dfi(f)OT€pois €7ToXe[xovv, tols re rpiaKovra 
7ravra kolkgl etpyaa/xeVot? /cat vfiZv rrdvra /ca/cd 

7T€7TOv66(TL. Ka'lTOl TOVTO 7TO.OL SrjXoV TjV , OTL €t 
fl€V €K€LVOL SlKCLLCDS €<f)€VyOV , V/JLcZs dSt/CO>?, €L S' 

vp.eZs SiKGLicos, ol rptd/covra dhiKcas 1 ' ov yap S17 2 
irepojv epycov alrtav Xafiovres eV tt)s TroXecos 

58 e'^eVeaov, dAAd tovtcov. ware a</>dSpa xprj dpyt£e- 
<7#cu, otl OetSan> alpedels vfi&s StaAAd^at /cat /caT- 
ayayeZv tcov avTtov epycov 'EparoaaeVet /Lteret^e /cat 


kolkcos 7tol€lv €Totfios rjv, vfjuv Se dSt/ca)? <f>€vyovaLV 
ovk rjddXrjaev diroSovvaL ttjv 77-dAtv, dAA* iXdwv els 
Aa/ceSat/xova eVettfev clvtovs arpareuea^at, 8ta/3dA- 
Aa>v ort BotajTaw ^ TroAts 1 carat, /cat dAAa Ae'ya>i> 

59 of? o;€to tt€lg€Lv /zdAtara. oi3 Suvdjuevos" Se rourcov 
Tt>xetz/, etre /cat raw Upoov epLirohcov ovtcov €lt€ Kal 
avTtov ov povXofidvojv, €KaTov rdAavra e'Savet'aaro, 
tva e^ot iiTLKOvpovs pLiodovodai, Kal Avaavopov 
dpXOVTa fjTrjoaTO, evvovoTaTOv jjl€v 6Vra 777 dAt- 
yapxla, KaKovovoTaTov Se tt; 77oAet, fxicrovvTa Se 

60 /xdAtara rous eV lletpatet. pLicrdoocedpLevoi Se 77av- 
ra? dvdpamovs eV oXeOpoo ttjs woXecos, Kal 77oAet? 
eTrdyovTes, Kal TeXevToovTts Aa/ceSat/Ltovtof? /cat 
raw ovpLfidxiDV oTTocrovs i&vvavTO ireZoai, ou 8t- 
aAAdfat dAA' a77oAe'aat TrapeaKevd^ovro ttjv ttoXlv 

1 i'//x€is 5t/ccu'ws, ol TpidKovTa adiKcos Reiske : vjj.eis ASlkios, ol 
TpLOLKovra SikclLios mss. • 5rj Stephanus : 5i' mss. 

The members of the court are treated as representatives 
of the popular cause. 


tion lay, not in those who had been or were about 
to be put to death, but in those who had greater 
power or were more speedily enriched. For having got 
hold of their offices and the city they made war on both 
sides, — on the Thirty who had wrought every kind 
of evil, and on you who had suffered it in every way. 
And yet one thing was clear to all men, — that if the 
exile of the Thirty was just, yours was unjust ; while 
if yours was just, that of the Thirty was unjust : for it 
was not as answerable for some other acts that they 
were banished from the city, but simply for these. 
It ought therefore to be a matter for the deepest 
resentment that Pheidon, after being chosen to re- 
concile and restore you, joined in the same courses 
as Eratosthenes and, working on the same plan, was 
ready enough to injure the superior members of his 
party by means of you, but unwilling to restore the 
city to you who were in unjust exile : he went to 
Lacedaemon, and urged them to march out, insinu- 
ating that the city would be falling into the hands of 
the Boeotians, with other statements calculated to 
induce them. Finding that he could not achieve 
this, — whether because the sacred signs impeded, 
or because the people themselves did not desire it, — 
he borrowed a hundred talents for the purpose of 
hiring auxiliaries, and asked for Lysander to be their 
leader, as one who was both a strong supporter of the 
oligarchy and a bitter foe of the city, and who felt 
a special hatred towards the party of the Peiraeus. 
Bent on our city's destruction, they hired all and 
sundry, and were enlisting the aid of cities and finally 
that of the Lacedaemonians and as many of their 
allies as they could prevail upon ; and thus they were 
preparing, not to reconcile, but to destroy the city, 



el fir) St' dvSpas dyadovs, ots 1 vjxeZs hrjXcvcrare Trapa 

TO)V €)(dpC0V $LK7]V Xafiovres , OTL Kol €K€LVOLS X^P LV 

61 aTTohcoGere. ravra Se enLoraode fiev /cat olvtol, 
/cat <ou/c> 2 otS' o Tt 8et fidprvpas rtapaax eordar 
ofjLtos 8e* eyw tc yap Seouat dvairavaaoOai, Vfiwv 
r evlois rjSiov cos TrXeivrcov rovs avrovs Xoyovs 


6- Oe'pe 807 /cat rrept Orjpafievovs cos aV SiWouat 
Sta, ftpayyTaTGov StSa£a>. Seouat 8' u/xcov a/couaat 
U77ep t" ifjiavTov /cat rijs TroXecos , xat firjhevl rovro 
TTapaarfj, cbs 'EparooOevovs Kivhvvevovros Qrjpa- 
fievovs Kanqyopco. TTwddvofiai yap ravra oltto- 
\oyr)cr€odai avrov, on e'/cetVaj 3 </>i'Ao? 77V /cat raV 

63 avrcov epyoov ueret^e. /catVot cr</>dSp > dv avrov 
[126] ot/xat uera OepucrroKXeovs TroXirevofievov rrpoa- 

TroieloOai irpdrreiv ottcos ot/coSo firjOtfcrer at ret 
recx?), orrore /cat fierd Qrjpafievovs ottcos KaO- 
aipeOijoeraL. ov yap uot Sokovolv lgov a^tot ye- 
yevfjodac 6 fiev ydp Aa/ceSatuovtojy aKovrcov coko- 
Sofirjcrev avrd, ovros Se rovs rroXiras e^aTrarrjaas 

64 KadelXe. irepieorr^Kev ovv rfj rroXei rovvavriov r) 
cos €lkos tjv. a^Lov fiev ydp <rjv>* /cat rovs 
(j>iXovs rovs* Qrjpafievovs rrpoaaTToXcoXevai, 7rXr)u 
el rus ervyxavev eKeivco rdvavrla Trpdrrcov vvv he 
opco rds re dnoXoylas els eKelvov ava<f)epofievas, 
rovs T eKeivco avvovras rifiaadai Tretpcofievovs, 
cocnrep ttoXXcov dyaOcov alriov dXX ov fieydXcov 

1 oh Taylor : ovs mss. a ovk add. Weidner. 

1 iKtivw Taylor: iKetvots mss. 4 V add. Reiske. 


inz : tov mss. 

i.e., how eagerly he would have claimed participation in 


had it not been for some loyal men, to whom I bid 
you declare, by exacting requital from your enemies, 
that they no less wall get your grateful reward. 
But these facts you comprehend of yourselves, and 
I doubt if I need provide any witnesses. Some, 
however, I will ; for not only am I in need of a rest, 
but some of you will prefer to hear the same state- 
ments from as many persons as possible. 


By your leave, I will inform you also about Thera- 
menes, as briefly as I can. I request you to listen, both 
in my owm interest, and in that of the city ; and one 
thing let no one imagine, — that I am accusing The- 
ramenes when it is Eratosthenes who is on his trial. 
For I am told that he will plead in defence that he 
was that man's friend, and took part in the same acts. 
Why, I suppose, if he had been in the government 
with Themistocles he would have been loud in claim- 
ing that he worked for the construction of the walls," 
when he claims that he worked with Theramenes for 
their demolition ! For I do not see that there is any 
parity of merit between them. The one constructed 
the walls against the wish of the Lacedaemonians, 
w T hereas the other demolished them by beguilement 
of the citizens. Thus the reverse of what was to be 
expected has overtaken the city. For the friends of 
Theramenes deserved no less to perish with him, 
except such as might be found acting in opposition 
to him : but here I see them referring their defence 
to him, and we have his associates attempting to 
win credit as though he had been the author of 

the great work of Themistocles, if he is now to seek shelter 
even in the discredit of helping Theramenes to destroy it ! 



65 kclkcov yeyevq/xevov. 1 os Trpchrov ue»> rrjs npo' 
repas oAtyap^ta? alnajraros iyevero, Trzioas 
vfi&s rrjv eVt rwv rerpaKOGicov iroXireLav iXcaOcu. 
/cat 6 [lev Trarrjp avrov rwv irpofiovXojv wv ravr 
€7rpaTT€v, avros Se 8oko)v evvovoraros etvat, TOLS 

66 77 pay fiacn Grparrjyos vtt* avra)v 2 fjpedrj. /cat eojs* 
fjiev eVt/xaro, ttmjtov kavrbv [rfj 7rdAet] 3 Trapeix ev ' 
eVetSr) Se Weioavhpov fX€V /cat KaAAatcj^pov /cat 
irepovs ia)pa Trporepovs avrov yiyvo[iivovs y to Se 

67 vjierepov TrXrjdos ovKeri fiovXofievov rovrwv d/cpod- 

<70at, TOT* TJSr) Std T€ TOV TTpOS €K€LVOVS <f)66vOV /Cat 

to 7rap* VfJLtov Beos \i€Tioye rtbv ' Aptaro/cpdrous' 
epycov. PovXofievos Se ra> u/xere'pa) rrX-qBei So/ceu> 
moros etvat 'Avrufxjjvra /cat 'Ap;\;e77TdAejU,ov </>tA- 
TaTous* oVras* aura) Kar-qyopcvv diriKreivev, els 
rooovrov Se /ca/ctas" ^Aflev, coare aua /ie> Std rrjv 


68 tt)v irpos vpL&s rovs <f>lXovs arrojXeoe. rijicvfjievos 
Se /cat rojv ixeyioriov d^iovpievos, avros eVayyetAd- 
pevos crcoaeiv ttjv ttoXiv avros drrcoXeoe, <f>doKO)v 
rrpayp-a rjvprjKevat, /xe'ya /cat 7roAAou a£iov. vtt- 
ioyero Se elp-qv-qv Troi-qoeiv pnqre opaqpa Sovs jx-qre 
rd reixr] KadeXcbv paqre ras vavs TrapaSovs' ravr a 
Se tlireiv fiev ovhevl rjOeXrjoev, e'/ce'Aeuoe Se avra> 

69 77t(7Teuetv. vfiels Se', c5 dvSpes* *A.dr)valoi, irpar- 
Tovorjs ftev rrjs eV 'Apeta> irdyco fiovXr\s aajTrjpta/ 
dvriXeyovra)v Se 7roAAdji> 0?7pa/xeVet, et'Sdres 1 Se 
OTt ot /xev aAAot dvdpajTTOL rcbv 7toX€jjllcov eVe/ca 
rdrropprira rtoiovvrai, e/cetvos" S' eV rots' outoij 
7roAtTats* ot3/c rjddXrjaev et7retv ravd* d 77p6s- rovs 

1 airiov . . . ycyevTjuei'ov Bekker : atVious . . . yeyevrj/Aevovi 
mss. a ai)ru>^ Sauppe: ai)roC mss. 



many benefits, and not of grievous injuries. He, 
first of all, was chiefly responsible for the former 
oligarchy, by having prompted your choice of the 
government of the Four Hundred. His father, who 
was one of the Commissioners, 6 was active in the 
same direction, while he himself, being regarded as a 
strong supporter of the system, was appointed general 
by the party. So long as he found favour, he showed 
himself loyal ; but when he saw Peisander, Cal- 
laeschrus and others getting in advance of him, and 
your people no longer disposed to hearken to them, 
immediately his jealousy of them, combined with his 
fear of you, threw him into co-operation with Aristo- 
crates. Desiring to be reputed loyal to your people, 
he accused Antiphon and Archeptolemus, his best 
friends, and had them put to death ; and such was the 
depth of his villainy that, to make credit with those 
men, c he enslaved you, while also, to make credit with 
you, he destroyed his friends. Held in favour and the 
highest estimation, he who by his own choice offered to 
save the city, by his own choice destroyed it, asserting 
that he had discovered a capital and most valuable 
expedient. He undertook to arrange a peace with- 
out giving any hostages or demolishing the walls or 
surrendering the ships : he would tell nobody what 
it was, but bade them trust him. And you, men 
of Athens, while the Council of the Areopagus were 
working for your safety, and many voices w T ere heard 
in opposition to Theramenes, were aware that, 
though other people keep secrets to baffle the enemy, 
he refused to mention amongst his own fellow- 
a After the disaster in Sicily, 412 b.c. 
• Ten persons specially appointed to revise the constitution. 

c i.e., the oligarchs. 

8 tq irdXei del. Dobree. * ffurripia Markland: ffurrjplav mss. 



noXe/jLLovs ejie^Xcv epeiv, 6 pais errerpexfjare avrco 
narpiha Kal Traihas Kal yvvaiKas Kal vpcas avrovs. 

70 o 8e cuv jitey vniayeTO ovhev eirpa^ev, ovrojs 8e 
evereQvp,r\ro cos XPV P-iKpciv Kal dadevrj yeveodai 

T7]V TToXll', LO(TT€ 7T€pl COV OvSds 7TtOTTOT€ 

ovre row rroXepicov ep,vrja9r) ovre rcov ttoXltlov 
7J\7Ticre t ravd' vpas erreiae Trpa^at, oi>x viro Aa/ce- 
haipLovltov avayKa^ofievos, dAA' avros 1 eKeivois 
eTTtxyyeXkopievos , rod re Heipaiojs ra reix"f] rrepi- 
eXelv Kal rrjv vTrdpxovaav rroXtretav KaraXvoai, 
ev elocos on, el pr) rracrcov row iXirihojv drro- 
Grep-qdijaeaOe, raxeZav Trap* avrov rrjv rip^copiav 

71 KopneZoOe. Kal rd reXevraZov, to dvopes oiKaorai, 
ov rtporepov eiaoe rrjv eKKXiqoiav yeveo6ai s ecos o 
Xeyopuevos vtt* eKetvcov 2 Kaipos empeXcos i5tt' avrov 
irrjpiqOrjy /cat pbereTrepiparo p,ev rds p,era Avadv- 
Spov vavs €K HdpLov, €7T€§rip,7]ae he rd rcov 7roXep,icov 

72 arparoTrehov. rore Se rovrtov vrrapxdvrcov , Kal 
rrapovros Avadvhpov Kal OtAo^apous" /cat MtArta- 
8ov, Trepl rijs rroXireias rrjv e/c/cA^atav eiroiovv, Iva 
pj]re pryrcop avroZs paqhels ivavriolro paqhe 8t- 
a77etAotTo 3 vpeZs re pur) ra rfj troXei, avpicpepovra 
eXoiode, dXXa raKeivois SoKovvra ifr-qcfiioraiaOe. 

73 avaords Se Qrjpapevrjs exeXevaev vpids rpiaKovra 
dvopdaiv ernrpexfjai ri)v ttoXiv kol rfj TroXireia 
Xpfjcrdac r)v ApaKovrlSrjs aTrec\>aivev . vpueZs 8' 
dpiojs Kal ovrco 8ta/cet/xevot eOopvfieZre cos ov 
TronfjGovres ravra' eyiyvcoOKere yap on Trepl Sov- 
Xelas Kal eXevOepias ev eKeivi) rfj r)p,epa t)k- 

74 /cA?^crta^€Te. QrjpapLevijs Se, to dvopes St/caarat, 

1 ai'ros Canter : aureus mss. 
* iicelpuv Markland: iicdvov mss. 



citizens what he was going to tell the enemy : yet 
nevertheless you entrusted to him your country, 
your children, your wives and yourselves. Not one 
of the things that he undertook did he perform, but 
was so intent on his obj ect of subduing and crippling 
the city that he induced you to do things which none 
of the enemy had ever mentioned nor any of the 
citizens had expected : under no compulsion from 
the Lacedaemonians, but of his own accord, he 
promised them the dismantling of the Peiraeus walls 
and the subversion of the established constitution ; 
for well he knew that, if you were not utterly bereft 
of your hopes, you would be quick to retaliate upon 
him. Finally, gentlemen, he kept the Assembly from 
meeting until the moment dictated by the enemy 
had been carefully watched for by him, and he had 
sent for Lysander's ships from Samos, and the enemy's 
forces were quartered in the town. And now, with 
matters thus arranged, and in the presence of 
Lysander, Philochares and Miltiades,° they called 
the Assembly to a debate on the constitution, when 
no orator could either oppose them or awe them with 
threats, while you, instead of choosing the course 
most advantageous to the city, could only vote in 
favour of their views. Theramenes arose, and bade 
you entrust the city to thirty men, and apply the 
system propounded by Dracontides. 6 But you, not- 
withstanding your awkward plight, showed by your 
uproar that you would not do as he proposed ; for 
you realized that you were choosing between slavery 
and freedom in the Assembly that day. Theramenes, 

a These last two shared with Lysander the command of the 
Spartan fleet. b Who himself became one of the Thirty. 

3 Sta77etAoiTO Cobet :€i\olto MSS. 

K 261 


[ 127 J (/cat rovrcov vjids avrovs (idprvpas 7rape£o/zat) 

€L7T€V OTt OV$€V CLVTCp fJLeXoL TOV V[JL€T€pOV OopvftoV, 

€7T€Lhrj ttoXAovs p,ev ' AB-qvaicov eloeirj rovg ra 
o/zota TTpdrrovras aura), hoKovvra he Avadvopa) 
/cat AaKehaifAoviois Xeyot. pier eKeivov he Avoav- 
hpos dvaards aAAa re 7roAAd etne /cat ort rrapa- 


eurai aAAa 7T€pl aa>rrjplag, el p,j] 7roLr)ore9 n a 

75 Qrjpafxevrjs KeXeveu. rtov 8' ev rfj e/c/cA^CTta 6001 
avhpes dyadol rjcrav, yvovres ttjv TrapauKevrjv /cat 
ttjv dvdyKTjv, oi [lev avrov fievovreg ^air^ta^ 
rjyov, ol he a)x oVTO amovres, tovto yovv a<f>iotv 
clvtols crvveihores, ort ovhev /ca/cov rfj TroXeu eifjr)- 
(f)laavro' oAtyot Se rives /cat TTOvrjpol /cat /ca/ccos" 
povXeiopievoL ret TTpooraxOevra ex^porovqaav . 

76 7rapr)yye\T0 2 yap avrolg 8e/ca /zeV ou? Orjpafievqs 
arrehei^e x €i P OTOV V (TaL > Se/ca 8e ous" ot Kadecrrrj- 
Koreg e(f)opoL KeXevoiev, Se/ca 8' e/c tow irapovrajv 
ovro) yap ttjv vpuerepav doOeveiav ecopojv /cat r^v 
auTtov StW/xtv rjTTLcrravro, tDore nporepov rjheaav 

77 rd fxeXXovra ev rfj e/c/cA^ata irpaxd'qoeodaL. ravra 
he oz)/c e/xot Set TncrTevorai, dXXa e/cetVar 7TdVra ydp 
rd zW e/zou elprjpLeva ev rfj fiovXfj aVoAoyou/xevo? 
eXeyev, oveiol^ajv jxev Tot? <f>evyovcriv, ort St' aurov 
KareXdoiev, ovhev (frpovri^ovrajv 3 AaKehaipioviojv , 
oveiOL^ajv he rols rfjs TroXiTeLas fierexovcnv, otl 
ndvrajv rtov TreTT pay piivayv roZs elp^jxevois rpoirois 

1 ■rroiT)<jt.& Cobet : Troiri<rat.$' MSS. 

1 ir a priyyeXro Cobet: TrapyyytWeTO MSS. 

3 <Ppovtl{6vtu)p Dobree : (ppovri^wv dt tZv mss. 



gentlemen (I shall cite your own selves as witnesses to 
this), said that he cared nothing for your uproar, since 
he knew of many Athenians who were promoting 
the same kind of scheme as himself, and that his 
advice had the approval of Lysander and the Lace- 
daemonians. After him Lysander arose and said, 
when he had spoken at some length, that he held you 
guilty of breaking the truce, and that it must be a 
question, not of your constitution, but of your lives, 
if you refused to do as Theramenes demanded. Then 
all the good citizens in the Assembly, perceiving the 
plot that had been hatched for their compulsion, 
either remained there and kept quiet, or took them- 
selves off, conscious at least of this, — that they had 
voted nothing harmful to the city. But some few, of 
base nature and evil purpose, raised their hands 
in favour of the commands that had been given. For 
the order had been passed to them that they were to 
elect ten men whom Theramenes had indicated, ten 
more whom the overseers, just appointed, demanded, 
and ten from amongst those present. They were 
so aware of your weakness, and so sure of their own 
power, that they knew beforehand what would be 
transacted in the Assembly. For this you should 
rely, not on my word, but on that of Theramenes ; 
since everything that I have mentioned was stated 
by him in his defence before the Council," when he 
reproached the exiles with the fact that they owed 
their restoration to him, and not to any consideration 
shown by the Lacedaemonians, and reproached also 
his partners in the government with this, — that 
although he had been himself responsible for all 

a When he was accused by Critias, because of his moderate 
counsels, of being a traitor to the policy of the Thirty. 



i'/T efxov avros olitlos yeyevqpievos tolovtcov ruy- 
X&voi, rroXXas TTLoreis avrol? epytp SeSco/coj? /cat 

78 Trap' €K€ivct)V opKovs €iAr](f)tos. /cat togovtcov /cat 

€T€p<JJV KCLKUJV Kdl at(7^pa)v Kdl 77ClAat KCU V€COGrl 

/cat [juKpajv /cat [xeydXcov alriov yeyevrj/xevov 1 
ToXfxrjaovoiv avrovs </>t'Aou? ovras a7TO</>atWti>, oi>x 
virkp vficov airodavovTOs Q~qpapevovs dXX VTTtp 
TTJs avrov 7Tov7]pLas, /cat St/cata)? fiev eV oXcyapx^q. 
8iK7]v oovtos (rjSr] yap avrrjv /careAuae), St/cata>? 
8' aV ev oij fioK par ta m St? yap u/Ltd? /careSouAdjaaTO, 
Ttov p,ey irapovTOJv Karafipovtov, ra)v 8e d-nwran' 
iiriQvpLtov, /cat toj /caAAtaro) ovofxan xpa>p,evos" 
8etvorara>v epya>v StSdcr/caAos' Karaords. 

79 Ilept /xev roivvv QrjpapLevov? t/cavd p,olf eWt rd 
/carriyopri/xeVa- t]K€l 8* u/xtv eKZivos 6 Kdipos, iv 
to Set ovyyvtbfirjv /cat e'Aeov /it) etvat eV rat? 
Vjxerepais yvu>\xais, dXXd 77apd 'EpaToo-^eVous" /cat 


fiaxofievovs <[iev> 2 Kpelrrous elvau rcbv TroXepLicov, 

80 iprj^L^ofxevovs Se t^ttou? raw exOpa>v. fir]S' (Lv 
<f)a<ji /xeAAetv Trpdfetv TrXeia) x^-P LV a-vrots tare, rj 
(bv eTTOL-qcrav opyi^odc /x^S' dirovGi jjl€V rot? 
rpiCLKovra eVt/JouAedere, TrapovTas 8' dcfrrJTe' purjoe 

T779 TVX7]9, Tj TOVTOVS 7Tap€0CxJK€ T7] IToXeL, KO.KLOV 

vplv avrols fior]6r)(jr]T€. 

81 Kar^ydp^Tat 3 St) 'Eparocr^eVous' /cat tojv toutou 

1 airiov yey eprj/x^vov Reiske : aFrtoi ycyevqixivoi mss. 

2 /iev add. Contius. 

8 Ka.TT)y6pr]Tcu Bake: KarTiyopeire MSS. 

• 7.0.. people who speak in his favour. 

6 First by supporting the Four Hundred, and then by 
joining the Thirty. c Democracy. d Oligarchy. 



that had been transacted in the manner that I have 
described, he was treated in this fashion, — he who 
had given them many pledges by his actions, and 
to whom they were plighted by their oaths. And it 
is for this man, responsible as we find him for all 
these and other injuries and ignominies, late as well 
as early, great as well as small, that they a are going 
to have the audacity to proclaim their friendship ; 
for Theramenes, who has suffered death, not as your 
champion, but as the victim of his own baseness, and 
has been justly punished under the oligarchy — he 
had already caused its ruin — as he would justly 
have been under the democracy. Twice over b did 
he enslave you, despising what was present, and 
longing for what was absent,** and, while giving them 
the fairest name, e setting himself up as instructor 
in most monstrous acts. 

Well, I have dealt sufficiently with Theramenes in 
my accusation. You now have reached the moment 
in which your thoughts must have no room for par- 
don or for pity ; when you must punish Eratosthenes 
and his partners in power. You should not show 
your superiority to the city's foes in your fighting 
merely to show your inferiority to your own enemies 
in your voting. Nor must you feel more gratitude 
to them for what they say that they mean to do 
than anger for what they have done ; nor, while 
taking your measures against the Thirty in their 
absence/ acquit them in their presence ; nor in 
your own rescue be more lax than Fortune, who has 
delivered these men into the hands of the city. 

Such is the accusation against Eratosthenes and 

6 i.e., his pretext of " government by the best." 
/ At Eleusis. 


<f)iAcov, ots ras arroXoyias dvoiueL /cat /xe0' u>v avrcp 

TCLVTCL 7T€7TpaKT0LL. 6 fieVTOL dydjV OVK €% LOOV 

rfj TToXeu /cat 'EparocrfleVer ovros puev yap Karrj- 
yopos /cat 8t/cao"n]9 avros rjv tojv KpLVopievajv, 
rq/xels he vvvl els Karr/yoplav /cat airoXoylav 

82 Kadeorafxev. /cat 1 ovtol p.ev rovs ovhev ololkovvtcls 
OLKpirovs arreKreivav , vfiels he rovs diroXeoavras 
rrjv 7t6Xlv /card rov vo/jlov d^Lovre Kpiveiv, Trap* 
chv ouS* ay Trapavoymjs fiovXojievoL oiktjv XafiftdveLv 
d^iav rcov dSt/c^/xdrajv a>v ttjv ttoXlv 1781/07 /caax 
Ad/Sotre. Tt yap dv iradovres Slkyjv tt/v d^iav 

83 etrjaav rcov epycov hehcoKores ; irorepov el avrovs 
aTTOKTeLvane /cat rovs nalhas avrtov, LKavrjv dv 
rod <j)6vov hiK-qv XafloL/jiev, tov ovtol irarepas /cat 
veZs /cat dheX<j>ovs aKpirovs dneKreLvav ; dXXa el 
to xp-rj/xara rd <j>avepa hrjfjievoaLTe, 1 KaXd>s dv 
exot rj rfj iroXei, rjs ovtol noXXa elXrj(j>aoLV, rj rols 

84 tStajrat?, cbv <ras > 3 ot/cta? e^eTTOpO-qoav ; eVetS^ 
roivvv irdvra iroLovvres Slktjv Trap* avrtov <rr)v 
d£lav>* ovk dv hvvaLoOe 5 Xafielv, rrdys ovk aloxpov 

VfJLLV /Cat TJVTLVOVV a77oAt77€ty, TjVTLVa Tt? fiovXoLTO 

[128] Trapa rovratv XaptfidveLV ; 

Yiav 8* dv fioL So/cet roXfirjoaL, ootls wvl ovx 
erepojv 6vra>v rcov 8t/cacrrd)v dAA' avrcjv rcov /ca/ccD? 
TTeirovdoTOJVy TjKeL drroXoyqooiievos npos avrovs rovs 
[idprvpas rrjs rovrov Trovrjpias' rooovrov tj vfxdjv 
86 Kara7Te<f)p6vr)Kev 77 erepoLs TTeirLorevKev. ojv a/x- 
<j>OTepa>v d^Lov e7TLfjLeXrjdrjvaL, ev6vp,ovfxevovs on 

1 kclI Dobree : /catrot mss. 
2 drj/xevo-auTe Reiske : SrjfievoeTe MSS. 
8 ras add. Scheibe. * tj\v d^iaf add. Gebauer. 

6 bvvaiade Bekker : bvvrjade mss. 



those friends of his, on whom he will fall back in his 
defence, as his abettors in these practices. Yet it is 
an unequal contest between the city and Erato- 
sthenes : for whereas he was at once accuser and 
judge of the persons brought to trial, we to-day- 
are parties engaged in accusation and defence. And 
whereas these men put people to death untried who 
were guilty of no wrong, you think fit to try according 
to law the persons who destroyed the city, and whose 
punishment by you, even if unlawfully devised, 
would still be inadequate to the wrongs that they 
have committed against the city. For what would 
they have to suffer, if their punishment should be 
adequate to their actions ? If you put them and 
their children to death, should we sufficiently punish 
them for the murder of our fathers, sons and brothers 
whom they put to death untried ? Or again, if you 
confiscated their material property, would this be 
compensation either to the city for all that they 
have taken from her, or to individuals for the houses 
that they pillaged ? Since therefore, whatever you 
might do, you could not exact from them an adequate 
penalty, would it not be shameful of you to disallow 
any possible sort of penalty that a man might desire 
to exact from these persons ? 

But, I believe, he would have the audacity for 
anything, when he has come here to-day, before 
judges who are no other than the very persons who 
have been maltreated, to submit his defence to the 
actual witnesses of the man's own villainy : so pro- 
found is either the contempt that he has conceived 
for you or the confidence that he has placed in others. 
For both possibilities you ought to be on the watch, 



ovr* av tKeiva iovvavro 1 rroielv firj irepcov gv\x- 
7Tparr6vT(x>v ovt* av vvv eVe^ei'o^crav iAdeZv fir) 
vtto rcov avrcov oto/xerot oxo^aea^at, ot ou rovrois 
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Ocf>LOlV €G€(jdai TtOV <T€ > 2 77 677 pay pL6VCOV /Cat TOV 

Xolttov TToielv 6 tl av fiovAcovrai , et rovs fxeylarajv 

86 KaKchv alriovs Aafiovres dc^rjaere. dAAa /cat rcov 
avvepovvrcov 3 avrols ol£lov davfid^eiv, norepov cos 
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dvpuovs elvai crco^eiv ttjv ttoAlv, coonep ovroi oltt- 
oAAuVat 6, tj cos oetvol Xeyeuv a7ToAoyijaovrai /cat rd 
rovrcov epya ttoXXov afta diTo^avovoiv . dAA' oi>x 
vrrkp vpucov ovoels avrcov ovoe rd ot/cata ncoTrore 

i7T€X€lp7]0€V €LTT€LV. 

87 'AAAa, rovs [idprvpas d£iov ISeZv, ot rovrois 
fxaprvpovvres avrcov KarifyopovoL, Gcpoopa eVt- 
A-rjapLOvas /cat curvet? vopLL^ovres vpids elvai, et 
hid puev rod vpuerepov ttAtjOovs doecos rjyovvrai rovs 
rpcaKovra Go'joeiv, Sta oe 'EparoaOdvqv /cat rovs 
crvvdpxovras avrov $€ivov rjv /cat rcov redvecorcov 

88 eV €K(f)Opdv iAdeZv. /catrot ovroi aev acodevres 
7rdXiv av Svvaivro rrjv 7t6Alv drroXioai' eKeZvoi 
8e, ovs ovroi aTrcoXecrav, reXevrrjoavres rov fiiov 
ire pas e^ovoi rrjs rrapd rcov i^Opcov ripicopias. 
ovk ovv oetvov et rcov p,€v doiKcos redvecorcov ol 
cfrlAoL avvaircoXXwro , avrols Se rots 1 rrjv 7t6Xlv 

1 idvpavro Markland: dufaivro MS3. 
2 t( add. llciske. 

* awtpouPTtov Reiske : £vi>€pyovvTU)i> MSS. 
* toutwv add. Markland. 



reflecting that, as they would have been unable to 
do what they did without the co-operation of others, 
so they would not now have ventured into court un- 
less they expected to be saved by those same per- 
sons ; who have come here, not to support these 
men, but in the belief that there will be a general 
indemnity alike for their past actions and for what- 
ever they may want to do in the future, if you let 
slip from your grasp the authors of our direst misery. 
But you may well wonder, besides, whether those who 
intend to take their part will petition you in the char- 
acter of loyal gentlemen, making out that their own 
merit outweighs the villainy of these men, — though 
I could have wished them as zealous for the salvation 
of the State as these men were for its destruction, — 
or whether they will rely on their skilful oratory for 
putting in a defence and making out that the 
actions of their friends are estimable. Yet on your 
behalf not one of them has ever attempted to mention 
merely your just rights. 

Now it is worth observing how the witnesses, in 
testifying for these men, accuse themselves : they 
take you to be singularly forgetful and simple, if 
they believe that by means of you, the people, they 
will save the Thirty with impunity, when owing to 
Eratosthenes and his partners in power it was dan- 
gerous even to conduct funerals of the dead. Yet 
these men, if they escape, will be able again to de- 
stroy the city ; whereas those whom they destroyed, 
having lost their lives, can no longer look for satis- 
faction from their enemies. Then is it not monstrous 
that the friends of those who have been unjustly 
put to death were destroyed with them, and yet the 

6 ciToXKuvai Markland : airobovvaL mss. 

k 2 269 


diroXeoaai Srj-rrov 1 en eK(f>opdv ttoXXol tf£ovoiv, 

89 orrore fiorjdeZv roaovroi irapaoKevd^ovrai ; /cat 
fiev S17 ttoXXco paov -qyovfxai elvai vnep cov u/xet? 
eVao^eTe avrecneZv, rj virep cov ovroi Tre7T0irjKaaLV 
a.7ToAoyr]oaodai. /carrot Xeyovoiv cos 'ILparoodevei 
eAa^tara rcov rpiaKovra kclkcl elpyaarai, /cat 8ta 
rovro avrov ol^lovgl ocoOrjvaf on 8e rcov dXXcov 

90 'EiXXrjvcov TrXelora els vp.ds e^rj/j,dprr]Kev, ovk olov- 
toll xpfjvou avrov diroXeodai; vpieXs Se Set^are 
rjvriva yvcopaqv ex €T€ irepl rcov irpayiidroov. el 
f±ev yap rovrov Karaifjr](f)ieZode , orjXoi eoeode cos 
opyL^ofxevoi roZs 7T€7rpayiJL€VOLS' ei be aTTOlftrj^ieZode , 
6cf)9r}oeo9e rcov avrcov epycov €7n9vjjLrjral rovrois 
ovres, Kal oi>x e^ere Xeyeiv on rd vtto rcov rptd- 

91 Kovra 7rpoorax9evra eTroieZre- vvvl p.ev yap ovo- 
els Vfi&s aVay/ca£et rrapd rrjv vfxerepav yvcopji)v 
ifjr](f)ll > eo9at. z cocrre crvpifiovXevco fir) rovrcov drto- 
\\ir\^>ioa\xevovs Vfxcov avrcov Karaipr](f>Laacr9ai. /x^S' 
oleo9e Kpvfior]v rr\v iprjcf>ov elvat' cfjavepdv yap rfj 
77oAet rrjv vpuerepav yvcopaqv Troirjaere. 

92 Bou'Aouat oe oXiya eKarepovs dvafivrjoas /cara- 
f$aiv€LV, rods re i£ dorreoos /cat rovs c/c HeipaLcos, 
Iva rds vplv Sta. rovrcov yeyevrjfievas avpLcfyopas 
TTapaoeiyyiara e\ovres rr)v iprjfiov (freprjre. /cat 
irpCorov fxev <xrot e£ dorrecos eore, crKeipaade on 
vtto rovrcov ovrco ocf)6opa rjpx^crde, coare adeXcpoZs 
/cat veoi Kal iroXirais r)vayKa^eo9e TroXejieZv 
roiovrov TroXefxov, ev co r)rri]9evres fiev roZs 

93 VLKiqaaGi rd laov exere, viKijoavres 8' av rovrous 

1 57777-01' Sauppe : Tjirov mss. 
1 ^^i^eadat Bekker: awo\J/T]<pi£e<r0ai MS3. 



very men who destroyed the city will have many 
people, I imagine, to conduct their funerals, since so 
many are making efforts to shield them ? Moreover, I 
am sure it was far easier to speak in opposition to them 
on the subject of your sufferings than it is now in de- 
fence of what they have done. We are told, indeed, 
that of the Thirty Eratosthenes has done the least 
harm, and it is claimed that on this ground he should 
escape ; but is it not felt that for having committed 
more offences against you than all the other Greeks 
he ought to be destroyed ? It is for you to show what 
view you take of those practices. If you condemn 
this man, you will declare your indignation at the 
things that have been done ; but if you acquit him, 
you will be recognized as aspirants to the same con- 
duct as theirs, and you will be unable to say that you 
were carrying out the injunctions of the Thirty, since 
nobody to-day is compelling you to vote against 
your judgement. So 1 counsel you not to condemn 
yourselves by acquitting them. Nor should you 
suppose that your voting is in secret ; for you will 
make your judgement manifest to the city. 

But before I step down, I desire to recall a few facts 
to the minds of both parties — that of the town and 
that of the Peiraeus — in order that you may take 
warning from the disasters brought upon you through 
the agency of these men, before you give your vote. 
In the first place, all you of the town party should 
consider that you were so oppressed by the rule of 
these men that you were compelled to wage against 
your brothers, your sons and your fellow-citizens a 
strange warfare in which your defeat has given you 
equal rights with the victors, whereas your victory 
would have made you the slaves of these men. They 




€K tojv TrpayfjLOLTOJV p,eydXovs eKT-qcravTO, VfJLelg 8e 
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o-vvoj(beXelo9ai pukv yap vfias ovk tj^lovv, ovvZia- 
fiaXXtoOat S' rjvdyKa^ov, et? tooovtov imepoiplas 
eXdovres cocrre ov tojv dyaOcov Koivovpievoi ttiotovs 
Vfias Iktojvto, dXXd tojv ovetoojv /xeraStSoVres" 

94 cvvovs loovto elvai. dvd* Sv Vfjuels vvv iv tw 
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vpuojv avrtov Kal vmep tojv €K Heipaiojs TtpLOjpij- 

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piois pLaxevde Kal irepl rrjs noXeojs fiovXeveode, 
dvapLvrjodevreg 8e tojv lniKovpojv y ovs ovtol 
<f)vXaKas rrjs ocfrerepas* dpx?]S Kal rfjs vpierepas 

95 SovXetas €is rrjv aKporroXiv Kareorrjoav. Kal 
rrpos vptas p^ev en ttoXXojv ovtojv €ltt€lv rooravra 
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aXXorpia jLta^eaa/xevot oi>x utto tojv TroXepiiojv dXX 
vtto tovtojv elpijvrjs ovcrrjs d(f)rjpe6rjT€ tol onXa, 
eireid* otl i£eKr]pvx@ r 1 T€ p,kv e/c ttjs rroXeoJSy r)v 
vplv ol naTepes rrapeBocrav , cf>€vyovTas Se vp,a$ eV 

9G tojv noXeojv €^t)tovvto . 4 dvQ* oyv opylcrdrjTe pcev 
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€K Trjg dyop&s tovs S' e/c tojv Upcibv crvvapTrd^ovTes 

1 tv del. Baiter. 

2 irovqpoT&Tuv Reiske : Trovijporipuv mss. 
8 (rcpertpas Markland: vfxer^pas ?\iss. 
4 k^rjTovvTO Contius : i^rjTouvTo mss. 


have enlarged their private establishments by means 
of their public conduct, while you find yours reduced 
by your warfare against each other : for they did not 
permit you to share their advantages, though they 
compelled you to share their ill-fame ; and they 
carried disdain so far that, instead of enlisting your 
fidelity by a communication of their benefits, they 
thought to ensure your sympathy by a partnership 
in their scandals. In return, now that you feel 
secure, go to the limit of your powers, on your own 
behalf as on that of the Peiraeus party, in taking your 
vengeance. Reflect that in these men you found the 
most villainous of rulers ; reflect that you now have 
the best men with you in tenure of our civic rights, 
in fighting the enemy, and in deliberating on affairs 
of State ; and remember the auxiliaries a whom these 
men stationed in the Acropolis as guardians of their 
dominion and of your slavery. I have much else to say 
to you, but I will say no more. And all you of the 
Peiraeus party, remember first the matter of the 
arms, — how after fighting many battles on foreign soil 
you were deprived of your arms, not by the enemy, 
but by these men, in a time of peace ; and next, that 
you were formally banished from the city which 
your fathers bequeathed to you, and when you 
were in exile they demanded your persons from the 
various cities. In return you should feel the same 
anger as when you were exiles, and remember be- 
sides the other injuries that you suffered from these 
men, who with violent hands snatched some from the 
market-place, and some from the temples, and put 

a The guard of 700 mercenary troops sent in by Sparta to 
assist the Thirty. 



fitaicos drreKrewav, 1 rovs 8e drro tckvcdv /cat 
yovecov /cat yvvaiKcov dcf>eXKovres 2 foveas avrcov 
rjvdyKaorav yeveoOai /cat ovhe ratjyfjs rrjs vopu^o- 
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fiefiaiorepav elvat, rrjs rrapa rcov Oecov rificoptas. 

97 oaot he rdv ddvarov hiecfjvyov, rroXXaxov klv- 
hvvevaavres /cat els 77-oAAds" 7r6Xeis TrXaviqdevres 
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rovs 7701809 KaraXirrovres , ol 8' ev £evr) yfj, 
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ttoXXcov he /cat fieydXccv Kivhvvcov vrrap^avrcov dv- 
hpes dyaOol yevdfievoi rovs p-ev r)Xevdepcoaare, rovs 

98 8' et? rr)v rrarpiha Karryydyere . el he ehvarv- 
Xrjcrare /cat rovrcov -qpidprere, avrol p,ev dv oei- 
oavres ecf>evyere pur) rrdB-qre roiavra ota /cat rrpo- 
repov, /cat ovt* dv lepd ovre ficopuol vpt&s dhiKov- 
fievovs 8td rovs rovrcov rporrovs cbcfreX-qaav , a /cat 
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vfipi^ovrOy ol 8' €77t ^evqs pLLKpcov dv eW/ca CTVfl- 
fioXaicov ehovXevov eprjpiLa rcov emKovprjaovrcov . 

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elirelv. ovhe yap evos Kariqyopov ovhe hvolv epyov 
ecrriv, dXXa ttoXXcov. dpicos he rrjs ifirjs Trpodvpiias 
<ovhev> 3 eXXeXenrrai, vrrep <re>* rcov lepcov, a 
ovtol ra [lev drrehovro ra 8' elaiovres ifitaivov, 
vnep re rrjs rroXecos, rjv puKpav erroLovv, vnep re 
rcov vecopicov t a KadelXov, /cat vnep rcov redvecorcov t 

1 aTrtKTtivav Reiske : airinTevov mss. 
* a<p£\KovTes Reiske : &(pe\6vTes mss. 


them to death ; while others they tore from their 
children, their parents and their wives, and com- 
pelled to self-slaughter, and then did not even allow 
them to be given the customary burial, conceiving 
their own authority to be proof against the vengeance 
of Heaven. As many as escaped death encountered 
danger in many places, and wandered to many cities, 
and were banished from each refuge : in want of sub- 
sistence, having left behind you your children either 
in your native land, now turned hostile, or else on 
foreign soil, you came, despite many adversities, to 
the Peiraeus. Beset by many great perils, you proved 
yourselves men of true valour, and liberated one 
party while restoring the other to their native land. 
If you had been unfortunate, and had failed of these 
achievements, in your turn you would have gone into 
exile through fear of more afflictions like the past, 
and owing to the methods of these men you would 
have found no shelter from your wrongs in either 
temples or altars, where even wrongdoers are secure. 
Of your children, as many as were here would have 
been foully assaulted by these men, while those in 
foreign parts would have been enslaved for petty 
debts, cut off from all possible assistance. 

But I have no wish to speak of things that might 
have befallen, when I find myself unable to recount 
what these men have actually done : that is a task, 
not for one accuser, nor for two, but for many. Never- 
theless, of zeal on my part there has been no lack in 
defence of the temples which these men have either 
sold or defiled by their presence ; in defence of the city 
which they abased ; on behalf of the arsenals, which 
they demolished ; and on behalf of the dead, whom 

* ovdtv add. Canter. * re add. Sauppe. 



of? VUels, €7T€L0rj ^COCTLV ilTCLfJLVVCU OVK iSvVOKjdt, 

100 OLTrodavovcn fiorjdijcraTe . oljiai 8' avrovs rj^itov 1 
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povras, rjyovfievovs, oaoi fxev av tovtojv airo- 
ifr-qfilcrrjade, avrcov Odvarov /<:are0ry^)tcr/xero:'; 
ecrc<7#ai, 2 ogol 8' aV irapa tovtojv Slktjv \afiojo~iv, 
vnep ai)TO)v TifAOjpias TreTTOL-qjiivovs. 

TiavGOfxaL KCLTrjyopajv. OLKrjKoaTe, iojpaKOLTe, 

7T€7r6vdaT€, €)(€T€- OlKat,€T€. 

1 ijfxQv Auger : vjjlCjv mss. 
8 Ka.Te\J/r)(pi<Tfxh>ovs eaeadcu Kayser : KaTa\py<pi€?<Tdat M39. 



you were unable to protect in life, and must therefore 
vindicate in death. I fancy that they are listening to 
us, and will know you by the vote that you give ; 
they will feel that those of you who acquit these men 
will have passed sentence of death on them, while 
those who inflict the merited penalty will have acted 
as their avengers. 

I will here conclude my accusation. You have 
heard, you have seen, you have suffered ; you have 
the guilty : give judgement. 




Agoratus, a man of servile birth, had contrived to 
obtain certain privileges, — not amounting, however, 
to those of full citizenship, as he pretended, — by 
claiming to have had a hand in killing Phrynichus, one 
of the Four Hundred, in 411 B.C. During the next 
seven years he had practised the vile trade of informer : 
in 404 especially, when the humiliating peace was 
procured from Sparta by Theramenes, he was em- 
ployed by the Thirty Oligarchs to incriminate those 
citizens who appeared to be thwarting their plans 
by objecting to the severity of the Spartan conditions. 
The arrangement made with Agoratus was that he 
should be accused of conspiring with a number of 
others against the peace, but should assist the re- 
pressive measures of his masters by denouncing his 
alleged associates, while thus securing immunity 
for himself. He was accused by Theocritus, and 
some of the Council went down to the Peiraeus to 
arrest him : he played his part by taking sanctuary 
at the altar of Artemis in Munichia. Some friends 
or interested persons offered him an easy means of 
escape by sea, and their company on the voyage ; 
but he declined their offer, and denounced these same 


persons, and also some of the generals and com- 
manders. He and his victims were all put in prison, 
and the peace with Sparta was finally agreed. 

The government was immediately seized by the 
Thirty, and the prisoners were brought to trial ; not 
before a full popular " court of two thousand " (§ 35), 
as had been decreed by the Council at the time of 
their arrest, but before the new Council, which was 
entirely subservient to the Thirty. They were 
all condemned to death, except Agoratus, who was 
banished. Towards the end of the year (404) he 
joined the democrats under Thrasybulus at Phyle ; 
but both then and in their subsequent advance upon 
Athens they would have nothing to do with him. 
Some five or six years later, under the restored 
democracy, — this must be about 399 B.C., the year 
of Socrates' trial, — he is accused of the murder of 
Dionysodorus, one of the victims of the Thirty, and 
probably one of the generals or commanders. The 
prosecutor is the cousin and brother-in-law of Diony- 
sodorus, though the writ of arrest was in the name 
of a brother, Dionysius. 

Historically the interest of the speech is similar to 
that of the accusation of Eratosthenes ; but it differs 
in confining itself to a personal demand for vengeance 
upon the murderer of the speaker's relative : thus 
the historical allusions are only incidental and sub- 
sidiary to the main appeal for private satisfaction. 
The excuse offered for bringing this suit for M murder" 
so long after the crime had been committed, and in 
spite of the amnesty ordained at the restoration of the 
democracy, is that another man, Menestratus, long 
after he had similarly assisted in the crimes of the 
Thirty, had been condemned and executed for 



murder by the people. The summary arrest of 
Agoratus appears to have been possible solely be- 
cause he was not in possession of full civic rights : 
but even so, the Eleven insisted on the insertion of 
the words " taken in the act " in the writ against 
him. The prosecution accordingly has to justify the 
action by making out that Agoratus 's deposition of 
the names of his victims before the people amounted 
to his being caught in the act of their murder. It is 
interesting to observe how Lysias deals with this 
obvious difficulty. 

The first half of the speech (1-48) gives a full and 
lively account of the conduct of Agoratus as an 
agent of the Thirty : frequently, without attempt at 
proof, it charges all the calamities of the State on 
his sinister activities. Emphasis is laid on the 
pathetic end of Dionysodorus and his companions in 
misfortune (39-42), and also on the glaring fact that 
Agoratus, when he might have made his escape with 
ease from Munichia, chose to remain and denounce 
the persons indicted by the Thirty : the inference 
is that his life had been promised him beforehand as 
the price of his depositions. 

The latter half (49-97) consists of arguments — 
which in some cases are hardly more than assertions 
— against the defendant's plea that he was com- 
pelled to act as he did (49-63) ; then, an attack on 
his personal character (64-82), with special reference 
to his pretended part in the assassination of Phry- 
nichus ; and then some further argument on the 
legality of prosecuting after so great a lapse of time 
(83-84), and on the accuser's claim that Agoratus 
was duly " taken in the act " (85-87) and is not 
protected by the amnesty (88-90). On this last 



point the speaker resorts to the patent sophism that 
an amnesty made between two parties cannot hold 
between two members of the same party. He con- 
cludes with a strong appeal to resentment against 
the Thirty and their infamous tool, and to sympathy 
for their dead victims (9 1-97). 



1 npoarj/cet fJLev, d> dvopes St/caoTat, iraoiv vplv 
TLfjLwpelv vrrep rcov dvSpcov 61 arrldavov evvoi ovreg 
rep irXriOei rep uuerepoj, npom]K€i 8e /cci/xot oi>x 
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'AyopOLTOV TOVTOVl Kdl TO) 7tXij9€(, Tip Vp,€T6pCp 

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2 OeXr), St/cata)? rLf.icop-qOiqoerai. IS.LOvvoohcopov yap 

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3 ut/cpa, cog iyco vo/xt£a>, efiXaipev. iyeb ovv, <c5> 1 
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/cat irapd decov Kal nap* avOpcoircov dp.eivov dv 
yiyveodai. Set 8' uua?, co avhpeg 'Adrjvaloi, i£ 

4 dpx*)s T ^ )V Trpayfidrcov artdvrcov aKovcrai, Iv* 

1 S) add. Murkland. 


It is the duty of you all, gentlemen of the jury, to 
avenge the men who were put to death as supporters 
of your democracy, and it is also my duty in particu- 
lar ; for Dionysodorus was my brother-in-law and 
cousin. It happens, therefore, that I share with your 
democracy the same settled animosity against the 
defendant, Agoratus ; the acts that he has com- 
mitted are of a kind to give me good reason to hate 
him to-day, and justification to you for the penalty 
which, by Heaven's will, you are to impose on him. 
For Dionysodorus, my brother-in-law, and many 
others whose names you shall be duly told, — ■ 
all loyal friends of your democracy, — were done to 
death by him in the time of the Thirty, through 
his act in informing against them. By this con- 
duct he inflicted not only grievous losses on me and 
each of their relatives as individuals, but serious 
injuries — so I consider — on the whole city at large, 
by depriving it of men of that character. I therefore, 
gentlemen, consider it an act of justice and piety in 
all of you as well as myself to take vengeance as far 
as each of us is able ; and I think we should stand 
better both with the gods and with mankind if we 
did so. You must hear the whole of the circum- 
stances, gentlemen, from the beginning, in order that 



elhrjre irpwrov pev a> rporrcp vpuv r) S^uo/cparta 
KareXvdrj /cat U(/>' otov, eiretra a> rponcp ol dvhpes 
vtS 'Ayopdrov dueQavov, /cat hrj 6 re 1 aTroOvfjOKeiv 
fieXXovres eireoK-qifjav diravra yap ravra ahcpLpcos 
av ptadovres tJSlov /cat oencorepov 'Ayopdrov 
rovrovl Karaifjij^L^OLcrde . oOev ovv rjLiels re paara 
hihd^op,ev /cat voxels p,a6ijaeo6e, evrevOev 
dp^OLtai haqyeZadai. 

5 y E7T€L$rj yap at vrjes at viierepai hiefiddprjoav 
/cat rd 77 pay iiara <rd> 2 ev rfj noXei dudeveurepa 
eyeyevrjro, ov ttoXXo) ^povaj varepov at re vrjes 
at AaKehaiLiovlajv errl rdv Iletpata d(j)U<vovvr ai, 
/cat ajLta Aoyot 77-pos" Aa/ceSatuoytoLis" rrepl rrjs 

6 elprji'Tjs eyiyvovro. ev he rep xpovco rovrco ol 
fiovXojxevoi veclirepa Trpdy\xara ev rfj 77oAet yl- 
yveodai eirefiovXevov , vopLt^ovres KaXXcarov Kaipdv 
elXf](f)evai /cat LidXior <dv> 3 ev ra> rore XP® 1 ^ 
rd rr pay Liar a, ojs avrol eftovXovro, Karaarrjoaodat. 

7 qyovvro he ovhev dXXo o<f>Loiv epLrrohcbv etvat r) 
rovs rod hr^xov TTpoeorrjKoras /cat rovs orparr)- 
yovvr as koll ra^iap^ovvras . rovrovs ovv efiovXovro 
aLMJJS ye 7ra>s eKrrohtbv TTOL-rjaaaOai, Iva pqhiajs 
a fiovXoivro hiaTrpdrroivro. rrpturov iiev ovv 

8 KAeo</>a/VTt eneOevro e/c rpoirov roiovrov. ore 
yap r) rrpajriq e/c/cA^crta rrepl rrjs eiprjvrjs eyiyvero 
/cat ol irapd AaKehatpLovlwv r\Kovres eXeyov e<£' 
of? eroijJLOL elev rr)v elprjvrjv TroieluOai Aa/ceSat- 
jlovlol, el KarauKa^eiiq rcov rei)(cdv rcov LiaKptov 
€7tI Se/ca araota eKarepov, rore VLiels re, to di>8pes 

1 drj 6 ti Taylor : 5i6n MS3. 
2 rd add. Sauppe. 
8 hv add. Auger. 


you may know, first, in what manner your democracy 
was dissolved, and by whom ; second, in what 
manner those men were done to death by Agoratus ; 
and further, what injunction they gave when they 
were about to die. For when you have been accu- 
rately informed of all these things you will with the 
more pleasure and piety condemn this man Agoratus. 
I shall therefore start my relation at a point from 
which it will be easiest both for me to explain and 
for you to understand. 

When your ships had been destroyed and the 
resources of the city had been enfeebled, the ships 
of the Lacedaemonians arrived soon after at the 
Peiraeus, and negotiations for peace were made at 
once with the Lacedaemonians. At this moment 
those who desired to have a revolution in the State 
were busy with their plots, conceiving that they had 
found an excellent opportunity, and that this was 
the very moment for them to arrange the govern- 
ment according to their own desire. The only 
obstacles that they saw in their path were the 
leaders of the popular party and the generals and 
commanders. These they consequently sought to 
clear out of their way by fair means or foul, in order 
that they might achieve their ends with ease. So 
they began with an attack on Cleophon 6 in the follow- 
ing manner. When the first Assembly was held on 
the question of peace, and the emissaries of the 
Lacedaemonians stated the terms on which the 
Lacedaemonians were prepared to make peace, — 
on condition that the Long Walls were demolished, 
each to the extent of ten stades, — you then refused, 

° At Aegospotami, 405 b.c. 
b A democratic and anti-Spartan orator. 



'A9r)valoi, ovk y\ve(jyeode aKovoavres rrepl tcov 
t€1-)((jl)v rrjs KaraoKacprjS, KXeocfxjjv re vrrep vp,tov 
TrdvrcDV dvacrrds avrevnev cos ovhevl rponco olov 

9 T6 etTj 7TOL€LV TdUTO.. (JL6TCL he TGLVTGL QrjpapLevqS , 

em^ovXevcov rco nX^dei rep vpLerepco, dvacrrds 
Xeyei on, edv avrdv eXrjode Trepl rrjs elprjvrjs 
npeofievrrjv avroKpdropa, iroirjcreL cocrre paqre 
rcov reiy&v hieXeiv p.r\re aAAo rrjv 7t6Xlv iXarrco- 
crat firjhev o'ioiro he /cat dXXo n dyadov irapd 

10 AaKtSaijJLOVLtov rfj rroXeu evpr)oeo-dai. Tretodevres 
he vptels elXeode eKelvov Ttpeo$evrr]V avroKpdropa, 

OV TO) TTpOT€ptp €T€L GrparTjyOV X €L P OTOV7 l^^ VTa 

drrehoKipidGare, ov vopiit.ovres evvovv elvai rep 

11 irXr)6ei rep vpuerepco. eKelvos fxkv ovv iXdcov els 
Aa.Keha.Lp.ova ep,evev e/cet ttoXvv xpovov, KaraXnrcov 
lipids TToXiopKovpLevovs , elhojs rd vp^erepov ttXtjOos 
ev aTTopia eydpLevov /cat hid rdv iroXepiov /cat rd 
/ca/ca, rovs rroXXovs tcov emr-qheLcov evheels ovras,, el hiaOelr) vpt&s [aTropaJs] 1 coorrep hieOrjKev, 
dapuevcos OTTOiavnvovv edeXijoai dv elprpnr\v ttol- 

12 rjoaodai. ol S' evOdhe vnop.evovres /cat eVtjSou- 
Xevovres KaraXvoai rrjv h-qpLOKparlav els dycova 
KXeocjxjjvra Kadiardcn, rrp6c\>aciiv p,ev on ovk 
rjXdev els rd drrXa dvairavoopievos , rd 8* dXrjOes 
on avrelirev vnep vp,cov p,rj KaOaipelv rd re'iyy). 
eKelvtp p,ev ovv hiKaorrjpiov rrapaoKevdoavres 
/cat eloeXdovres ol fiovX6p,evoL oXtyapxlav /cara- 
OT-qoaoOai dueKr eivav ev rfj rtpo^doei ravrrj. 

13 Qr)pap.evr]s he vorepov d<j>iKveZrai e/c Aa/ceSatuo^os 1 . 

1 andpws del. Kayser. 

• An examination of officers and magistrates between 


men of Athens, to stomach what you had heard as 
to the demolition of the walls, and Cleophon arose 
and protested on behalf of you all that by no means 
could the thing be done. After that Theramenes, 
who was plotting against your democracy, arose and 
said that, if you would appoint him an ambassador 
to treat for peace with a free hand, he would arrange 
that there should be neither a breach made in the 
walls nor any other abasement of the city ; and that 
he thought he would contrive even to get from the 
Lacedaemonians some additional boon for the city. 
You were persuaded, and appointed as an ambassador 
with a free hand the man whom in the previous year, 
after his election to the generalship, you had rejected 
on his scrutiny, because you judged him disloyal to 
your democracy. Well, he went to Lacedaemon and 
stayed there a long time, though he had left you 
here in a state of siege, and knew that your popula- 
tion was in desperate straits, as owing to the war and 
its distresses the majority must be in want of the 
necessaries of life. But he thought that, if he should 
reduce you to the condition to which he in fact 
reduced you, you would be only too glad to make 
peace on any sort of terms. The others remained 
here, with the design of subverting the democracy : 
they brought Cleophon to trial, on the pretext that he 
did not go to the camp for his night's rest, but really 
because he had spoken on your behalf against the 
destruction of the walls. So they packed a jury for 
his trial, and these promoters of oligarchy appeared 
before the court and had him put to death on that 
pretext. Theramenes arrived later from Lacedaemon. 

their election in spring and their assumption of office after 



Trpoaiovres 8 avrco rcov re or parrjycov 1 rives /cat 
[131] TCUV Ta£idpx<jjv, cov rjv Srpo/x^t^t'S?)? /cat Atovuao- 
Scopos, /cat aAAot rives rcov 7ToXircov evvoovvres 
Vfiiv, cos y eoiqXcooav varepov, -qyavaKrovv 0(f>dhpa. 
rjXOe yap c\>epcov elpiyvqv tololvttjv, tjv rjpieis epyaj 
paOdvres eyvcopiev ttoXXovs yap rcov ttoXitlov /cat 
!■* ayaOovs aircoXecrapiev, /cat aOrot vtto rcov rpiaKOvra 
€^rjXa0-qp,€v. evrjv 2 yap dvrl piev rov errl Se/ca 
araSta rcov piaKpcov rei^cov SieXelv oXa rd piaKpd 
rei X 7 ? oiaoKaijjai, dvrl Se rod d'XXo n dyaddv rfj 
rroXei evpeodai rds re vavs irapahovvai [rots' 
Aa/ceoatuovtots"] 3 /cat rd rrepl rdv Eletpata ret^o? 

15 TrepteXelv. dpcovres Se ovroi ol dvSpes dvdpiari 
[.Lev elp-qvqv XeyopLevrjv, rep S' epyco rrjv SrjpioKpariav 
KaraXvopLevrjv, ovk ecfiaoav emrpexpeiv ravra ye- 
reodai, ovk eXeovvres, co aVSoe? 'AQ-qvaioi, rd 
reL X r ]y et> ^eo-etrat, ovSe Kiqhopievoi rcov vecov. el 
AaKeSaipioviois irapaSoOijaovrai (ovSev yap avrols 

16 rovrcov nXeov t) vp.cov e/caoraj rrpoorjKev), aXX 
aiodopievoi e'/c rod rpdirov rovrov rd vpierepov 
ttXtjOos KaraXvdrjGopLevov, ovh\ cos cfiacri rives, 
ovk e7TiBvp.ovvres elprjvrjv yiyveodai, dXXd ftov- 
Xopievoi fieXrico ravrrjs elpr\vj]v rep $r)p,co rco* 
'AOrjvaicov TronjoaoOai. evopni^ov Se SwrjcreaOai, 
/cat eTTpa^av dv ravra, el ut) vtt* * Ayopdrov 

17 rovrovl arrcoXovro. yvovs oe ravra Qrjpapevrjs 
/cat ol aAAot ot emfiovXevovres vplv, on etot rives 
ol KtoXvaovoL rdv Srjpov KaraXvdrjvai /cat evavrico- 

1 CFTpartryCcv Markland: otpcltuotCjv mss. 

2 ivrpt Halbeitsma : #* mss. 
• rots AaKedaLfMouiois del. Fuhr. * t$ Fuhrt tCjp mss. 



Then some of the generals and commanders — among 
them Strombichides a and Dionysodorus, and some 
other citizens, who were loyal to you, as indeed they 
showed later — went to him and protested strongly. 
For he came bringing a peace whose nature we 
learnt through the lessons of experience, since 
we lost a great number of worthy citizens, and 
ourselves were banished by the Thirty. Instead 
its terms required the razing of the Long Walls in 
their entirety ; and instead of his contriving to get 
some additional boon for the city, we were to sur- 
render our ships and dismantle the wall around the 
Peiraeus. These men perceived that, although 
nominally we had the promise of peace, in actual 
fact it was the dissolution of the democracy, and they 
refused to authorize such a proceeding : their motive 
was not pity, men of Athens, for the walls that were 
to come down, or regret for the fleet that was to be 
surrendered to the Lacedaemonians, — for they had no 
closer concern in these than each one of you, — but 
they could see that this would be the means of sub- 
verting your democracy ; nor were they lacking, as 
some declare, in eagerness for the conclusion of peace, 
but they desired to arrange a better peace than 
this for the Athenian people. They believed that 
they would be able to do it, and they would have suc- 
ceeded, had they not been destroyed by this man 
Agoratus. Theramenes and the others who were 
intriguing against you took note of the fact that there 
were some men proposing to prevent the subversion 
of the democracy and to make a stand for the defence 

An Athenian general at the close of the Peloponnesian 
War ; cf. Thucydides viii. 15, 30, 62. 



oovrai irepl ttjs eAevQepias, elAovTo, nplv rrjv 
€KK\i]olav ttjv nepl rijs elpiqvr)s yeveoOav, tovtovs 
7TpG)T0v els SiafioAds /cat Kivhvvovs /caraoT^aat, 
Iva /jLrjhelg e/cet vrrep rod Vfierepov rrX-qdovs dvrt- 
Aeyoi. €7TifiovAr)v ovv roiavriqv emfiovAevovai . 
jg TreidovGi yap 'Ayoparov tovtovI LLrjvvTrjv /card 
tcov <7TpaT7]ya)v Kal tcov Ta^Lapxcov yeveaOai, ov 
ovveihoTa e/cetVot?, co dvopes 'A^vatot, ovhev 
(ov ydp hrjTrov eKelvoi ovtcos dvorjTOi rjcrav /cat 

d(f)lAoL, <JL)GT€ 7T€pl TTjAlKOVTCOV dv 77 pay '[LQ.1 COV 

7rpaTT0VT€s *AyopaTOv cos ttlotov /cat evvovv, 
oovAov /cat €/c SovAcov ovra, TrapeKaAeoav) , dAX 
e'So/cet avTOis ovtos eVtr^Scto? etvai LirjvvTijs. 

19 ifiovAovTO ovv aKovra ooKelv avrov Kal Lirj e/coVra 


ws oe Ikcov eLirfwae, Kal vjjl&s otuat e/c tcov 
Tteirpayiievcov alcrOrjoeaOaL. eloTTeinrovaC' yap els 
ttjv fiovArjv [rr]v irpo tcov rpiaKovra fiovAevovoavf 
QeoKpurov rov rov 'EAa^oart/CTOU KaAovLievov 
6 he OeoKpLTOs ovtos eralpos rjv rep 'Ayopdroj 

20 Kal eTTirri&eios . r) he ftovAr] rj irpo rcov rpiaKovra 
fiovAevovoa o'letfrOapro Kal SAuyapxlas eireOvpLei, 
ws tare, LLaXiora. reKLL-qpiov he- ol yap 7roAAot 
<ot> 4 e£ eKelvrjs rrjs ftovAfjs ttjv vorrepav 5 fiovArjv 
<Trjv> t iirl rcov rpiaKovra eftovAevov. rov S' 
eveKa ravra Aeyco vllZv; tv' elhrjre, otl ra ipr)- 
</>ta/xara <ra> 7 et; eKeiviqs rrjs ftovArjs ovk eV 8 
evvoia. tj} VLteTepa dAA' enl /caraAucret tov hrjLiov 

1 iriaToripa 77 /xrjvvais (paivoiro Francken : Tnarbrepa. upuv xjtto- 
ipaifoiTO MSS. * elairinirovoL Dobree : iKirtfxwovai MSS. 

3 ttjv . . fiovXevovaait del. Sluiter. 

4 ol add. Scheibe. 6 vartpav Taylor : vfiertpav mss. 



of freedom ; so they resolved, before the Assembly 
met to consider the peace, to involve these men first 
in calumnious prosecutions, in order that there should 
be none to take up the defence of your people at 
the meeting. Now, let me tell you the scheme that 
they laid. They persuaded Agoratus here to act as 
informer against the generals and commanders ; not 
that he was their accomplice, men of Athens, in any 
way, — for I presume they were not so foolish and 
friendless that for such important business they would 
have called in Agoratus, born and bred a slave, as 
their trusty ally ; they rather regarded him as a 
serviceable informer. Their desire was that he 
should seem to inform unwillingly, instead of willingly, 
so that the information should appear more trust- 
worthy. But he gave it willingly, as I think you will 
perceive for yourselves from what has since occurred. 
For they sent into the Council Theocritus, the man 
called " the son of Elaphostictus ° " : this Theocritus 
was a comrade and intimate of Agoratus. The 
Council which held session before the time of the 
Thirty had been corrupted, and its appetite for 
oligarchy, as you know, was very keen. For proof of 
it you have the fact that the majority of that Council 
had seats in the subsequent Council under the 
Thirty. And what is my reason for making these 
remarks to you ? That you may know that the 
decrees issued by that Council were all designed, not 
in loyalty to you, but for the subversion of your 

a " Deermark " ; from some birth-mark or tattoo, in- 
dicating a foreign or servile origin. 

tV add. Markland. 7 to. add. Bekker. 

8 ovk 4tt' Foertsch : ovk£ti mss. 



rov vfierepov arravra eyevero, 1 Kal ojs roiovrotg 

21 ovaiv avrolg rov vovv 7rpocre'x r l T€ ' eloeXdcbv Se 
CIS tolvttjv rr)v fiovXyjv ev anoppryroo QeoKpirog 
{jL7]vv€L on avXXeyovral rives evavrtajaofievoL rots 
rore KaOicrrapievois TTpaypiaaL. ra fiev ovv dvofiara 
ovk €(f>r] avrdjv epelv Kad' eKaorov opKovs re yap 
ojjLCOjJLOKevai, rovs avrovs €K€lvols, koll elvat erepovs 
ot ipovGL ra ovofiara, avros Se ovk av rtore Troirjoai 

22 ravra. Kairoi el jjlt) £k 7rapaaKevrjs epaqvvero, 
ttojs ovk av rjvdyKacrev rj fiovXrj elirelv ra ovofiara 
QeoKpirov Kal fir) avoovvjiov rrjv [xr\vvaiv 7TOL" 
■qvao-Qai; vvvl Se rovro ro 07]</>tcr/xa i/jrj^i^erai. 2 


23 ^TreiSrj roivvv rovro ro iftrjcfjicr/jLa ei/jrj<f)iaOy-j , 
KarepXovr at errl rov 9 Ayoparov els rov Hecpaid ol 
alpeOevres* roov fiovXevroov , Kal irepirv^ovreg avrco 
ev ayopa et^rovv ayeiv. Txapayev6\xevos Se Ni/a'a? 
Kal ^LKOfxevrjg Kal aXXoi rwis, opoovres ra irpdy- 

132] \xara ox>x °^ a fitXricrra ev rfj noXet ovra, ayeiv jxev 
rov ' Ayoparov ovk etfiacrav npoijcreaOai, afirjpovvro 
Se Kal rjyyvcovro Kal oopioXoyovv irape^eiv els rrjv 

24 fiovXrjv. ypaipd/JLevoL Se ol fiovXevral rd ovofiara 
roov eyyvoofievoov Kal KooXvovroov, dmovres opxovro 
elg aarv. 6 Se * Ayoparos Kal ol eyyvr\ral Kad- 
l^ovcnv eirl rov ficofiov MovvlxIolgiv eneihr) he 
eKaOccrav, efiovXevovro ri XP 7 ) rroielv. ehoKei ovv 
rols eyyvrjr ats Kal rols aAAot? diraatv eKiroScov ttolij- 
au.o-OaL* rov 'Ayoparov cog ra^tcn-a, Kal rrapopfilcrav" 

1 eyivero Markland: e\tyero mss. 

2 \J/7]<pii~€Tai Schiebe : \J/7]<pLtT€Te, \f/rj(f>LcraTo MS3. 

a aipedevTes Keiske : BiaipedevTes mss. 

4 TroLTja-aadaL Foertsch : iroi^crai mss. 



democracy, and that you may study them as thus 
exposed. Theocritus entered this Council, and 
behind closed doors he informed them that certain 
persons were combining to oppose the system then 
being instituted. He declined, however, to give 
their several names, as he was bound by the same 
oaths as they were, and there were others who would 
give the names : he would never do it himself. Yet, 
if his information was not laid by arrangement, surely 
the Council could have compelled Theocritus to give 
the names, instead of laying the information with no 
names given. But in fact, here is the decree that they 
voted ° :— 


Now when this decree had been passed, the 
councillors appointed for the purpose went down to 
the Peiraeus to find Agoratus : they lighted on him 
in the market, and sought to take him off. On the 
spot were Nicias, Nicomenes and some others, who, 
seeing that the business was not going very success- 
fully in the city, refused to allow Agoratus to be 
taken : they were for releasing him and giving bail, 
and undertook to produce him before the Council. 
The councillors, having duly noted the names of 
those who tendered bail and stopped the arrest, 
went off to town. Then Agoratus and his sureties 
seated themselves at the altar on Munichia. 5 Seated 
there, they debated the question of what should 
be done. The sureties and everyone else were of 
opinion that they should get Agoratus out of the 
way as quickly as possible, and having brought two 

° Ordering the arrest of Agoratus. 

6 The citadel on the east side of the Peiraeus, containing 
an altar of Artemis. 

L 293 


25 re? Svo rrXoZa [Mowt^taatv] 1 eoeovro avrov rravrl 
Tpoirco direXOeZv *A9i]vr]Bev, /cat avrol e<f>aoav 
GVveKTrXevoeZodaL, ea>s ra rrpdyiiara KaraarraLrj, 
Xeyovres on, el /co/xta^etry els rr)v ^ovXrjv, fiaoa- 
VLL^opLevos toais dvayKaodrjaerai ovoLiara elrreZv 
'Adrfvalwv Sv dv virofidXcooLV ol fiovXoLievoi kclkov 

26 rt ev rfj TToXei epydt^eodaL. ravra eKelvajv oeo- 
Lievoiv /cat rrapaoKevaodvrajv rrXoZa /cat avrcov 
iroLfjiajv ovrwv orvveKTrXeZv, ovk r)9eXrjoe rreideodaL 
avroZs 'Ayoparos ovrooi. kolltol, cu i Ayopare, et 
iirj rl gol rjv rrapeGKevaoLievov /cat eirioreves Lirjhei 


TrapeoKevaaLievajv /cat ra>v eyyvqrujv eroipaov ovrojv 
gol ovveKirXeZv ; ert yap olov re gol rjv, /cat ovttcjj 

27 r) fiovXrj gov e/cparet. dXXd Liev Sr) ovx OLioid 
ye gol /cat eKeivoLs VTrrjp)(e. rrpGirov fxev yap 2 
'AdrjvaZoL rjoav ware ovk eoeSicrav f$acravLo6rj- 
vac eireira rrarploa o<j>erepav avrcov KaraXiTrovres 
eroiLLOi rjaav GVveKirXeZv Lierd gov, rjyqaaLievoL 
ravra fiaXXov XvcnreXelv r) roov noXtrcov 7toXXovs 
/cat dyadovs vtto gov aSt/ca)? diroXead ai. gol 8e 
7Tpa>rov p.ev Kivhvvos rjv fiaaavLoOrjvaL VTTOLieivavri, 

28 erreira ov irarpiha dv aavrov drreXiTres' coot* c/c 
iravrds rporrov gol li&XAov r) c/cetVot? eKrrXevoaL 
Gvvecjjepev, el \xr\ rL rjv a) eTriareves. vvv oe aKoov 
LLev rrpooTTOLeZ, eKcbv Se ttoXAovs /cat dyaOovs 
'Adrjvalojv drreKreLvas. obs 8e 3 rrapeaKevdodr) 

1 Movvix't-aaiv del. Dobree. 
• ->ap Mehler: 7e mss. 8 its 5t Taylor: ware mss. 



vessels alongside they begged him at all costs to quit 
Athens, and said that they would themselves accom- 
pany him on the voyage until affairs should get settled ; 
they argued that if he were brought up before the 
Council he would be put to the torture, and would 
perhaps be compelled to give the names of such 
Athenians as might be suggested by those who were 
bent on working some mischief in the city. Although 
they thus entreated him, and had provided vessels, 
and were ready themselves to accompany him on the 
voyage, this man Agoratus refused to take their 
advice. And yet, Agoratus, unless there had been 
some prearrangement with you, such as to assure 
you that you would come to no harm, how could you 
have failed to make off, w T hen there were vessels 
provided, and your sureties were ready to accom- 
pany you on the voyage ? It was still possible for 
you : the Council had not yet got you in their hands. 
Nay, indeed, you were not in nearly so good a case 
as your friends : in the first place, they were Athen- 
ians, and so were not in fear of being tortured ; and 
in the second, they were ready to resign their own 
native land and go on the voyage with you, because 
they felt that there was more to be gained by this than 
by your unjust destruction of a large number of good 
citizens. But you, first of all, were in danger of being 
tortured if you stayed where you were ; and secondly, 
you would not have been parting from your own 
native land. So in every view it was more to your 
interest to go on a voyage than it was to theirs, un- 
less you had something to give you assurance. But 
now you pretend that you acted unwillingly, though 
you willingly put to death a large number of good 
Athenians. To show how all that I have recounted 


drravra a eya) Xeyco, Kal pdprvpes elai Kal clvto 
to ipifyiapLd gov ro 1 rrjs fiovXrjs Karap.aprvpr]aei. 

<MAPTTPE2> 8 . ¥H<H2MA 

29 'EvreiS?) roivvv rovro to iptfcfricrfia eiprj^icrd-q Kal 
rjXOov ol €K rrjs fiovXrjs Mouvt^ta^e, Ikcjv dveorr) 
'Ayoparos 0.77-0 rod fiatfiov- kolItoi vvv ye fita <f>r)alv 

30 dfiaLpedrjvai. erreihrj he els rr)v fiovXr)v eVo- 
ixiodrjoav , diroypd^ei ' Kyoparos npcbrov fxev ra)v 
avrov eyyvrjrcav ra ovofiara, erreira rcov arpa- 
rrjyajv koli ra>v ra^tdpxojv, eireira he Kal aXkatv 
rivGiv ttoXltwv. r) he ap\r) avrrj rod rravros ko.kov 
eyevero. d)s he dneypaifje ra ovofiara, 01/ p,ev 
Kal avrov 6pLoXoyr)oeiv el he \xr), err* avro(j)d>poj 
eyd> avrov e£eXey£a). diroKpivai hr\ [101. 


31 'E^SouAopto roivvv, to dvhpes htKacrrai, en 
rrXeiovajv avrov 3 ra ovofxara aTToypdi/jai' ovra> 
eppa>ro rj fiovXr) KaKov n epyd^eodai [auro^j* 
ojctt' ovk ehoKei avrols drravra rdXrjdrj ttoj 
Karr)yoprjKevat. rovrovg jxev ovv drravras eK(hv 
drroy packet, ovhepuas avrco avdyK-qs ovaiqs. \jxerd 
rovro rrpoaarroy packet erepovs rcov rroXircov.] 6 

32 erreihrj he r) eKKX-qoia Mou^t^taotv ev rep dedrpco 
iylyvero, ovrto a<J)6hpa rives errefieXovvro 6rra>s 
Kal ev rep h-qpLco rrepl rcov arparrjycov Kal rcov ra^L- 
dp\cov fxrjvvaLs yevoiro (rrepl he rcov aXAcov drr- 
exprj ev rfj fiovXfj [pLrjvvais] 6 p-ovrf yeyevr)p,€vrj) t 
ware Kal eVet napdyovaiv < avrov > 8 els rov hrjfxov. 

1 aov t6 Reiske : ovrio, tovto mss. 


was done by prearrangement I have witnesses ; 
and the very decree of the Council will testify against 

Witnesses. Decree 

Now when this decree had been passed, and the 
councillors had arrived at Munichia, Agoratus of his 
own free will arose from the altar : yet he now says 
that he was taken away by force. When they were 
brought up before the Council, Agoratus deposed 
first the names of his sureties, then those of the 
generals and commanders, and then those of some 
other citizens. This was the beginning of the whole 
trouble. That he deposed the names, I think he 
himself will admit : failing that, I shall convict him 
as taken in the act. So answer me. 


Now, they wanted him, gentlemen of the jury, to 
depose the names of yet more people ; so firmly 
determined were the Council to work some mischief 
that they would not believe that he had yet given 
them the whole truth in his accusation. Well, he 
willingly deposed against all those men, with no com- 
pulsion upon him. When the Assembly met in the 
theatre at Munichia, some were so extremely anxious to 
have information laid before the people also in regard 
to the generals and commanders — as to the others, it 
was enough to have had it laid before the Council 
only — that they brought him up there also, before 

2 fxaprvpes add. Markland. 
3 avrbv Taylor : avrol mss. 4 avrbv del. Gernet et Bizos. 
5 //.era . . . ttoKituv del. Dobree. 
6 /xrjuvacs del. Bremi. 
7 fi6vjj Frohberger : fxev ij, ij mss. 8 avrbv add. Gebauer. 



/cat fioL anoKpivou, a> 'Ayopare' ov yap of/xat cr€ 
e^apvov yevqaeadai 1 a ivavriov ' ' AS-qvaiayv a-ndv- 

TQJV €7TOl7)(TaS. 


33 'O/xoAoyet fxev koll avrog, ojjLcos Se /cat ra 
tprjcfylapLara vfilv rod Sij/jlov avayvajcrerat. 

¥H*I2MATA 8 

"On p,ev a7Teypai[j€v 'Ayoparos ovrocrl rdv 
dvopGiv €K€iva)v rd ovo/xara, Kal rd iv rfj fiovAfj 
Kal rd iv ra> S^ua>, /cat eart (fyovevs e/cetVajv, 
o~)(eh6v tl of/xat vpL&s eVtaracr^af cos roivvv dirdv- 
tcdv twv /ca/caiv atTtos" rfj 77oAet iydvero /cat ouS' 
u</>' eVo? aurov 7rpocrrj/cet iXeelorOaiy iyd> ot/xat 

34 ^ty ev /ce</>aAat'ots' a77-ooetfetv. erreto^ yap e/cetvot 
133] orvXArjcfrdevres ihidrjvav, rore Kal 6 Avoavopos els 

rovs Ai/xivag rovs vfierepovs etVeVAeucre, /cat at 
Krjes" at vpiirepai Aa/ceSat/xovtot? TrapeooOrjoav , Kal 
rd Teixq KareaKafir] , Kal 3 ol rpiaKovra /car- 
ecrrrjaav, Kal ri ot) raw SetvcDv 4 r^ 77-oAct iyivero. 

35 e7T€iorj roivvv ol rpiaKovra Kareorddiqoav evOicos 
Kpiuiv rots dvopdoi rovrois iiroiovv iv rfj fiovAfj, 
6 oe brjpLos " iv ra) hiKaorripia) iv Sta^tAtots" 
iipiq(f)LOTo. 6 Kal /xot dvdyvajdi to iprj(f)io-[ia. 


3G Et {xkv ovv iv to) oiKaoriqpicp iKpivovro, pahicos 
dv iacot,ovTO' anavres yap 77077 iyvojKoreg rjre ov 

1 yeviiaeadai Markland : yei>£<rdcu mss. 

2 \pr)<f>i<jixa.Ta Reiske. 
KareaKciipr] Kal Reiske : KaTeaKa.(f>i]<yav MSS. 
* t'i o'> tZiv deiVLOv Sauppe : toiovtov deivbv MS3. 
5 i^l](pi<jTo Naber : i\pr}<plaaTo mss. 



the people. Now answer me, Agoratus : you will 
not, I suppose, deny what you did in the presence of 
all the Athenians. 


He admits it himself ; but however, the secretary 
shall read the decrees of the people to you. 


That this man Agoratus deposed the names of 
those men, both before the Council and before the 
people, and that he is their murderer, I believe you 
understand well enough. My further point, that he 
was the author of all the city's troubles, and does not 
deserve to be pitied by anybody, I think I can make 
plain to you in summary fashion. For it was just 
when those persons had been arrested and imprisoned 
that Lysander sailed into your harbours, that your 
ships were surrendered to the Lacedaemonians, that 
the walls were demolished, that the Thirty were 
established, and that every conceivable misery be- 
fell the city. And then, as soon as the Thirty were 
established, they promptly brought these men to 
trial before the Council ; whereas the people had 
decreed that it should be " before the court of two 
thousand." a Please read the decree. 


Now if they had been tried before the proper 
court, they would have easily escaped harm ; for by 
that time you were all apprised of the evil plight of 

° Composed of four of the twelve panels, each consisting 
of 500 jurors, which were appointed for the formation of the 
ordinary courts each year. A court of so large a size was 
only formed for cases of special importance. 



tjv KGLKoG tj ttoXls , ev & ovheu eVt tb<f>eXelv ehvvaode 
vvv 8' els ttjv fiovXrjV clvtovs ti]v errl tlov rptaKovra 
elodyovoiv. 77 he Kpiuis roiavrr) eylyvero, olav /cat 

37 vjiels avrol eTTtOTaoOe. ol fiev yap rpiaKovra eKa.9- 
tjvto errl tlov j3d9pu)v, ov viv ol Trpvraveis kolO- 
e^ovTOLL- hvo he rpdire^ai ev tlo irpoodev tlov rpia- 
Kovra eKeiaOrjv ttjv he ififjcjiov ovk els KahloKovs 
dXXd Lpavepdv enl rds Tpaire^as ravras ehei ride- 
odai, tt]v jxev Kadoupovcrav errl ttjv vorepav . . . , 
ojorre e/c tlvos rpoirov efieXXe ns avrcbv GLodrjoecrOaL; 

38 evl he Xoyco, oooi els to fiovXevT-qpiov [eiri tlov 
rpiaKovra] 1 elorjXOov Kpid-qoofievot, dndvTLOV 6d- 
varos KareyiyvcjGKero /cat ovhevos direifj-rjcfiioavTO, 
ttXtjv 'Ayopdrov rovrovr tovtov he dt^eloav los 
evepyer-qv ovra' Iva he elhfjre cos ttoXXol vtto tov- 
tov Tedvacru, povXopLCLL vplv to. ov6\iara aVTLOV 


39 'JLTreihy) tolvvv, lo dvhpes St/caorat, OdvaTOS 
ovtlov KaTeyvcooOr) /cat eheu avTovs dnoOvrjcrKeiv, 
fieTOLTre/jLTTOVTai els to heojAuyTiqpiov 6 fiev dheXcfrrjV, 
6 he fxr]Tepa } 6 he yvvalhca, 6 8' r\ tls rjv e/cdcrra) 
avTtov it poorjKov era, Iva to, uaTara doTraodfjievoi 

40 tovs avTcov ovtlo tov fiiov TeXevTiqoeLav . /cat 817 
/cat kiovvoohtopos \xeTaTTe\i/TTeTai ttjv dheXcprjv ttjv 
ifjLTjv els to heofjLcoTi]pLov, yvvaiKa eavTOV ovorav. 
TrvOofAevr) 8' eKeivr] d(/»t/ci'etrat, \xeXav r€ IfxaTLOv 

41 rj/jLcpLeajjievr] . . . , los et/co? rjv em tw dV8pt 
avTrjs toiolvtt) avfxcjyopa Ke^pr]\ievLp. evavTiov he 
TTJs dheXcfrrjs ttjs eyu.rjs' Aiovvoohcopos ret re ot/ceta 

1 twi tQ)V TpiaKOVTCL del. SaUppC 


the city, though you were unable at that stage to be 
of further service to her. But as it was, they were 
brought before the Council which sat under the 
Thirty. And the trial was conducted in a manner 
that you yourselves well know : the Thirty were 
seated on the benches which are now the seats of the 
presiding magistrates ; two tables were set before 
the Thirty, and the vote had to be deposited, not in 
urns, but openly on these tables, — the condemning 
vote on the further one b . . . — so what possible 
chance of escape had any of them ? In a word, all 
those who had entered that Council chamber for their 
trial were condemned to death : not one was ac- 
quitted, except this man Agoratus ; him they let 
off, as being a " benefactor." And in order that 
you may know of the large number done to death 
by this man, I propose to read you their names. 


Now, when sentence of death, gentlemen, had been 
passed on them, and they had to die, each of them 
sent for his sister, or his mother, or his wife, or any 
female relative that he had, to see them in the prison, 
in order that they might take the last farewell of 
their people before they should end their days. In 
particular, Dionysodorus sent for my sister — she was 
his wife — to see him in the prison. On receiving the 
message she came, dressed in a black cloak c ... as 
was natural in view of the sad fate that had befallen 
her husband. In the presence of my sister, Diony- 

• Cf. above, § 20. 

6 i.e., nearest to the Thirty. The text here has a short gap. 
c Some words describing another sign of mourning seem 
to be missing here. 

L2 301 


Ta avrov hieOero ottcos avrco ehoKei, /cat rrcpl 
*Ayopdrov rovrovl eXeyev on <ol> 1 aino? rjv 
rod davdrov, /cat eireoK-qTrrev ijJLol /cat kiovvoico 

42 rovrcpi, rep dheXtf)cp rep avrov, /cat rots cfiiXots rrdoi 
n\xcopelv vrrep avrov ' Ayoparov /cat rfj yvvatKL 
rfj avrov eTreoKrynre, vojjll^ojv avrr)v KveXv e£ 
avrov, lav yevr\rai avrfj iraioiov, cfrpd^eiv rep 
yevopuevcp on rov irarepa avrov 'Ayoparos air- 
eKreive, /cat KeXeveiv nptcopelv vrrep avrov cos fovea 
ovra. cos ovv dXiqdrj Xeyco, fxdprvpas rovrcov 


Ovroi piev roivvv, co dvhpes 'A#7patot, vrr* 'Ayo- 
pdrov arroypa<f)evres drreOavov erreihrf he rovrovs 
€KttoSow errot-qoavro ol rpiaKovra, cr^eSov otuat 
lipids errioraoOai cos TroAAd /cat heiva fierd ravra 
rfj rroXei eyevero' cov ovros drrdvrcov a'inos eonv 
diroKreivas eKeivovs. dvicopiai piev ovv vrro- 

44 pufivfjOKCOV rag yeyevrj piev as ovpicbopas rij rroXei, 
dvdyKt] 8' eoriv, co avopes hiKaorai, ev rep rrapovn 
KaipCo, Iv elhrjre cos ocbohpa vplv eXeelv rrpoor-qKei 
* Ayoparov. tore piev yap rovs e/c XaAa/xtVos" rcov 
rroXircov KopLiodevras, oloi rjorav /cat oaot, /cat 
olep oXeBpco vrro rcov rpiaKovra drrcoXovro' 'tore 
he rovs i£ 'EAeucra'os", cos rroXXol ravrr) rfj ovpicf>o- 
pa exprfcravro' piepivrjode he /cat rovs evQdhe hid 

45 rds Ihias ex^pas array opievovs els ro heopbconqpiov 
ol ovhev KaKov rr)v rroXiv rroi-qoavres rjvayKa^ovro 
ata^t'crra) /cat a/cAeecrraTO) oXeOpcp drroXXvodai, 
ol piev yoveas [ocj)erepovs avrcov] 3 rrpeopvras 

1 ol add. Wcstermann. a tweidr) Fuhr : irrel mss. 

3 acptrtpovs aurwv del. Dobree. 


sodorus, after disposing of his personal property as 
he thought fit, referred to this man Agoratus as 
responsible for his death, and charged me and 
Dionysius his brother here, and all his friends to 
execute his vengeance upon Agoratus ; and he 
charged his wife, believing her to be with child by 
him, that if she should bear a son she should tell the 
child that Agoratus had taken his father's life, and 
should bid him execute his father's vengeance on the 
man for his murder. To show the truth of what I 
state, I will produce witnesses to these facts. 


So then these persons, men of Athens, lost their 
lives through the depositions of Agoratus. But after 
the Thirty had cleared them out of their way, you 
know well enough, I imagine, what a multitude of 
miseries next befell the city ; and for all of them this 
man, by taking those people's lives, was responsible. 
It gives me pain, indeed, to recall the calamities 
that have befallen the city, but it is a necessity, 
gentlemen of the jury, at the present moment, so 
that you may know how richly Agoratus deserves 
your pity ! For you know the character and number 
of the citizens who were brought away from Salamis, a 
and the way in which they were destroyed by the 
Thirty. You know what a great number of the 
people of Eleusis shared that calamity. You remem- 
ber also our people here who were haled to prison 
on account of private enmities ; and who, having 
done no harm to the city, were compelled to perish 
by the most shameful, the most infamous, of deaths. 
Some left elderly parents behind them, who were 

« Cf. XII. 52. 



KaTaAiTroi'Tes, ot tJAtu^ov vtto tojv G(j>€Tipa>v avTtov 

[134] naioajv yr)porpo(f)r)6evT€S, €7T€lStj TeAevT-qveiav tov 

filov, Ta</>?jcrecr#ai, ot oe dSeA^d? olvckSotovs, ol 

46 he 7raioa? piKpovs ttoAAtjs ert Oepanetas SeoueVous" 
oils, to dvhpes St/cacrrat, noiav Tivd o'ieuOe yvoopuqv 
rrepl tovtov eyew> v\ Txolav tlvol av iftrjcf>ov QeoOai, 
el eV eKeivois yevoiTo, aTTOGTeprjdevTas hid tovtov 
tojv rjhiUTOJv; eVt he ra Te'iyr) cos KareoKa^rj 
koX at vrjes rols rroAefxioig Trapehodrjcrav /cat <Ta> x 
veojpta Kadrjpedrj /cat Aa/ceSat/LtoVtot rrjv aKpoTroAiv 
rjfjLoov el)(ov /cat rj hvvapus anacra rrjs TToAeoJs 

47 TrapeAvOrj, ooare pLTjhev htacfjepeiv rrjg e'Aa^ terras' 


<ovacas> 2 drrojAeGare, /cat to reXevTalov o~vAXr]fthi]v 
airavres vtto tojv rptd/covra e/c ttjs TraTpihos 
e£r]Ad9r]T€. ravra eKelvoi ol dyaOol dvhpes alado- 

48 [levoi ovk e(f>aaav e-rr it peifjeiv 3 tt)v elprjvrjv, a> 
dvhpes St/caaTat, Troirjaacrdar ovg crv, 'Ay 6 pare, 
fiovAop-evovs dyaOov tl TTpa^at rfj iroAei a-neKTeivas , 
firjvvaas avTOVS \jfj 7rdAet] 4 eTTtfiovAeveiv tgj TrA-qdeu 
rep vp,eTepoo, /cat atrios el aTrdvTOjv rfj TToAeu tojv 
kokojv tojv yeyevrjpLevoov . vvv ovv pLvqadevTes /cat 
tojv Ihlojv eKaoTOS hvoTW)(T]p,dTOjv /cat tgDv koivojv 

49 ttjs TToAeoos TtpLOjpelGrde tov cutiov tovtqjv. 

0aiyxd£a> 8' eyojye, oo dvhpes (St/caarat, 6 rt 
TTOTe ToApLTjcrei npos i>p,ds aTToAoyeladar Sec yap 
avTOV aTTohel^ai ojs ov KaTep,i]vvae tojv avhpojv 
tovtojv ouS' atrto? avTois eort tov OavaTov, o ovk 

50 av hvvaiTO ovhenoTe dirohei^aL. irpojTOV puev yap 

1 to. add. Reiske. 2 ovaias Aldus. 

8 iiTLTp^eiv Dobree : iirtTpe^ai mss. 



expecting to be supported in their old age by their 
own children and, when they should end their days, 
to be laid by them in the grave ; others left sisters 
unwedded, and others little children who still re- 
quired much tendance. What sort of feelings, 
gentlemen, do you think are theirs towards this man, 
or what kind of vote would they give, if it rested 
with them, when by his act they have been deprived 
of their best comforts ? You recollect, again, how 
the walls were demolished, the ships surrendered to 
the enemy, the arsenals destroyed, our Acropolis 
occupied by the Lacedaemonians, and the whole 
strength of the city crippled, so that our city was 
sunk to a level with the smallest in the world ! 
And besides all this, you lost your private possessions 
and finally, at one swoop, you were all expelled by 
the Thirty from your native land. Impressed with 
these perils, those loyal citizens, gentlemen, refused 
their assent to the conditions of peace, and you, 
Agoratus, because they sought to do the State some 
service, brought about their death by laying informa- 
tion that they were intriguing against our demo- 
cracy ; and you are responsible for all the troubles 
that have befallen the city. So now let each of you 
remember the misfortunes caused both to individuals 
and to the common weal of the city, and take ven- 
geance on their author. 

I am wondering myself, gentlemen, what he will 
be bold enough to say to you in his defence. For he 
must show that he did not lay information against 
these men, and so is not responsible for their death ; 
but this he could never contrive to show. In the 

tt) TroXei del. Jacobs. 



ra i/j-qcfyLcrpiara avrov ra eV rrjs fiovXfjs /cat <ro> x 
rov 817/zou Kara fiaprv pel, hiapp-qoiqv dyopevovra 
"TT€pl cvv 'Ayoparos /caretp^/cev." eVetra rj /cptat?, 
tjv eKpiOrj irrl rcov rpiaKovra /cat acfreidrj, oiappi]Srjv 
Ae'yet, " StoVt" cfyqcrlv " e'Sofe rdX-qdrj etaayyetAat." 
/cat /xot dvdyvojOt. 

¥H4>I2MATA. rNH2l2. [rPA*Al] 2 

51 'Qg pikv ovv ovk airly paxpev, ovSevl rporrcp hvvair* 
dv dnoSel^aL' Set rolvvv avrov &>s St/cat'cu? epL-qwoe 
ravra dirofyaiveiv , optov avrovs Trovqpa /cat ovk 
intr-qBeta rep o-qpbcp rep vpuerepep irpdrrovras . 
oto/xat S' ovtY dv rovro avrov eVt^etpTjaat airo- 
oeiKvvvai. ov yap S-q-rrov, el ri KaKov rov Srjpiov 
rbv 'Ad-qvatajv clpydoavro, ol rpiaKovra, SeSiores 
pLTj KaraXvdeir] dv 3 6 Srjpos, npuopovvres virep rov 
h-qpiov dv avrovs drreKreivav , dAA' of/xat ttoXv 
rovvavrlov rovrov. 

52 'AAA' tcrcas (fyrjcreL aKCOV roaavra /ca/cd ipydoaadai. 
iych S* ovk ot/xat, co dvopes oiKaorai, ouS' idv rts 
vpL&s a)s pLaXiara aKcov /xeydAa /ca/cd epydonqrai, 
cbv per) olov re yeveodai iarlv virepfioX-qv, ov rovrov 
eVe/ca ov Setv vpids dpLvveodac. etra Se /cat ckclvojv 
pLepLvqode, on i£rjv 'Ayopara/ rovrcpi, rrpiv els r-qv 
ftovXrjv KopLLodrjvat,, or eVt rod ftojpiov eKadqro 
MovvL)(iaaL, aajOrjvai' /cat yap TrXola TrapeoKevacrro 

53 /cat <ot> 4 eyyvqral eroipioi rjaav crvvamcvaL. 
Kairoi et €K€lvols eiriOov 6 /cat rjdeXrjcras eKTrXevoai 

1 t6 add. Cobet. 2 ypa<pai del. Westermann. 

3 KaTa\v0€ir] tv Markland: KaraXvdeiTjaav MSS. 
• ol add. Markland. 6 iiridov Cobet: iirddov mss. 



first place, we have as witnesses against him the 
decrees issued by the Council, and that of the people, 
stating expressly — ' ' in regard to those whom Agoratus 
has denounced." In the second place, the judgement 
passed on him when he was acquitted under the 
Thirty says expressly — " inasmuch as his report has 
been approved as true." Read them, please. 

Decrees. Decision 

Well then, that he did not make the deposition, 
he can find no means of showing ; he must therefore 
prove that he was justified in giving that informa- 
tion, because he saw them criminally working against 
the interest of your people. But he will not attempt 
to show this either, I believe. For, I presume, 
if it had been the people of Athens on whom they 
had inflicted some injury, the Thirty would never, 
in fear of the people's rule being subverted, have 
put them to death to vindicate the cause of the 
people ; no, I conceive they would have done very 
much the opposite. 

But perhaps he wall say that he committed all these 
wrongful acts against his will. My own opinion, 
gentlemen, is that, however much against his will 
a man may have done you a wrong so great that it 
cannot be exceeded, this is no reason why you should 
not protect yourselves. And then, there are some 
further facts that you must remember : it was open 
to this man Agoratus, before he was brought up at 
the Council, and while he was seated at the altar in 
Munichia, to escape in safety ; for vessels had been 
provided, and his sureties were ready to depart with 
him. And indeed, sir, had you taken their advice 



/xer' eKewtov, out* dv eKtov ovre cIkoji' togovtovs 
*A9r)vaitov a.7T€KT€ivas' vvv he TreioBels v<$> tov tot€ 
€7T€Lcr9ris, el tcov crrpanqycov /cat tcov ra^iap^ajv 
tcl ovofiara povov eliTOis, fxeya Tt coov Trap* olvtcov 
hiarrpa^eadai. ovkovv tovtov eW/ca Set ae Trap* 
rjpcov Gvyyvco/.irjs twos Tv\ew, eireX ovhe e/cctrot 
rrapa gov ovhepu&s eTV^ov, ovs ov dneKTewas. 

54 /cat 'Ittttiols p.ev 6 Qdatos koll "E,evocf)cov 6 Kovpievs, 
ot eVt Tjj avTrj atVta tovtco vtto ttjs fiovArjs \ieT- 
eTrepLcbdrjGav, ovtol pcev dneOavov, 6 p,ev GTpeftAcoOels, 
"Eevotfrcov, 6 he 'Itttticls ovtoj . . . , Stort ovk a^tot 
ehoKovv toIs TpiaKovTa GOJTTjpias elvai (ovheva 
yap 'ABrjvaicov aTTcoXXvaav)- 'Ayoparo? he d^eWrj, 
Stort e'So/cet eKewots ra, rjbioTa TTeTTOirjKevai. 

55 'A/coua> 8' avTov /cat et? Meve'arparoy dvacjjepew 
rt Trepl tCjv aTToypacfrdJv 1 tovtcov. to he tov Mere- 
GTpaTov TTpaypLCL tolovtov eyeveTO. 6 MeveoTpaTOS 

r 1 351 OUTOS a7reypd(f>rj vtto tov 'Ayoparou /cat ox>A- 
ArjfiOels iheheTO' * Ayvohcopos 8' rjv 'A/x^trpoTrateu?, 
hrjfjLOTTjs tov MeveaTpaTOV, Kptrtou Kr]heGTr)s tov 
tow TpLaKovTa. ovtos ovv , ore rj e/c/cAi^crta Mowi- 
yltxow ev tw deaT pep eyiyveTO, a/xa p.ev fiovAopuevos 
tov NeveoTpoLTOv GcoOrjvai, a'jita he cos TrAeiGTOvs 
aTToypa^evTas aVoAecr^at, Trapdyei avTov els tov 
hrjpiov, /cat evploKovTOLL 2 avTco /caret to iftrjtfriopLa 
tovtl dheiav. 

1 awoypcHpuu Auger: ypacp'wv mss. 
* evpLffKOVTai Reiske: evpiaKuiv re MSS. 

° In the south of Cyprus. 
b A short gap is left in the text. 



and consented to sail away with your friends, neither 
willingly nor unwillingly would you have taken the 
lives of so many Athenians. But the fact is that, 
seduced by certain persons who then made it worth 
your while, you had only to mention the names of 
the generals and commanders, and you could count 
on obtaining a handsome reward from them. So I see 
no reason there for your receiving any indulgence 
from us, since those men received none either from 
you, when you took their lives. And Hippias of 
Thasos, and Xenophon of Curium, 3 who were sum- 
moned by the Council on the same charge as this 
man, were put to death, — the one, Xenophon, after 
suffering on the rack, the other, Hippias, in the 
manner . . . b ; because in the eyes of the Thirty 
they did not deserve to be saved, — they had not 
destroyed one Athenian ! But Agoratus was let off, 
because in their eyes he had done what was most 
agreeable to them. 

I am told that he attributes these depositions in 
part to Menestratus. But the affair of Menestratus 
was like this : Menestratus was informed against by 
Agoratus, and was arrested and put in prison. 
Hagnodorus of Amphitrope, c a fellow- townsman of 
Menestratus, was a kinsman of Critias, one of the 
Thirty. Well, when the Assembly was being held in 
the theatre at Munichia, this man, with the double 
aim of saving the life of Menestratus and of causing, 
by means of depositions, the destruction of as many 
people as possible, brought him before the people, 
when they contrived to give him impunity under the 
following decree. 

c A township or district in the south of Attica, containing 
some of the silver mines. 




66 'E7T€L$r) 8e tovto to iprj^LopLa eyivero, pL7]vv€i 6 
M.€V€OTparos /cat TrpocraTroy packet erepovs ra)V 
ttoXltwv. tovtov fjLevroL ol fxev rptaKovra d</>etaav 
a)(T7T€p 'Aydparov tovtovl, So^clvtol rdXrjOrj etcr- 
ayyetAat, d/zet? Se 7roXXcp XPWtp vorepov XafiovTes 
iv hiKaoTTjpicp ws dvhpocf)6vov ovra, ddvarov St- 
Kdicjs KaTaifjr](f)icrdix€voi ra> S^ui'a) 1 7rapeSoT€ /cat 

57 dtrervpi'TTaviodr]. /catrot el e/cetvos" dneOavev, r\ 
ttov 'AyoDaros" ye St/catoj? CLTTodavelTai, os ye 2 rov 
re MeveWparov dnoypdijjas atrtos" eKeivoj eart 
tou davdrov, /cat Tots* U770 MevearpdVou diroypa- 
<j)eiGL ris atTLdoTepos rj 6 els roiavTrjv dvdyK7]v 
ihcelvov Karaarrjaas ," 

68 'Avduoto? Se jLtot So/cet : 'Api<7TO(f)dv€i yeveodou 
to) XoXAelSy, og eyyvr)T7]s tot€ tovtov iyeveTo /cat 
rd 7rAota 7TapaoK€vdcras Mouvt^tacrtv eTOLfios rjv 
owe/C7rAetV /xerd toutou. /cat rd ye ew eKelvov 
elvai iowdrjs, /cat our' dv 'AO-qvaiajv odSeVa 
aTTajXearas ovt dv avTos crd els tolovtovs klvSvvovs 


erdAjLt^aa? aTroypdijjou, /cat aTToypdiftas <a7reKT€Lvas> 3 
/cat €K€ivov /cat rods' d'AAou? iyyvrjTas. tovtov /xeV- 
rot to? od KaOaptbs* ' 'AdrjvaZov ovtol ifiovXovTo Tives 
PaoaviodrjvaL, /cat rourt rd ifji](f)LOfia tov SrjpLov 
dvaireidovoi i/n^L^eodai. 

1 57;/xtV Schott : 07)/Ltw mss. a 3s 7e Toup : wore MS9. 

8 dv^KTeipas add. Jacobs. 

4 Kadapus Taylor : /caXuis MSS. 

° This mode of execution, formerly understood to be 
44 cudgelling to death," seems to have been something similar 
to crucifixion. See Gernet et Bizos, ad loc. 



As soon as this decree had been passed, Menestratus 
turned informer, and added some more names of 
citizens to those already deposed. The Thirty, of 
course, let him off as they did Agoratus here, accepting 
his report as true : but you long afterwards had him 
before you in court as an actual murderer, and justly 
condemned him to death ; you handed him over to 
the executioner, and he suffered death on the plank. a 
Yet, if that man was put to death, surely Agoratus 
will be put to death with justice ; for since he deposed 
against Menestratus he is responsible for his death, 
while, as to those who were deposed against by 
Menestratus, who is more responsible than the man 
who placed him under the necessity of such a step ? 

And his behaviour was, I consider, quite unlike that 
of Aristophanes of Cholleis, & who went surety for him 
at that time, provided the vessels at Munichia, and 
was ready to accompany him on the voyage. Thus, 
so far as it lay with him, you were saved, and then 
you would neither have destroyed any Athenian nor 
have brought your own self into such serious dangers. 
But no : you not only had the face to depose against 
your own deliverer, but by making your deposition 
you sent both him and your other sureties to their 
death. Some, indeed, desired that Aristophanes 
should be put to the torture, as one who was not of 
pure Athenian stock, and they prevailed on the people 
to pass the following decree. 

* A district on the south side of Mt. Hymettus. The point 
in what follows is that even his surety Aristophanes, when 
faced with death as a result of Agoratus's treachery, refused 
to save himself by denouncing good citizens. 




60 Merd tovto tolvvv irpocnovrts ra> ' 'Apioro(f)dv€L 
ol Trpdrrovreg tote tol irpdypLara eheovro avrov 
KarenreZv /cat crto^eoOou, /cat /jltj Kivhvveveiv ayojvi- 
adfi€vov rrjs tjevias rd eo^ara iraO^Zv. 6 Se ovk 
€<f>r) ouSeVore* ovtoj ^p^OTOS" rjv /cat irepl tovs 
SeSeyLteVous" kcli rrepl rov Stj/jlov rov 'AO-qvalajv, 
cocttc ei'Aero jxdXXov diroOaveZv rj KareintZv /cat 

61 dhiKOJS rivds diroXioai. ihceZvos pikv tolvvv /cat 


£evo(f)tov 6 crrpefiXwOels /cat *\7TTrLas o Odc/to?] 1, 
oi) 8' oz)Sei> Tot? dvopdoiv e/cetVot? cri>vetSa>s, 
ireLoOels Se ct)? cru ye, edv e/cetvot d77oAa»vrat, 
/xe^e'^et? rrjs tote 2 TroXireias KaOtOTafievrj^, dir- 
eypaijjas 3 /cat direKTZivas ' Adrjvaiojv noXXovs /cat 

62 BouAo/xat 8' Uyittv, a> dv&pes St/caarat, e77tSet£at 
olcov dvhpojv V7T* ' Ayopdrov aTreoTeprjode. et /zey 
ouf ou TToAAot T^crai-', /ca#' eKacrrov dv irepl avrwv 
r\Kov€T€y vvv 8e GvWiq^hiqv irepl Travrcov. ol /jl€v 
yap GTpaTT\yr\aavres v/jlZv iroXXaKLs ttet£a> tt)v 
7rdAtv rot? StaSe^o/xeVot? orparrjyoZs Ttapehihooav 

63 ot 8' irepas /xeydAas" ap^ds 1 dp^avres /cat rptr^- 
papxLO-S 7roAAds" rpu^papx^Gavres ovhzirujTTOTe V(j) > 
vpidJv ovoepulav air lav alaxpdv ea^ov. ol 8' avrd)v 
i-eptyevofievoi /cat otoOevres, ovs ovtos fxev arr- 
€KT€ivev opiouos* /cat ddvaTOS avrojv KareyvojaOrj, 
i) Se ru^r] /cat d Salfiajv Trepienoiiqot, cfrvyovres 
[yap 1 / ivOevoe /cat ov ovXXrj^devres ovhk vito- 

: Kal . . . t)daios del. Dobree. 2 r6re Markland: re mss. 
8 d7re'7pa^as Fuhr : direypd^-qs MSS. 
6/.<oi'ws Lipsius : cfywDs mss. 6 7ap del. Reiske. 



Well, after that the persons who then had control 
of affairs came to Aristophanes and appealed to him 
to save himself by a denunciation, and not to run the 
risk of the extreme penalty by standing his trial on 
the count of alien birth. But he said — " Never ! " 
Such was his loyalty both to the men who had been 
imprisoned and to the Athenian people that he chose 
to suffer death rather than denounce and destroy 
anyone unjustly. So this was the character shown 
by that man, even when you were bringing him to 
destruction ; and you, when you knew nothing 
against those persons, but had been seduced with 
the promise to you of a share in the government 
then being established if they should be destroyed, 
made your deposition and sent to their death a large 
number of good Athenians. 

But I wish now, gentlemen of the jury, to represent 
to you the character of the men of whom Agoratus 
has bereft you. Had they been merely a few, one 
might mention them to you separately ; but, as it 
is, I must cover them all in one brief account. Some 
had served you several times as generals, and 
then had handed on the city with added greatness 
to their successors in authority ; some had held 
other high offices, and had borne the expense of 
many naval equipments : never before had they met 
with any disgraceful censure from you. Some of 
them survived, by having got away in safety ; though 
this man sent them to their death none the less, and 
they were condemned to die : but fortune and 
providence delivered them. They fled the city, 
instead of being arrested and awaiting their trial ; 



ILeivavres ttjv Kplatv, KareXOovre? <X770 QvXfjs 
Ti\xGiVT(xi v<$> v/jl&v o>? di'Spe? dya#ot ovres. 
64 Tovtovs fiduroL tolovtovs ovrag 'Ayoparo? rovs 
p,ev a.7T€KT€iv€, rovs Se (pvydSas ivrevdev erroirjoe, 
ris cbv olvtos; Set yap vfias etSeVat on SovAos 
/cat e'/c SovXcov eoriv, lv* elSrjre otos d)v u/xa? eXvfxai- 
vero. rovrcoi fxev yap rrarrjp rjv EvfJLaprjs, iyevero 
Se o Eu/xap^? ovros NikokXcovs /cat 'AvtikXcovs. 
/cat /xot dvdfirjre Lidprvpes. 


65 [67] T Hcrav roivvv ovroi, c5 dvSpes St/caorat, rerrapes 

dSeX(f)OL. rovrajv et? p,ev d rrpea^vraro? 1 iv St/ce- 
Ata, irapacjipvKTCDpevoixevos rols noXepLiois Arjcfydels 
vno Aafxdxov d7T€TVjjL7TaviGdrj- 6 Se erepos els 
\{.6piv6ov [lev ivrevdevl avhpaTTOOov e^tjyayev, e'/cet- 
6ev Se iraihloKriv avOis i^dyojv dAta/cerat, /cat 
eV to) SeafjLWTrjpLO) SeSe^eVo? dneOave' rov Se 

66 [68] rpirov Qaivnnrioiqs evQdhe 2 XwttoSvttjv drrrjyaye, 

/cat vfjceTs KpLvavres avrov iv tw St/cac/T^ptaj /cat 
Karayvovreg avrov ddvarov drrorvinravioai rrapeSore. 
<bs Se dXrjdrj Ae'ya>, /cat avrdv ottxat d/xoAoy^cretv 
rovrov /cat fxdprvpas irape^oLxeda. 


67 [65] TdAAa 3 roivvv, c5 dVSpes" St/cacrrat, oaa /ca/cd 

/cat alcrxpd /cat rovrco /cat rot? toutou dSeA</>ot? 
imTerrjoevTaL, ttoXv av et'17 epyov Xeyetv. rrepl Se 

1 7rpecr/3uTaros Bake : irpea^vrepos MSS. 

2 <?r0d5e Markland: ipdtvbe mss. 

8 T<J\\a Dobree : iroWa mss. (§§ 65-66 Iranspos. Heldmano 
al. post § 68). 


they have returned from the exile of Phyle, and are 
honoured by you as worthy men. 

Such, you see, was the character of these men whom 
Agoratus either did to death or sent into exile from 
the city. And who, then, is he ? You must know 
that he is a slave born and bred, so that you may 
know what manner of man it was that grossly mal- 
treated you. For the defendant's father was Eumares. 
and this Eumares was the property of Nicocles and 
Anticles. Come forward, please, witnesses. 

Witnesses ° 

Now Agoratus, gentlemen, had three brothers. 
One of them, the eldest, was caught in Sicily making 
traitorous signals to the enemy, and by Lamachus's 
order he was executed on the plank. The second 
abducted a slave from our city to Corinth, and again 
was taken abducting a girl from a household there : 
he was cast into prison and put to death. The 
third was arrested here by Phaenippides as a foot- 
pad, and you tried him in your court : you con- 
demned him to death, and consigned him to execution 
on the plank. The truth of my statements will, I 
think, be admitted even by this man himself, and 
we shall produce witnesses to support them. 


Now, to tell of all the other injuries and infamies, 
gentlemen, which have been the practice of this man 
and his brothers would be a lengthy task. As to his 

a §§ 67 and 68 are here placed before §§ 65 and 66, as 
suggested by some editors. 



<TVKO(f)avTLas, ooas ovrog 77 St/ca? tolas ovko- 
tfravTOJV e'St/ca^ero 77 ypafids ocras eypdtfyeTO rj 
aiToypa$>as aTreypacpev, ovoev /ie Set kol6' ckolcttov 
Xeyeiv crvAArjj3$r)v yap VLieTs aTravres /cat ev rep 
[136] oiJLito /cat ev rep oiKauT-qplco avKocpavTias ai)Tov 
68 [6(3] Kareyvcore /cat d>cf>Xev l vlilv [ivplas Spaxpds, coare 


Tvprjrai. ywalhcas to'ivvv rcov ttoXitojv tolovtos 
tov uot^euety /cat htacpOelpeuv eXevdepas eTrexelprjoe, 

KOLL i\rf(f)9r) LLOLXOS' KCll TOVTOV Odl'aTOS 7] t,7]LLLa 

iariv. d>s he dXrjdrj Xeyoj, pdpTvpas /caAet. 

69 Titos ovv oi>x diraai TTpooiqKei vplv tovtov kclto.- 
ipr)(f>itea9ai ; el yap tovtojv eKauTOS St' ev duap- 
rr)Lia Oavdrov rj^itodrj, rj rrov tov ye 7roXXd e^rjLiap- 
ttjkotos Kal hr]Lioola els ttjv ttoXlv /cat tSta. et? 
eKaorov VLLtov, tov eKaarov dLiaprrjfjbaros ev tols 
vollois Odvaros r) L^rjpla earl, Set vli&s atf>6hpa 
Odvarov avrov KaTaijjiqtj)loao9 ai. 

70 Ae'fet Se', a) dvhpes St/caarat, /cat e^arraTTjcrat 
vjjl&s TreipdcreTai, tos errl rcov rerpaKooiajv ®pu- 
viyov drreKreLve, /cat dvrl tovtov <J)Yjolv avTOV 
*A6r]vaZov tov hrJLiov 770t?/CTacr#at, ipevhofievos, to 
dvhpes St/caarat- ovTe yap OpuVt^ov dW/cretvev 

71 ovre 'AQ-qvalov avTov 6 hrJLios eTroaqaaTO. ®pu- 
vix<p ydp, to avhpes St/caoTat, KOivfj QpaovftovXos 
re 6 KaXvhtovios /cat 'AnoXAohtopos 6 Meyapevs 
eTTefiovXevcrav eTretSr) he eVeTU^eV-^v auTaj /?aSt- 
l^ovtl, 6 1 Lev QpaovfiovXos TVTTTei tov OpuVt^ov /cat 

1 u>0\ej> Sauppe : &(p\ycrei> mss. 
8 havus Bekker: raKws mss. 



trade of slander in all the private suits that he 
brought, or in the various impeachments and de- 
positions that he made, there is no need for me to 
speak in detail. To sum the whole, you all in the 
Assembly, and likewise in the law-court, convicted 
him of venal slander and made him pay a fine of ten 
thousand drachmae ; so that this point has been 
sufficiently attested by your whole body. Then 
again, he attempted, with a character like that, to 
debauch and defile free-born wives of our citizens, 
and was taken in adultery ; and for that the penalty 
is death. Call witnesses to the truth of my words. 


Then is it not clearly a duty upon you all to convict 
this man ? For if each of the brothers was thought 
deserving of death for a single offence, surely the 
man who, both publicly against the city and privately 
against each of you, has committed many offences, 
for each of which the penalty under our laws is death, 
must by all means be condemned to death by you. 

He will say, gentlemen, attempting to deceive 
you, that in the time of the Four Hundred a he killed 
Phrynichus, b and in reward for this, he asserts, the 
people made him an Athenian citizen. But he lies, 
gentlemen. For neither did he kill Phrynichus, nor 
did the people make him an Athenian citizen. It 
was Thrasybulus of Calydon and Apollodorus of 
Megara, gentlemen, who combined in a plot against 
Phrynichus : they lighted on him as he was out 
walking, and Thrasybulus struck Phrynichus, knock- 

a 411 b.c. ; cf. XII. 42. 

6 A prominent member of the Four Hundred ; cf. 
Thucydides, viii. 92. 



KarapdXAei 7Tard^ag, 6 he 'ArroXXohoopos ot>x 
rjiparo' dXX ev tovtcq Kpavyrj yiyverai Kal a>x ovro 
(f>evyovres . y Ay 6 par os he ovrocrl ovre TrapeKX-qOr) 
ovre irapeyevero ovre othe rod Trpdypiaros ovhev. 
ws he dXrjdr) Xeyw, avro vpuv to ifj-^cfuajxa hr)Xa)crev. 


72 "Ore jxev ovk aneKreive Qpvvixov, i£ avrov rov 
iJjrj(f}{.crpLarog hrjXov ovhapcov yap ecrnv " y Ayoparov 
'Adrjvalov elvai" tbcnrep OpaavfiovXov [Kal 'AttoA- 
Xohoopov] 1, KairoL eirrep aireKreive Qpvvixov, ehei 
avrov ev rfj avrfj artfXrj, Iva rrep QpaovfiovXov [/cat 
'ATroXAohajpov], 1 'AOrjvaiov 7re7TOLrjfievov Keyyeypd- 
(f)9aL> 2, rd fievroi ovofiara hiairpdrrovrai acfroov 
avrtov, hovres apyvpiov rep p-qropi, 7rpooypa<f>r)vai 
els ttjv arrjXrjv d>s evepyeras ovras. Kal ws dXr^Qfj 
Xeyoj, rovro to i/jrj(f) tafia eXey^ei. 


73 Ovroj fievroi ovroal itoXv vficov Kare(f)p6vei, 
wore ovk ojv ' Adiqvaios Kal ehiKat,e /cat tjkkXtj- 
cria£e Kal ypacfyas rag e£ dvOpojiroov eypd<f>ero } 
eTnypa^ofJLevos 'Avayvpdotos, etvai. erreira he. 
Kal erepov pueya reKyaqpiov cos ovk [aV] 3 aireKreive 
Qpvvixov, hi 6 4 ' Adiqvaios (f>rjai yeyevfjcrdai. 6 
fypvvixos yap ovtos rovs rerpaKooiovs Karearrjcrev 
eTrethr] 8' eKelvos drredavev, ol ttoXXoI roov rerpa- 

74 kogloov ecf>vyov. rrorepov ovv hoKovoiv vpuv ol 

1 Kal 'kiroWbSupov del. Roehl. 
3 eyyeyp&<pdai add. Thalheim. 
• af del. Contius. 4 8 Sauppe : Sv mss. 



ing him down with the blow ; but Apollodorus did 
not touch him. Meanwhile an outcry arose, and 
they ran off and disappeared. But Agoratus here 
was neither invited to join them nor was present at 
the deed, nor does he know anything of the matter. 
The truth of my statement will be shown you by the 
decree itself. 

Decree ° 

That he did not kill Phrynichus is clear from the 
decree itself : for nowhere do we find " that Agoratus 
be an Athenian," as in the case of Thrasybulus. If, 
however, he had killed Phrynichus, he ought to 
appear as having been made an Athenian in the 
inscription on the same slab as Thrasybulus does ; 
though some do contrive, by bribing the proposer, 
to have their own names added to the tablet as 
" benefactors." The truth of my words will be 
proved by this decree. 


But yet, this man had so much contempt for you 
that although he was not an Athenian he took his 
seat in the law-court, and in the Assembly, and 
made impeachments of every conceivable kind, giving 
in his name with the addition — " of Anagyra. 6 " 
And besides, I have further good evidence against 
his having killed Phrynichus, — an act for which he 
claims to have been made an Athenian : this Phry- 
nichus established the Four Hundred ; after his 
death, most of the Four Hundred fled. Do you then 

° These were decrees passed by the people in gratitude to 
the slayers of Phrynichus, who were granted full civic rights 
in the form " That so-and-so be an Athenian." 

6 A district on the west coast of Attica. 



rpiaKovra Kal r) fiovXr) r) rore 1 fiovXevovaa, ot av- 
rol rjaav arravres rcov rerpaKoaiojv rcov (f>vyovrcov , 
a<t>elvai av Xaftovres rov ^pvvi^ov arroKreivavra, r) 
npcopi)aaadai vrrep ^)pvvi\ov Kal rrjs cf)vyrjs rjs 

75 avrol e(f>vyov; eyco piev oipai npicopeZadai av. el 
piev ovv firj dnoKreivas rrpoa-noieZrai, cos eyco (f>r]pii, 
dhiKeZ 2, el he. d/x^tCT^retS' Kal cf>f)s Qpvvixov airo- 
Krelvai, SrjXov on pieiCco rov hrjpiov rov ' Ad-qvaicov 

KOLKOL ITOlljodS TTjV U77€0 OoiW^OU OlItLOLV 77/30? rOVS 

rpiaKovra arreXvaco' ovheirore yap Treioeis ovoeva 

[137] drdpwTrcov cos Opwt^ov diroKreivas d(f>ei6rjs av vtto 

tcov rpiaKovra, el pir) peydXa rov brjpLOV rov 'A9r)- 

76 vaicov Kal avqKeora Kahca elpydcra). idv piev ovv 
(f)dcn<r) OpuVt^ov arroKreZvai, rovrcov piepivqade /cat 
rovrov ripLW pelade dvd* cov eTToiiqaev eav 8' ov 
c/>daKrj, epeade avrov 8t' o n (frrjolv *A6~qvaZos 
TroLr)9f}vai. eav oe pr) exfj airoheZ^ai, ripcopeZade 
avrov on Kal ioiKa'(,e 3 Kal rjKKXrjaia^e Kal eovKO- 
(frdvrei ttoXXovs cos 'AOrjvaZos rovvopia emypa- 

77 , Akovoj Se avrov TrapauKevd^eoQ ai arroXoyeZ- 
crdai, cos €77t QvXrjv re cpx^ro KaL crvyKarfjXdev a.770 
QvXrjs, Kal rovro pieyiarov dycoviapa elvai. eye- 
vero he roiovrov rjXOev ovros iv\ QvXiqv Kairoi 
ttojs o.v yevoiro dvOpcorros piiapcorepos ; oar is 
elhcos on elai rives iirl QvXfj rcov vtto rovrov 
eKTreTTrojKorojv eroXpirjaev eXOeZv cos rovrovs. 

78 eTreiSr] oe elSov avrov Ta^tcrra, avXXafiovres 

1 ; q Tore Cobet: or' eiri rQiv X MSS. 

' ws eyw (prifxi, &8i\ei (Jcbauer: dSt/cei, Cjs iyw (/>t;/ju MSS. 

8 ioiKai'e Tuyior : tro^aj'ero MSS. 



believe that the Thirty and the Council in session at 
that time, who were themselves all members of the 
Four Hundred who had fled, would have let off the 
slayer of Phrynichus when they had hold of him, in- 
stead of taking vengeance on him for Phrynichus and 
the exile they had suffered ? In my opinion, they 
would have taken vengeance on him. Now, if he is 
pretending, as I assert, to be the slayer of Phrynichus 
when he is not, he is guilty there ; while if you, sir, 
dispute this, and declare that you did kill Phrynichus, 
it is evident that you must have done yet greater 
injuries to the Athenian people so as to redeem, in 
the eyes of the Thirty, the blame for Phrynichus's 
death. For you will never persuade anyone at all 
that after killing Phrynichus you would have been 
let off by the Thirty, unless you had inflicted great 
and irremediable injuries upon the Athenian people. 
Hence, if he asserts that he killed Phrynichus, re- 
member my words and take vengeance on this man 
for what he has done : if he disclaims it, ask him on 
what grounds he alleges that he was made an Athen- 
ian. If he fails to prove it, punish him for making 
use of his assumed title of Athenian to sit in both 
law-court and Assembly, and to bring slanderous 
charges against so many persons. 

I am told that he is concocting for his defence the 
plea that he went off to Phyle, and was in the party 
that returned from Phyle, and that this is the main- 
stay of his case. But the facts were as I shall relate. 
This man did go to Phyle ; yet, could there be an 
example of more abject vileness ? For he knew that 
at Phyle there were some of those who had been 
banished by him, and he had the face to approach 
them ! As soon as they saw him they laid hold of 



dyovGiv avriKpvs ojs aTTOKrevovvres, ovnep Kal 

TOVS aAAoU? OL7T€G(f)aTrOV, €L TlVa ArjOTTjV Tj KdKOVp- 

yov ovXXdfioiev . ctt par-qycov he "Avvtos [eVt 

QvArjv] 1 OVK €<f)7) xprji'di TTOietV avrovs TCLVTOL, 

Xeya>v otl <ovttco> 2 ovrco hiaKeoivro, ware TipLOj- 
pelodai rivas ra>v e;^#pajv, aAAa vvv jjlcv helv 
avrovs rjavx^cLV exeiv. el he 7rore o'iKahe kclt- 
eXdotev, rore Kal rip.ojpy]Ooivro rovs dhiKodvras. 

79 ravra Xeyojv atrtos eyevero rod dirocfrvyelv rovrov 
inl QvXfj- avdyKT) he r\v orparr\yov avhpos aKpoa- 
odai, elrtep efieXXov otoQiqaeodai. dXX erepov 
ovre ydp crvaocr-qcras rovrcp ovheis <j)aviq(jeraL ovre 
ovoKiqvos yevojievos ovre <6> 3 ra^iap^os els tt]v 
cf>vXr)v Karard^as, aAA' axmep dXtrypLtp ovheis 
dv6pcx)7TCov avro) hteXeyero. Kal /xot KaXei rov 


80 'E77€tSi7 he <at> 4 SiaAAayat irpos dXAijXovs iye- 
vovto Kal eTrepafjav ol [77oAtrat] 6 eV YleipaLws ttjv 
7TOfj,7T7]v els ttoXiv, rjyelro fxev Ataa/io? [rtov ttoXl- 
rtov], 6 ovros he ovtoj roXfjLi-jpos Kal eKeV eyevero- 
ovvrjKoXovOei ydp Xafidjv ra oirXa Kal avvenep/ne 

TTjV TT0[L7TT\V fierd TWV 07tXlT(JL)V 8 7700? TO d(JTV . 

81 eVeiS^ he irpds rats 7rvXats* r\oav Kal eOevro ra 
orrXa, rrplv eloievai els to darv, 6 fiev AZoifios 
aladdverai Kal TrpooeXOdtv rrjv re aoTriha avrov 
Xaficbv eppiifie, Kal amevat eKeXevaev is KopaKas 

1 iirl 4>iAV del. Dobree. * otiirw add. Stephanus. 

3 6 add. Sauppe. 4 al add. Dobree. 

• ToAtYcu del. Dobree. 6 -w tto\ltG}v del. Sauppe. 

7 {ml Brulart: e'/cetVo , totc mss. 



him and dragged him straight away to be killed in 
the place where they executed ordinary pirates or 
robbers that fell into their hands. Anytus, who was 
the general, said that they ought not to do that, on 
the ground that they were not yet in a position to 
punish certain of their enemies : at that moment they 
should rather keep quiet. If ever they returned 
home, they would then proceed to punish the guilty. 
By that speech he was the cause of this man's escape 
at Phyle : it was necessary to obey a man in the 
position of general, if they were to preserve them- 
selves. Nay, further, you will find no one who has 
shared either this man's table or his tent, nor did the 
commander assign him a place in his tribe a ; to all 
he was a polluted person with whom they would not 
talk. Please call the commander. 


When they had reached their mutual agreement, 
and the Peiraeus party made their procession to the 
citadel, b they were led by Aesimus ; but there too 
this man showed similar audacity. For he followed 
along under arms, joining in the procession with the 
heavy-armed men to the city. But when they were 
close to the gates, and grounded arms before entering 
the city, Aesimus perceived him and went up to him, 
seized his shield, and flung it away, with the order — 

° There was one " taxiarch " for each of the ten tribes, 
whose ranks were formed by him. 

6 i.e., to the temple of Athene on the Acropolis. 

8 qt\itG)v Dobree : toXitQv mss. 
9 ttuXcus Palmer: <pv\ais mss. 


[ek rcov 7toXltcov .]* ov yap e<f>7) helv avhpo<f)6vov 

TOVTO) TO) rpOTTCp V7TO AloLfAOV a7T7]Xddll. CU? 8* 

dXrjdrj Xeyto, fidprvpas irape^opiai. 

82 Tovrco ro) rpoTTCpy d> avopes St/cacrrat, Kal cm 
QvXf} koll iv YleipcueL rrpos rovs ottXltcls Ste/cetro* 
oi)8eis" yap avro) SteXeyero d>s dvSpotfiovtp ovrc, rov 
re jXTf aTToOavelv " Avvros iyevero aura) airios. idv 
ovv rfj iirl <&vXr)v 6Sa> dnoXoy la xprjroLL, VTToXapL- 
fidveiv XPV €l "Avvros avrto iyevero airios pir) 
dirodavelv erolfxojv 6vra>v rifiajpeiaOai, Kal eppiipev 
avrov AiorLfjios rr)v acrm'So. Kal ovk eta \jierd rcuv 
TToXcrdjv] 2 avpL7TejjL7reLV 3 rrjv TTopLTnjv, [Kal el ris 
avrov ra£lapxos els rd^iv riva Karera^e].* 

83 M^re ovv ravra avrov aTrobex^crde, \lj\t idv 
Xeyrj ore 7roXAtp xP° va} vvrepov rificopovpieOa. ov 
yap olfiai ovhefxlav rcov roiovrojv dhiKTjpidrcov 
7TpodeofjiLav elvau, aAA' iyto piev ol/JLai, e'er* evdvs 
e'lre XP°' VC P ris ripiojpeirai, rovrov Beiv drroSeLK- 

84 vvvai djs ov rreTroliqKe irepl cbv iariv 7) air la. ovros 
roivvv rovro aTrofiaiverto, r) cos ovk dneKreivev 
iKelvovg 7) cos SiKalcos, KaKov ri iroiovvras rov 
hrjfxov rov ' ' AOrjvalcov . el 8e rrdXai heov rificopei- 
oBai varepov rj^els rip.copovpieda, rov %p6vov Kep- 
Baivei ov €.1,7] ov TrpoarJKOv avrco, ol Be dvBpes vtto 
rovrov ovBev rjrrov reOvrjKaaiv . 

1 'k tCjv itoXitu>i> del. Naber. 

- fxerd, twv tto\itu>i> del. Sauppe. 

3 < Fuhr: TrefXTreiy wss. 

4 Kal . . . Karira^e del. Halbertsma. 



" Now, you go to hell ! A murderer like you must 
not join in the procession to Athene." This was the 
way in which he was driven off by Aesimus ; and I 
will produce witnesses to the truth of my statement. 


These were the real relations, gentlemen, that he 
had with the heavy-armed troops, both at Phyle and 
in the Peiraeus. Nobody would speak to him, as a 
known murderer, and Anytus was the cause of his 
escape from death. If, therefore, he makes use of his 
journey to Phyle as a plea in his defence, you must 
retort with the question whether Anytus was the 
cause of his escape from death when they were ready 
to do justice upon him, and whether Aesimus flung 
away his shield and forbade him to join in the 

You must not accept that plea from him, nor this 
one either, if he should urge it, — that we are exacting 
the penalty a long time after the offence. For I do 
not think there is any statute of limitations ° for such 
crimes as his : my opinion rather is that, whether 
brought to his account immediately or after some time, 
this man must prove that he has not done the things 
that form the subject of the charge. Let him there- 
fore satisfy us, either that he did not cause the death 
of those men, or that he did so with justice because 
they were doing a mischief to the Athenian people. 
But if we are late in punishing where we ought to 
have punished long ago, he is a gainer by the time 
in which he lived illicitly, while those men have none 
the less suffered death by his act. 

° See note on VII. 17. 

M 325 


85 ^Akovoj 8' avrov /cat <tovtw> 1 hucrxvpi^fujdai, 
on "eV avTO<j)wpcp" rfj oL7Taycoyfj eiriyeypaTTTai, 
o Trdi'Tcov eycb oiuai evrjOeoTaTOV to? el fxev to 
en-' avrocf)copcp per] TTpoaeyeypaiTTO, k\>oyps <dv> % 

[138] tov rfj 0L7Taya)yfj' Slotl Se tovto TrpoayeypaTTTai, 
[evoxos cop] 3 paarajvrjv riva olerai avTtp efvat. 
tovto oe ouSci' d'AAo 4 eoiKev tj opioXoyelv arroKTelvai, 
fir) eV avTocfxjupa) Se, koll irepl tovtov Sucr- 
Xvpi%eodai, cboirep, el fxr) iir* avro<f>d)pcp fxev, 
OLTTeKTewe he, tovtov eVc/ca oeov avTov oco^eoOai. 

86 ookovol S' efioiye ol evoeKa ol TrapaSe^dfievoi tt]v 
a7raya)yr]v TavTTjv, <ovk> 6 oloyLtvoi 'Ayoparco 
avpLTrpaTTeiv koll TOTe Sucrxvpi^ofieva), 6 a</>dSoa 
6pda>s 7TOLrjcrai Atovvcnov ttjv aTraycoyrjv drtdyovT 1 
dvayKa^ovTes to ye 8 irpoGypdipaoOai en - ' clvto- 
<f)topa)' TJ 7tcos ovk dv elrf <os"> 10 TrptoTOV p,ev 
evavTiov TrevTaKoo-iuiv [ev tj} fiovXfj^, 11 elra rrdXiv 
evavTiov 'Adrjvaiajv dndvTajv [ev rco o^uoj] 11 
diroypdipas Tivds airoKTeiveie koX gl'ltios yevoiTo 

87 tov OavaTOv; ov yap St^ttov tovto jjlovov o'Ul to 12 
eV ax)TO(jxx>pcp } edv tls £vXa) r) ua^aioa iraTa^as 
KaTafidAr], enel eK ye tov gov Xoyov ovSelg <f>avrj- 
crerat drroKTeivas tovs dvopas ovs ov ajreypaipas' 
ovTe yap eiraTa^ev avTovs ovSels ovt* dneac^a^ev, 
dXX dvayKaoOevTes vtto ttjs arjs diroypacfirjs 
direOavov. ovk ovv <o> 13 curio? tov OavaTov, ovtos 
€77' avTO(f)a)pa) eoTi; tls ovv d'AAo? oItios tj av 

1 tovtq add. Kayser. 2 hv add. Herwcrden. 

3 Zvoxos &v del. Dobree. 
4 ovdev &\\o Sauppe : ovdeul AWco mss. 6 ovk add. Taylor. 

6 Kal Tore 5uo-x v P l ^°f x ^ l ' l i } Kocks: t6t€ ko.1 5u(rx v P l £dfJ.evot mss. 

7 dwdyovT Falk : dwdyeiv mss. 8 t6 ye Sluiter : t6t€ mss. 
9 7rujj ovk B.u eii] Sauppe : tiirov hv Tj mss. 



I am told that he also takes his stand on the plea 
that the words " in the act " appear in the warrant 
for arrest ; but this, I consider, is utter imbecility. 
So, without the addition of the words " in the act," 
he would be liable to the arrest ; but just because 
the words have been added, he thinks he can extricate 
himself ! This simply amounts, it would seem, to an 
admission that he has killed, but has not been taken 
in the act ; and to insist on that is to imply that, if 
he was not taken in the act, but did the killing, he 
ought therefore to escape. But, in my view, the 
Eleven who authorized this arrest, without a thought 
of supporting Agoratus's plea, — on which he was even 
then insisting, — were quite correct in compelling 
Dionysius, who carried out the summary arrest, to add 
the words " in the act " : surely that must be so, in 
dealing with a man who, first before five hundred, and 
then again before the whole body of the Athenians, 
made depositions whereby he took the lives of some 
of them, and thus was responsible for their death. 
For you cannot of course suppose that " in the act " 
only applies to a man felled with the stroke of a 
club or a dagger ; since, by your argument, nobody 
will be found to have actually killed the men against 
whom you deposed. For no one either struck them 
or assassinated them, but your deposition had the 
effect of compelling them to die. a Then is not 
the author of their death a person caught " in the 
act " ? Now, who can be that author but you, who 

a By a draught of hemlock. 

10 6s add. Gebauer. 

u ev rfj j3ov\fj et iv ry drj/xa) del. Kayser. 

12 ofei to Westermann : oUtou mss. 

13 6 add. Emperius. 



aTToypdipas ; cooTe 77x09 ovk irr* avrcxfycopa) av el 
6 diroKTeivas ; 

88 UvvOdvofiai S' avrov Kal Trept ra>v opKojv Kal 
7T€pl tojv ovvOrjKcov fieXXeiv Xeyeiv, a>? 7rapa tovs 
opKovs Kal rag avvdrjKas ay ojvit,eTai as ovvedepLeda 
7rpog tovs ev aaret ol iv [raj] 1 Ileioatet. a^eSo^ 
jiev ovv tovtois LGXvp^ofjievos ofioXoyeZ dvSpo- 
<j)6vos etvai' ipLTToSoju yovv r\ opKovs r) avvdrjKas 

T) XP° VOV V <TO> 2 €77' aVTO^OjpCp [rt] 3 770t€tTat, 

avrtp oe rco TrpdypiaTL*' ov rt 6 TTiurevei, KaXd>s 

89 dy ojv tela 6 'at. vplv oe, w avopes St/caarat, ov 
TrpocrfiKei irepl tovtojv a7roSe'xea#ar aAA' a>s* ovk 
aneypaiftev ovSe ol avopes reaVaat, Trepl tovtojv 
KeXevere avTov drroXoy elodai. erreiTa tovs opKovs 
/cat Tas GvvdiqKas ovhev r)yovp,ai Trpoor\Keiv rj/jLiv 


60 iv Ileipatet yeyevrjVTai. el puev ovv ovtos {lev iv 
aaret rjfieZs S' ev Iletoatet rjfiev, elxov <dV> 8 Tiva 
Xoyov avTW at ovvdrJKar vvv Se /cat ovtos iv 
Iletpatet r)v Kal iyd) Kal Alovvolos Kal ovtol 
airavTes ol tovtov TipLajpovfievot, coare ovk eloiv 
Tj[iiv ifjLiroSdjv <oi>8ev> 7 ' ovSeva yap opKov ol iv 
Iletpatet rots' ev ITctpatet 8 to/xoaav. 

91 E/c iravTOs Se Tporrov e/xotye So/cet ovx evos 6a- 
vaTov d^Los elvat,, ootls <j>r)ol fiev vtto tov Srjfiov 
<7Te7TOLr}o9aL>* tov Se $r)p,ov, ov avTos <f)i)oi 
iraTepa avTov etvat, </>atVerat /ca/cojaa?, Ka9vcf)els 10 

1 rw del. Baiter. 2 t6 add. Dobree. 

8 tl del. Reiske. 4 Trpdy/dari Reiske: -) mss. 

6 ov tl Reiske: ovre, ov mss. 6 &v add. Baiter. 

7 ov8& add. Reiske. 8 lUipaiei Palmer: Acrei mss. 

neTroiTJadai add. Reiske. 

10 Ka0v(p€ls Francken : Kai i<pels mss. 


made the depositions ? So clearly you, who killed 
them, have been caught in the act. 

I understand that he intends to refer to the oaths 
and agreements, and will tell us that his prosecution 
is a violation of the oaths and agreements that we 
of the Peiraeus contracted with the party of the town. 
Well, if he takes his stand on these, he practically 
admits that he is a murderer : at least, he makes 
an objection of oaths, or agreements, or lapse of 
time, or the words " in the act " ; but in itself 
the case affords him no confidence of success in his 
trial. Your duty, gentlemen of the jury, is to reject 
these arguments : you must bid him direct his defence 
to these questions — Did he make no depositions ? 
Are those men not dead ? Besides, I consider that 
the oaths and agreements in no way affect our posi- 
tion regarding this man. For the oaths have been 
taken between the parties of the town and of the 
Peiraeus. If, indeed, he was in the town while we 
were in the Peiraeus, the agreements would have 
been something for him to count upon ; but the 
truth is that he was in the Peiraeus, like me and 
Dionysius and all these persons who are for punishing 
the man, so that we are faced with no objection there. 
For there was no oath taken between the men of the 
Peiraeus and the men of the Peiraeus. 

In every view, I consider, he deserves more deaths 
than one ; for the same man who says that the 
people have made him one of them is found to have 
injured the people whom he himself calls his father, 
by treacherously sapping the resources that they had 

Providing an amnesty for all except the Thirty, the 
Eleven who executed their orders, and their ten commissioners 
in the Peiraeus. 



Kal TTpohovs ecf tov eKelvos p,ell,tov Kal lo^vporepos 
eylyvero. oar is ovv rov re yovto irarepa rov avrov 
ervnre Kal ovSev irapeZ)(e rtov emrrjheltov, rov re 
TroLrjTov rrarepa dtpelXero a rjv virdpypvra eKelvto 
dyadd, ttoj? ov Kal Sta rovro Kara. 1 rov rrjg 
KaKcocrecos vopuov a'cfto? eon Oavdrto L^rjputoOrjvaL; 

92 llpoai]K€i 8' vpuv, to dvopes oiKaarai, aVacrt 
ripLtopeZv vnep eKelvtov rtov avhptov opioltos tocnrep 
rjpiQjv evl eKaarto. diro6vr]<jKovT€S yap [vpuv] 2 
eneuKr^av Kal rjpuv Kal roZs cplXois 3 artaai rip,to- 
peZv vnep o<f)tov avrtov 'Ayoparov rovrovl tbs 
t\>ovea ovra, Kal KaKtos rroieZv Ka9' oaov av eptfipaxv* 
eKauros hvvqrai. el Toivvv n eKeivoi dyadov rrjv 
rroXiv 77 to rrXrjOos ro Vfierepov tj>avepol eloi 
TrerroiriKOTes , o Kal avrol vpieZs opioXoyeZre, dvdyKrj 
vp,as eon rrdvras eKeivois <f)iXovs Kal emrrfielovs 
elvai, toare ovhev p,aXXov rjpuv rj Kal vp.tov evl 

93 eKaarto ejreuKiqijjav. ovkovv ovre daiov ovre 
vopupiov vpuv eanv dveZvai 'Ayoparov rovrovi. 
vp,eZs roivvv, to dvopeg *A9r]vaZoi, vvvl hiq, errel 
ev rto rore xP ovc °, iv to eKeZvoi direOvrjOKov, ovx 
oloi re rjore eVap/cecrat Sia ra irpdypuara ra irepi- 
etTTTjKOTa, 6 vvvl, ev to SvvaaOe, npLtoprjaare rov 
eKelvtov tfiovea. evdvp.eZode h\ to dvopes 'AOrjvaloL, 
ontos pir] irdvrtov epyov axerXitorarov epydorjode. 

139] et> 7 a P diroi/j-q^Lelade *Ayopdrov rovrovi, ov [.lovov 
rovro hiaTrpdrreude, dXXa Kal eKelvtov rtov dv- 
Sptov, ovs opLoXoyelre vfilv evvovs elvai, rfj avrfj 

94 </"7</>oj ravrrj ddvarov Karaxjjrjcjjiteode' drroXvovres 
yap rov a'lnov ovra eKeivois rov Oavdrov ovSev 

1 Kara Emperius : /ecu Sia mss. 
* 6/w> del. Sauppe. 


for advancing their greatness and strength. There- 
fore, the man who struck his own natural father and 
denied him all necessaries of life, he who robbed 
his adoptive father of the means that he possessed 
is certainly, on this one score, as provided by the law 
of such maltreatment, deserving of the penalty of 

It is the duty of you all. gentlemen, as it is of each 
one of us, to avenge those men. For it was their 
dying injunction both to us and to all their friends, 
that we should avenge them on this man Agoratus 
as their murderer, and do him, in a word, all the 
injury of which each of us is capable. Now, if they 
have manifestly done some good service to the city 
or your democracy, as you yourselves acknowledge, 
it must follow that you all are friends and intimates 
of theirs, so that they enjoined this on each of you 
no less than on us. Hence it would be impious as 
well as illegal for you to absolve this man Agoratus. 
And now it is for you, men of Athens, to-day, — since 
at that moment when they were to die you were 
unable to come to their aid because of the em- 
barrassments of your situation, — to-day, when you 
are able, to punish their murderer. And take heed, 
men of Athens, lest you commit the most abomin- 
able act of all. For if you acquit this man Agoratus, 
your action does not stop there, but by that same 
vote you condemn to death those men whom you 
acknowledge as your supporters. By releasing the 
author of their death you simply decide that they 
§ 91 appears to be a rhetorical expansion by a later hand. 

3 <pi\ois Sauppe : dXXois mss. 

4 £/.i{3paxv Dobree : ftpaxv mss. 

5 ire/3teo-r?;\'6ra Markiand: irapecrTrjKoTa MSS. 


dAAo yiyvco(7K€T€ r) eKelvovg St/catcos" vtto rovrov 
redvrjKevat. /cat ovtcos av Setvorara rravroov 
rrddoiev, et ols krrioKr]7Trov e/cetvot c5? (f>iXoi$ oven 

TLfJLCDpeXv V7T€p aVTUJVy OVTOl OjJLOlfjTjcfiOL Kar €K€lvojv 

95 tojv dvSpcov roils rpiaKovra yevqaovrai. jU/^Sa/xcDs", 
a) dvSpes St/caarat, Trpos Oecbv 'OXvpnTLajv, \iryre 
Te X v 77 j u,7 ? Te j JL7 ]X av fi /^8e/xta Odvarov €Keiva>v rcov 
avhptov KaTaif)7)(f)LGr]a6€, ot ttoXXoi KayaOd u/xa? 
TTOirjGavTes old ravra vtto rcov rpiaKovra /cat 

Ayopdrov rovrovl drredavov. dvafivrjaOevres ovv 
drrdvrcov rcov Seivcov, /cat rcov koivcov rfj rroXei /cat 
rcov loicov, ocra e/cdoTa> iyevero €7T6lotj e'/cetvot ot 
avopes ireXevr^aav, riacop-qaare rov alriov rovrcov. 
dVoSeSet/CTai 8' u/xu' [dVavra] 1 /cat e/c Ttov i/o^tcr/itd- 
tcov /cat e'/c rdV anoypacjycov /cat e/c ra>v dAAajv 
d7rdvroj^ 'Aydparos" cov avrdis air 10? rov Oavdrov. 

96 "Ert Se /cat TrpocrrJKei vpuv ivavrla Tot? rpiaKovra 
ifjr](f)il ) €0'6ai,' cov (jl€v ToLvvv e'/ceiVot Odvarov /car- 
iyvcoaav, u/xets aTToi/jrjcfrlGao'Oe' cov 8* e'/cet^ot 
Odvarov ov Kariyvtoaav, vp,els Karai/jrjc^iaaaOe. 2 
ol rpiaKovra rolvvv rcov piev dvopcov tovtcdv, ot 
rjcrav v/xerepoi cf>iXoi, Odvarov Kareyvcooav, cov Set 
vpLas aVoi/r/^t^ecr^at* ' Ayopdrov Se aTTeiprjcfricravTO, 
8tdrt e'Sd/cet rrpoOvpicos rovrovs drroXAvvai' ov 

97 Trpoo~qK€i Karaiprjcfil^ecrOai. idv ovv ret ivavrla 
tols rpiaKovra iftrjcfri^rjCTOe, rrpcorov piev ov% 6/jlo- 
ipTj(j>oi <rols ixOpoTs> 3 ylyveoOt, eVetra rot? v[ie- 
repois avrcov cf>lXois reri\xcopr\Kores 'ioecrOe, eVetra 
Tot? rraoiv avOpcorrois S6£er€ St/cata /cat oota 



have been justly put to death by him. And thus the 
most awful of all fates would be theirs, if those whom 
they charged to avenge them as their friends should 
support with their votes the motion of the Thirty 
against those men. In the name of the Olympian 
gods, gentlemen of the jury, let neither art nor craft 
induce you to condemn those men to death who 
precisely for their many good services to you were 
put to death by the Thirty and by Agoratus here. 
Remember all the horrors, both those that smote the 
State as a whole and those that each of us felt in 
private, when those men lost their lives, and punish 
the author of them all. It has been made plain to 
you, alike from the decrees, the depositions and all 
the rest, that Agoratus is the author of their death. 
Furthermore, it behoves you to vote in opposition 
to the Thirty : you must therefore acquit the men 
whom they condemned to death ; and you must 
convict those whom they did not so condemn. Now, 
the Thirty condemned to death these men, who were 
your friends, and these you ought to acquit. Agoratus 
they acquitted, because he was found zealous for 
their destruction : him you ought to convict. If, 
therefore, you vote in opposition to the Thirty, first 
of all, you are not supporting your enemies with your 
votes ; next, you will have avenged your own friends ; 
and last, you will be held by all the world to have 
given a just and a pious vote. 

1 diravra del. Taylor. 

1 K<XTa-<pri<picracrde Fuhr : KaraytPuxTKeTe M33, 

* Toh ix^pols add. Francken. 

M 2 S33 


(i.) For Deserting the Ranks 
(ii.) For Refusal of Military Service 


Alcibiades the Younger, who is prosecuted in these 
two speeches, was probably born in 416 B.C., a year 
before his father's disgrace and banishment from 
Athens. At the time of this trial (395 b.c), which 
followed immediately on the successful — though 
bloodless — expedition from Athens to assist the 
Thebans against the Spartans at Haliartus in Boeotia, 
the accused was about twenty-one years old. It is 
not necessary, or even possible, to believe all that 
the prosecution has to tell of the young man's 
villainies : he could have been no more than eleven 
years old when he went to Thrace, as alleged, 
to betray his father (405 B.C.). Nevertheless we 
can be fairly confident that the general picture 
of his character here presented is correct ; for 
it may be presumed to agree on the whole with 
facts that were within the knowledge of the court. 
Even Isocrates (XVI. On the Chariot-team), in 
defending him against another charge, can find 
nothing to say in favour of his personal qualities. 


The son appears to have been even more vicious 
than the father, and to have lacked any redeeming 
spark of genius, or any charm that could rouse more 
than ordinary carnal desire (cf. XIV. § 26). He also 
lacked money ; but in spite of all, the glamour of his 
father's name seems to have gained him the support 
of some influential people, among whom were the 
generals who are mentioned as coming forward in 
his defence. 

Athenian law provided for the punishment of 
three sorts of military crime, — refusal of service, 
desertion from the ranks, and cowardice. The first 
two of these are frequently mentioned in antiquity. 
" Cowardice " was probably another name for the 
statutory crime of " throwing away one's shield " 
(cf. X. Against Theomnestus) : sometimes no clear dis- 
tinction was drawn between " refusal of service " 
and " desertion " ; thus the two speeches now before 
us, although obviously composed for the same trial, 
have been handed down with the different headings 
of" desertion " and " refusal of service." Alcibiades 
might have been arraigned for another legal offence, 
— the fraud of serving in the cavalry without having 
passed the requisite scrutiny of character, means 
and training. This offence, of course, carried with it 
the stigma of cowardice, as service was pleasanter 
and safer in the cavalry than in the infantry : but 
the prosecution prefers to bring the more serious 
charges of " desertion " and " refusal of service," 
and relies largely on raking up the disgraceful record 
of the detested father's career. 

The son is accused before a court-martial of soldiers 
presided over by generals. The penalty involved is 
the loss of civic rights and also, if the text of § 9 is 



sound, the confiscation of property. The two 
speeches are supplementary to the first and main 
accusation by an unknown person named Arche- 
stratides, whose speech has not been preserved. 

No. XIV. begins with a statement of the speaker's 
personal hatred of the accused, inherited from his own 
father (1-3). He then discusses the laws on refusal 
of service, desertion and cowardice, and shows how 
Alcibiades is guilty of each form of offence, and that 
his service in the cavalry was itself irregular (4-10). 
His punishment is necessary in the interests of dis- 
cipline and the prestige of the State : the court must 
remember their own high standard of duty (11-15). 
Neither the defendant's youth nor his parentage 
should command any sympathy. The pleas of his 
relatives — who failed to keep him in the right path — 
and of high officials — who should rather support 
the cause of order — should all be disregarded (16-22). 
The despicable life and character of the accused 
are enough to condemn him (23-29). His father's 
infamous career, which caused the ruin of Athens, 
should also be remembered (30-40). The family as 
a whole is utterly detestable, and this young man is 
the most worthless and contemptible of his breed. 
Much more might have been told against him : the 
court must stand by the oaths that they have taken 
and do their duty (41-4-7). 

No. XV. appeals first to the generals who are 
supporting the accused, and protests against their 
preposterous action. It is unlikely that they could 
have enrolled Alcibiades in the cavalry as they 
assert that they did ; if they did so, it was grossly 
irregular (1-8). Although the law is severe, it must 
be enforced as strictly as any order of battle (9-12). 



There can be little doubt that both of these speeches 
were composed by Lysias. It has been suggested" 
that a certain elegance of style in XIV. (especially 
in §§ 12 and IS) may be due to a desire to emulate 
a skilled speech -writer — perhaps Isocrates — who 
composed the defence of Alcibiades. 

a Gernet et Bizos, i. p. 223. 



* 'H yo VJ.UXL ueV, c5 dvopes St/caoTat, ovSeixiav vfias 
TTodelv oiKovaaL Trpo^aoiv rrapa rayv (3ovXopLeva)V 
'AA/a/3tdSou Kar-qyopelv roiovrov yap ttoXlttjv 
iavTov i£ apxys 7rapecrx €V > doore /cat el \xr\ tls 
t'Sta doLKovfievos vtt* avrov rvyxdvec, ovoev rjrrov 
7TpoG-qK€i Ik tu)V dXXcov €7Tirr]hev}xdrojv €\0p6v 

2 avrov r)yelo6ai. ov ydp ut/cpd rd dpLaprrj ptara 
ovoe ovyyv(jL>\L7)s d£ta, oi)S' eXTrlSa rrapexovra ^s 
eorai rod Xoirrov fieXrlatv, dAA' ovroj nenpaypLeva 
Kal els rooovrov /ca/ctas 1 d<f)iypLeva, coot' err* eviois 1 
wv ovros (/>tAortuetTat </cat> 2 rovs exOpovs at- 
Gxvveadai. eycb jxIvtoi, d> dvSpes oi/cacrTat, /cat 
rrporepov rrpos rovs rrarepas r)p2v oia(f>opas vtt- 
apxovov^, Kal irdXai rovrov rrovqpdv* -qyovpuevos, 
Kal vvv v-n avrov rreTTovddjs /ca/cco?, Treipdcrofxai 
virep* irdvrwv rtov ireir pay \xivcov pied" vpitov avrov 

3 ripLOjprjcraoOaL. irepl puev ovv rtov dXXojv 'Ap^e- 
orparihrjs t/cavoj? Karrjyoprjoe' Kal yap rovs 
vofiovs eirehet^e Kal pcdprvpas rravrajv rrapeaxero' 
dcra §' ovros Trapo.XeXonrev , eyco /ca0' eKaorov 
vjjl&s StSdfco. [dvdyvojdi he fiou rov vo/jlov. 

1 iir' iviot.% Reiske: (ttlucklols mss. 
2 Kal add. Jacobs. 



I do not believe, gentlemen of the jury, that you 
desire to hear any excuse for the action of those who 
have resolved to accuse Alcibiades : for from the out- 
set he has shown himself so unworthy of the citizen- 
ship that it is the duty of anyone, even in the absence 
of a personal wrong suffered at his hands, to regard 
him none the less as an enemy because of the general 
tenor of his life. His offences are not slight or en- 
titled to indulgence, nor do they offer a hope of his 
reform in the future : they have been committed in 
such a manner, and have carried villainy to such 
lengths, that even his enemies feel ashamed for some 
of the things on which he prides himself. Yet I, 
gentlemen, since our fathers were previously at feud, 
and since my long-standing sense of his rascally 
character has now been increased by maltreatment 
at his hands, will try with your aid to make him pay 
the penalty for all that he has done. The main 
indictment has been sufficiently delivered by Arche- 
stratides ; for he has exhibited the laws and produced 
witnesses to everything. But on certain points that 
he has omitted I will give you particular information. 

8 Trourjpbv Reiske : TrSrepov, £x6p° v MSS « 
4 virep Frohberger: irepl mss. 



4 EtVo? roivvv ecrrtv, t5 avhpes oiKaarai, e£ o5 
rrjv elprjvrjv eiroi-qodpeda, -npojrov rrepl rovrcov 
vvvl SiKa^ovras prj povov hiKaoras aAAa Kal 
vopoBeras avrovs yeveoOai, ev elSoras on, ottojs 
dv vpels vvvl irepl avrdjv yvdJre, ovrco Kal rov 
dXXov xpovov r) ttoXls avrols xpr)<jera.i. So/cet 8e 
UOt Kal TToXtrOV XpTjCTTOV Kal hiKaorov SiKatov 
epyov elvai ravrr\ rovs vopovs hiaXapfidveiv, 07777 

_ eis rov Xoiitov xpovov peXXei ovvoioeiv rfj TroXet. 
[1401 TO 'V t ^ <Tt y&P tivcs Xeyetv ojs ovSels evoxds com 
XiTTora^iov ovhe heiXias' pdx^v ydp ovoepiav 
yeyovevai, rov Se vopov KeXeveiv, edv rig Xlttt) ttjv 
rd^iv els tovttlgoj SetAtas" eveKa, paxopevojv rcov 
dXXajv, irepl rovrov rovs arpariojras SiKa^etv. 6 
Se vopos ov irepl tovtojv KeXevei piovov, aAAa /cat 
O7TO0TOL av pur] irapcboiv iv rfj rre^f} orparia, 
avdyvcxjdi /xot rov vopuov. 


6 *Akov€T€, a) dvopes oiKaorai, art irepl au</>o- 
repojv Ketrai, Kal oool dv pax^S ovoiqs els rov- 
irloco dvaxajprjcrajGi, Kal oool av iv rfj ire if) 
orparia [xrj irapcboi. OKeipaoOe Se rives elolv ovs 
Set irapelvai. ovx olrives dv r-qv rjXiKtav ravrriv 
e^cocrtv; ovx °^ ? ®- v °^ crrparrjyol KaraXe^cocnv ; 

7 rjyovpai S', c5 dvopes oiKaorat, oXcp rep vopco 
piovov avrov rcov iroXirtov evoxov elvac dorparelas 
p,ev yap OLKatajs av avrov dXcovac, on KaraXeyels 
OTrXirTjs 2 ovk e£rjX9e 3 p,ed* vpcov, < Xiirora£ lov Se', 

1 avd-yvwOi . . . i>6/xos del. Bake. 
* ottXLttjs Stephanus : 6 waTrjp cod. Pal. 


Now it is reasonable, gentlemen of the jury, that 
men who are now trying such a case for the first time 
since we settled the peace a should act not merely as 
jurors, but in fact as law-makers. For you know well 
that your decision upon these cases will determine 
the attitude of the city towards them for all time. 
And it is the duty, in my opinion, alike of a loyal 
citizen and of a just juror to put such constructions 
on the laws as are likely to be of benefit to the city 
in the future. For some are bold enough to assert 
that nobody can be chargeable with desertion or 
cowardice, since no battle has taken place ; that the 
law merely provides for a court-martial on anyone 
who, from cowardice, has deserted the ranks and 
retreated while the rest were fighting. But the pro- 
visions of the law apply not only to such a case, but 
also to that of anyone who fails to appear in the 
infantry lines. Please read the law. 


You hear, gentlemen, how it covers both alike, — 
those who retreat to the rear during battle, and 
those who do not appear in the infantry lines. And 
consider who they are that are bound to appear. 
Are they not all persons who have reached the proper 
age ? Are they not those whom the generals have 
enrolled ? I believe, gentlemen, that he is the one 
citizen who is liable to the full scope of the law : for 
he would with justice be convicted of refusing duty, 
because after being enrolled as a foot-soldier he did 
not march out with you ; of desertion, because he 

a i.e., the peace of 404 B.C., which ended the Peloponnesian 

8 i^ijXde Reiske: iTre^rj\6e mss. 



on iv Tto> x arparo-neha) fiovos ov 77apecr^e /xeTa 
rcbv dXXojv iavrov ra£at, SetAt'a? oe, on Selv avrov 2 
tiera rcbv orrXircbv 3 klv$vv€V€lv IrnreveLv etAero. 

8 kclltoi (jyacrlv avrov ravriqv rrjv drroXoyiav 7Toujcr€- 
oOcUy cos CTTeihrjTfep iTmevzv, ovSev 1781/cei rr]V 7t6Xlv. 
iycb 8' rjyovjxai Sta rovQ* u/xa? St/cata/? dv avrcb 
6pyit,€o9ai, on rod vofiov KeXevovros, idv ns 
dSoKifxacrros Irnrevr], dnpiov elvai, eroXpnqoev 
dSo/ct/zaCTTOS" LTTireveiv. /cat jjlol dvdyvcodi rov 



9 Ovros roivvv els tout' rjXOe irov-qpias, /cat ovtojs 
Vfiojv KaT€(f>p6rrjcr€ /cat rovs iroXepiiovs eSecoe koX 

L7T7T€V€LV llT£dv\Ll](J€ /Cat rCOV VOfJLOJV OVK icppOVTlOCV, 

wore ovhev avrcb rovrcov rcbv klvSvvcov ipiiX-qoev, 
dXX ijSovXrjOr] /cat drtfios etvat /cat rd ^prj^Ltar' 
avrov SrjpLevOrjvai /cat rrdoais rat? /cetueVat? ^tj/jliolls 
evoxos yeveodac fxdXXov rj uera rcbv rroXtrcbv etmt 
10 /cat ottXIttjs yeveodai. /cat ercpot fiev ov$€7rd)TroT€ 
orrXirevoavres , l7T7T€vovt€s 8e 4 rov aAAoy xpdvov /cat 
7roAAa /ca/cd rov? TToXefiiovs TTeironjKores, ovk 
iroXfxrjoav irrl tovs Irnrovs dvafirjvai, SeStoVes" Vfias 
/cat rov vofjiov ovrco yap rjoav TrapeoKevacrpLevoc, 
ovx d)S diroXovpLevrjs rrjs 7r6Xea)s, aAA' cos ocoBr\oo- 
fjLevqs /cat fxeydXrjs eao/xeV^s Kal Ttaa/pr^cro/xeVr]? 
rovs doiKovvras' 'AA/a/^tdS)]? 8' eroXpaqoev dva- 

1 XtiroTa^iov . . . iv tu add. Dobree. 

2 5etV o.vtov Schott : del eKaaroi- MSS. 

3 6tt\ltu)1' Stephanus : tto\itu>i> iuss. 

4 i7T7rei''OJ'7es 5* Emperius: 'imrov 6i>tcs oe, ^(piirirof. 5k 6vre\ 



alone of the whole force did not present himself for 
the formation of the ranks ; and of cowardice, be- 
cause, when it was his duty to share the danger with 
the infantry, he chose to serve in the cavalry. They 
say, indeed, that he will resort to the defence that, 
since he was in the cavalry, he was doing no wrong to 
the State. But in my opinion you would find just 
cause for indignation against him in the fact that, 
although the law provides that anyone who serves in 
the cavalry without having passed his scrutiny a shall 
be disfranchised, he had the audacity to serve in the 
cavalry without having passed his scrutiny. Now, 
please, read the law. 


This man, then, carried roguery to such a length, 
and was so contemptuous of you and so timorous of 
the enemy, so desirous of serving in the cavalry and 
so heedless of our laws, that he recked nought of the 
risks involved, and preferred the prospect of being 
disfranchised, having his property confiscated and 
being liable to all the statutory penalties, to that of 
taking his place with the citizens and serving as an 
infantryman. There were others who had never 
before served in the infantry, but had always been 
cavalrymen and had inflicted many losses on the 
enemy : yet they did not venture to mount their 
horses, from fear of you and of the law. For they 
had shaped their plans on the prospect, not of the 
city's destruction, but of its deliverance, its ascend- 
ancy and its retaliation upon wrongdoers. But 
Alcibiades was rash enough to mount, though he 

a Held by the Council in order to maintain a high class of 
manhood in the cavalry. 



firjvai, ovre evvovs cov tco nX-qdeL ovre rrporepov 
LTrnevcras ovre vvv eVtord/xcj-'os' ovre vcf? v/jlcov 
SoKLfjLaaOeLs, cos ovk i^ecropLevov rfj ttoXzl olkijv 

11 rrapa tcov doLKovi'Tcov XapLpdveLV. iv9vfJLr)6f}vai Se 
Xprj on, el i^iarai o ti dv tls ^ouA^rat 7tol€lv, 
ovBev ocpeXos vo/jlovs Kelodai r) vj^ias avXXiyeaOaL 
7} arparrjyovs aipeladat,. Oavfid^to Se, to dvSpes 
St/cacrrat, et Tts* d^tot, idv jxiv tls itpoolovtcov tcov 
iroAepLLtov rfjs Trpcorrjs rd^etos rerayjjievos tt)s Seu- 
repas yevrjrai, tovtov pbev SetAtav KaTaifj-qcpLC^eaOaL, 
idv Se tis" eV rot? ottXltcxls rerayfievos iv rots' 

12 LTnrevoiv dvacf>avfj, tovtco o~vyyvco\it]v ^X €LV ' KaL 
[lev S17, co dvSpes St/caorai, rjyovpLaL St/cd£etv vfids 
ov jjlovov tcov i^afiapravovTCDV eVe/ca, dAA' Iva /cat 
tovs dXXovs tcov aKocrpLovvTCOv Gaxfipovecrrdpovs ttol- 
fjre. idv fiev Toivvv tovs dyvcoTas KoXd^-qre, ouSets* 
eoTat tcov dXXatv fieXTLcov ovBels yap eiorerat rd 
vcfS Vficov Karai/jr^cfyLaOevTa' idv Se tovs iiri<f>av€- 
OTaTovs tcov i^afiapTOLVOVTCOv TipuoprjaOe, 7rdvT€s 
nevoovTOLL, wgte tovtco 77aoaSety/xaTt ^odj/xevot 

13 fieXTLovs ecrovTdi ol 77oAtrat. idv toivvv tovtov 
KCiTaiJj'qtpLcrrjo'Oe , ov jjlovov ol iv Tjj 77oAet etcrovrat, 
dXXd /cat ol avpLfiaxoL alaOijaovTaL /cat ol TroXipnoL 
TrevGOVTai, koI rjyqoovTai ttoXv TrXeiovos d^lav 
elvai tt)v ttoXlv, idv opcooLV em rots' TOtouTots 1 tcov 
d/xapr^uarojv /xdAto^' vjjllxs opyt^opiivovs /cat 
pLTjSejjLias avyyvwfjLrjs tovs d/coo/xowras* iv tco 

14 TToXifJLtp TVyxdl'OVTOLS. iv9vjJL€LG0€ 8', CO dvSpes 

eTvyXavov, ol Se eVSeets* ovTes tcov iiriT'qhelcov, /cat 

fjhitOS dv ol fJL€V iv TOLLS TToXeGL KaTafL€LVaVT€S 

iOepcnrevovTO, ol Se ot/caS' dTreA^oVres* tcov oli<€lcov 


is no supporter of the people, nor had seen service 
in the cavalry before, nor is qualified for it now, nor 
had passed your scrutiny : he presumed that the 
city would be without the power to do justice upon 
wrongdoers. You must reflect that, if men are to 
be permitted to do whatever they please, it is useless 
to have your code of laws, your Assemblies, or your 
election of generals. And I wonder, gentlemen, at 
anyone considering it right, when a man has retired, 
at the approach of the enemy, from his post in the 
first rank to a place in the second, to convict him of 
cowardice, and then, if a man has appeared in the 
cavalry when his post was in the infantry, to grant 
him a pardon ! And besides, gentlemen, I conceive 
that your judgement is given, not merely with a view 
to the offenders, but also for the reformation of all 
other insubordinate persons. Now, if you punish 
men who are unknown, not one among the rest will 
be improved ; for nobody will know the sentences 
that you have passed : but if you inflict the penalty 
on the most conspicuous offenders, everyone will be 
apprised, and so the citizens, with this example be- 
fore them, will be improved. Again, if you condemn 
this man, not only will the people of our city know, 
but our allies also will take notice and our enemies 
will be informed ; and they will hold our city in 
much higher regard if they see that you are especi- 
ally indignant at this kind of offence, and that those 
who are insubordinate in war obtain no pardon. And 
reflect, gentlemen, that some of the soldiers were 
sick, while others lacked the necessaries of life, and 
that the former would have been glad to remain for 
treatment in their cities, and the latter to retire 
home and attend to their own affairs ; others would 



[141] erre^ieXovro, ol he ifnXol 1 eurparevovro, ol 8* ev rots 

15 Irnrevoiv ei<ivhvvevov dXX* ojjlcos ovk eroXfiare 

arroXirrelv rds rd^eis ovhe rdpeara vplv avroig 

alpeZodai dXXd rroXv li&XXov e^ofielude rovs 7-779 

TfoXeO)? I'OjJLOVS T) TOV 7700? TOVS TToXe/JLiOV? KivhwOV . 
d)V XP^j p>€fM'r)lJL€VOVS VpL&S Wl'l T7JV lpfj(f)Ol> <f)€p€lV, Kdl 
7TO.GL (j)OLV€pdl> TTOieZv OTl 'AOlJl'CLltOV ol fJLT) fiovX6~ 

fievoL rots' TToXe/JLLOLS i±6.)(eodai ixf>' v/jlcov /ca/coj? 


1G 'Hyovpbat, he, a> dvhpes hiKaorai, rrepl jxev rod 
vopLOV Kal avrov rod rrpdypLaros oi>x e£eiv avrovg 6 
ri Xe^ovoiv dvafiaivovres S' vfidg e^ainqaovrai Kai 
dvrifioXiqoovGiv , ovk d^iovvres rod 'AA/<i/2id5ou 
veos TOO~avTY]V heiXiav Karayvayvai, ojs eKeZvov 
7toXAo)V dyadcov dAA' ovxi ttoXXcov kolkcov alriov 
yeyevq\ievov ov el nqXiKovrov ovra drreKreivare , 
ore rrptorov els vfias eXdfiere e^a[iaprdvovra, ovk 

17 ay eyevovro ovpL<f>opal rooavrai rfj rroXei. hewdv 
he pLOL hoKei, d) avhpes hiKaorai, elvcLi, el avrov 
\xev €K€lvov ddvoLTov Kareyvoare , rod he vov dhi- 
kovvtos hi exeZvov drroxpiq^LeloOe, os avros jj,ev 
ovk eroX/jia [led* v/ioov pidxeodai, 6 he irar-qp avrov 
fierd tQ>v TToXepLtojv rj£iov orpareveaOai. Kal ore 
piev rraZs d)v 2 ovrra) hrjXos rjv orroZos ns earai, 
hid rd rod narpos dpLaprij/xara dXiyov rot? evheKa 
rrapehod-q' erreih-q he rrpos roZs eKeivcp ireirpay- 
fxevoig errioraode Kal r-qv rovrov Trovqpiav, hid rov 

18 irarepa eXeeZv avrov d^iojoere ; ovk ovv heivov, to 
avhpes hiKaorral, rovrovs puev ovrojs evrvx^Zs eivai 
c5<7t', eneihdv e^ap.aprdvovres X~q<f)6djai, hid to 

1 \f/i\ol Contius : tf>l\ot ms3. 
1 wv Markland: '/;-, y'/t- \at mss. 



have liked to serve as light-armed troops, or else to 
take their risk with the cavalry. But still, you did 
not venture to desert your ranks or choose what was 
most agreeable to yourselves, but were far more 
afraid of the city's laws than of the danger of meeting 
the foe. All this you should remember when you 
give your vote to-day, and so make evident to all that 
any Athenians who do not wish to do battle with 
the enemy will suffer sorely at your hands. 

I believe, gentlemen, that on the point of law and 
on the actual fact they will have nothing to say ; but 
they will stand up here to beg him off and plead with 
you, claiming that you ought not to convict of such 
utter cowardice the son of Alcibiades, since that 
person has been the source of so many benefits, — 
instead of so much harm ! Nay, if you had put that 
man to death at this man's age, the first time that 
you caught him offending against you, the city would 
have escaped her great disasters. And I feel it will be 
extraordinary, gentlemen, if, after condemning that 
person himself to death, you acquit on his account the 
son with guilt upon him,- — this son who had not the 
courage himself to fight in your ranks, and whose father 
thought fit to march in those of the enemy. When 
this person, as a child, had not yet shown what kind 
of man he would be, he came near being handed 
over to the Eleven on account of his father's offences ; 
and now that you are acquainted with the roguery 
which this man has added to his father's exploits, 
will you think proper to pity him on his father's ac- 
count ? Is it not monstrous, gentlemen, that these 
people should be so fortunate, when taken in trans- 
gression, as to come off safe on account of their birth, 

The officers appointed to execute condemned criminals. 



avrtov yevos GcoL^eoBai, i)fxds he, el ehvcTTVX'qcraixev 
hid tovs ovtojs draKrovvrag, fxrjheva av hvvaoOai 
Trapd tcov TToXefiLOJv e^aLTijaaadaL fxrjhe hid rag tcov 

19 TTpoyovcov aperds; Kairot ttoXXoI /cat fieydXat Kal 
VTrep diravTcov tcov '^LXXtjvcov yeyovaai, Kal ovhev 
ofxoiai toIs vtto tovtcov Trepl tt)v ttoXlv TreTrpay- 
fxevois, a> dvhpes St/caaTat. el 8' eKetvoi hoKovcrt 
fieXrlovs elvac aco^ovres tovs cf>iXovs, hrjXov on 
Kal vfxeXg dfxelvovs So£ere etvau Tip,copov\ievoi tovs 

20 exOpovs. a^tco 8', w dvhpes St/caarat, edv \xev rives 
tcov uvyyevcov avrov e^aiTcovTai, dpyi^eadai on 
tovtov [lev ovk eTrexelp-qaav herjOrjvai (r) herjdevTes 
ovk ehvvavTo evpeoOou) Troielv rd vtto ttjs rroXecos 
TrpooTaTTOfieva, vpL&s be nelOeiv Treipcovrai cos ov 

21 XP?) Trapd tcov ahtKovvTCOV Slktjv Xapb^dveiv edv he 
nves tcov dpxdvTCOV fiorjOcocnv avTco errihei^iv piev 
ttjs eavTcov hvvdpiecos Troiov\ievoi, cfiiXoTLfjLovpievoL 
he on Kal tovs cf>avepcos rjjjLapTrjKOTas crco^eiv 
hvvavTai, vpids [he] 1 XPV vTroXajifidveiv rrpcoTOv 
[lev on, el iravres 'AA/ct/JtaS^ o/xotot eyevovTO, 
ovhev av ehet tcov OTpaTrjycov 2 (ovhe yap <av> 3 
elxov otov r)yovvro), eTreiO* on ttoXv [a&XXov avTovs 
TTpoo~rp<ei tcov Xittovtcov ttjv Ta^LV KarrryyopeZv rj 
VTrep tcov tolovtcov aTToXoyelaOai. tls yap eaTiv 
IXttIs tovs dXXovs e9eXi]oeiv Troielv ret vtto tcov 

22 o-TpaTrjytdv TTpooTaTTOjxeva, otov avTol ovtol tovs 
aKoopLovvTas crco^eiv TreipcovTai; eyco tolvvv d£icd, 
edv jiev aTTohei^coGiv ol Xeyovres Kal atrou/xevot 
VTrep 'AA/ct/^taSou cos eorparevoaro ev tois ottXl- 
rats' rj cos IrTTreve 4, hehoKLfiaafievos, a7TOi/rri</)£craodcu' 

1 5e del. Cobet. 
2 tujv (TTpaTTjyCoy Reiske : rod CTpar-qydv MSS. 


while we, if we had met with misfortune as a result 
of their insubordination, would be unable to retrieve 
a single man from the enemy even on the plea of 
your ancestors' high achievements ? And yet these 
have been numerous, important and advantageous 
to all the Greeks, and utterly unlike the conduct of 
these men towards the city, gentlemen of the jury. 
If they are more valued for trying to save their 
friends, clearly you on your part will be more hon- 
oured for seeking to punish your enemies. 

And I expect you, gentlemen, if some of his relatives 
attempt to beg him off, to be indignant that they 
were not at pains to entreat him — or, having entreated, 
were unable to prevail on him — to do what the city 
enjoined, but are endeavouring to persuade you 
that you should not punish wrongdoers. If, again, 
some of the magistrates come to his support, so as to 
make a display of their own power, and to enjoy the 
glory of being able to save even obvious offenders, 
you ought to observe, in the first place, that if every- 
one had shown the same character as Alcibiades there 
would have been no need of our generals, — for they 
would have had nobody to lead, — and secondly, that 
it is much more their duty to accuse deserters from the 
ranks than to speak in defence of such creatures. For 
what hope can we have that the others will comply 
with the orders issued by the generals, when these 
lend their authority to the attempt to save the 
insubordinate ? Now, my claim is this : if those who 
speak as intercessors for Alcibiades can prove that 
he has been on service in the infantry, or was a 
cavalryman duly approved on scrutiny, he should be 

3 &v add. Baiter. 
4 tvweve Markland : iirireveiv mss. 



cay Se fxrjSev exovTes hiitaiov KeXevtooiv auTois 
XO-pi^eoB ai, 1 pbe/JLvrjadai xprj otl SiSacr/coucriy vfias 
irrLopKelv Kal toZs vojjlols /at) necdta-Oat, Kal otl Xiav 
TrpoBvp.oJS rols oolkovol fiorjOow'Tes ttoXXovs Ttbv 
avTtbv epywv eTrLdvpLelv TroL-qaovGL. 

23 ©ai>/.ta£to Se /xaAicrra, go dvSpes oiKaaral, €t TlS 
v/jitbv tov ^AXKL^idSrjv d^icoaei Sta [lev tovs fior)- 
Oovvras oa)t,eaOai y Sid Se rr\v avrov Ttovr\plav parj 
drroXeadaL. rjs d^Lov vfias aKovcraL, lv* eTTLGTrjode 


ravra ueV TjpLapTT] kotos, tol S' d'AAa ttoXltov 
XprjGTod yeyevt]\xevov eV yap Ttbv dXXojv Ttbv 
tovtco Trenpaypiivtov Si/cento? dv olvtov OdvaTOV 

24 KaTculjr)(f)it > oiO'0€ . TTpoarjKei S' irepl glvtwv 
142] eiSeVar eVeiS^ yap Kal tcov diroXoyovfievajv 

airohex^^Be XeyovTOJV Tas GtfreTepas avTtbv dpeTas 
Kal ras" Ttbv TTpoyovojv evepyeoias, €lk6s vptas Kal 
Ttbv KaTiqyopojv aKpoaaOai, idv aTrofiaivojcrL tovs 
(pevyovTas 7roAAa els vfias rjpiapTrjKOTas Kal tovs 
Trpoyovovs avTtbv iroXXtbv KaKtbv aiTLovs yeyevrj- 
2o pjvovs. ovtos yap Trals p*ev tov nap* 'Ap^eS^/xto 
to) yXdfAOjvi, <tw> 2 ovk dXlya Ttbv vp,€Tepu)v 
V(f)r)pr)pLeva), TroXXtbv dpojvTtov eiTLvev* vtto Ttb 
avTtb IfjLaTLto* KaTaK€Lp,evos , cVco/xa^c <oe> b fied* 
rjfiepav, avisos eTaipav extov, pup.ovpi€VOS tovs 
iavTov -npoyovovs, Kal rjyovfievos ovk dv Svva- 
o6ai irpeopv-epos tov Xap,npds yeveodaL, el fir) 

1 ai'Toh x a pl$ €ff O aL Dobree : clutoi dpylfcadcu MS9. 

2 ry add. Reiske. 

8 Zttlvci' Reiske: Zti /xh y wktos t£ mss. 

* avr<f IfiaTiit) Taylor: avrofiart, ai'T<2 olKrjfxari MSS. 

• Be add. Reiske. 



acquitted ; but if, for want of any justification, they 
demand a favour for themselves, you should remember 
that they are teaching you to break your oath and 
disobey the laws, and that their excessive zeal in the 
support of wrongdoers will make many people aspire 
to the same conduct. 

What surprises me most of all, gentlemen, is that 
any of you can think it right that Alcibiades should 
be saved on account of his supporters, instead of 
perishing on account of his villainy. And of that you 
ought to be told, so that you may understand how 
unreasonable it would be for you to acquit him on 
the ground that, though guilty of these offences, in 
all else he had shown himself a loyal citizen. For 
the rest of his actions would justify you in condemning 
him to death. It is your duty to be informed of them ; 
for you allow those speaking in defence to discourse 
on their own merits and on the services rendered 
by their ancestors, and therefore it is fair that you 
should listen also to accusers when they expose the 
many crimes that the defendants have committed 
against you, and the many evils that their ancestors 
have brought about. When this man was a child, he 
was seen by a number of people at the house of 
Archedemus the Blear-eyed,° who had embezzled not 
a little of your property, drinking the while he lay 
at length under the same cloak ; he carried on his 
revels till daylight, keeping a mistress when he was 
under age, and imitating his ancestors, in the belief 
that he would not achieve distinction in his later 
years unless he could show himself an utter rascal 

a A popular leader, who pressed for the prosecution of 
the commanders after Arginusae, 406 b.c. ; cf. Aristophanes, 
Frogs, 417. 



26 VeOS <X)V TTOVrjpOTOLTOS Sofei etvai. [lereTTep^^T] 8' 

V7TO 'AXKLptdSov, iTreiSrj <f>avepvos e^rjp,dprave. 

K0LIT01 TTOZOV TWO, XPV O-VrOV Vcf)' VfXtOV VOpLl^eodai 

etvai, dans /cd/cetVco roiavr einriqoevcxjv ScefiepX-qro 
os rovs aXXovs ravr eSt'Saovce; pierd Qeorifiov 
8e emfiovXevvas rep rrarpl "Opvovs npovSajKev. 
6 8e irapaXafioov rd ^coptov rrporepov piev vfipi^ev 
avrov cbpalov ovra y reXevrcov Se Srjcras dpyvpiov 

27 6LUe7TpOLTT€TO. 6 §6 TTaTT]p aVTOV OVTOJS €jU,t(T£t 

G^oSpa, war* ouS' <dv> x drrodavovros ecfraaKe 
rd Sard KopbiGaodai. reXevriquavros 8' eKeivov 
epacrrrjs yevopuevos 'A/r^e/^tdS^s" avrov eXvaaro. 
ov 770AA0) Se xpovvp vorepov KaraKvfievuas ra 
ovra, e/c AevKrjs aKrrjs oppbcopievos rovs (j)iXovs 

28 Karerrovn^ev. dora fxev ovv, a> dvopes St/caarat, 
7] eis rovs TToXiras rj els rovs tjevovs rj rrepX rovs 
avrov olk€lovs 2 t) 7T€pl rovs aXXovs rj^dprrjKe, 
jiaKpdv dv e'lrj Xeyeiv 'Ittttovlkos 8e noXXovs 
napaKaXeaas e^eirepupe rrjv avrov yvvalKa, <f>doKa>v 
rovrov oi>)( ws 3 dSeX(f)dv avrrjs dAA' ojs dvSpa 

29 €K€lvtjs els rrjv olKiav eloievai rrjv avrov. /cat 
rouavO* rjpLapriqKorL Kal ovra) Setvd /cat 7roAAd 
/cat pieydXa TrenouqKori ovre rcov yeyevrjpLevcoi' 
avrco /xe'Aet 4 ovre rcov pueXXovrcov eoeadat, dAA' 
6V 5 e8et Koapuwrarov etvau rcov iroXurcov, arno- 
Xoyiav rroiovpievov rov eavrov fiiov rcov rod Trarpos 
dpLaprr]f.Ldra)v t ovros erepovs vfipl^ew Treipdrai, 

1 ovd' hi> Reiske : ovdt mss. 
8 olfiovs . . . ££vovs transp. Frohbergcr. 

3 oi>x us Contius : us ovk mss. 

4 ytiAei Kayser : ^era/AfXa mss. 

6 d\\' Si> Reiske : tv /.caXW mss. 



in his youth. He was sent for by Alcibiades, since 
his outrageous conduct was becoming notorious. And 
indeed, what ought you to think of the character of 
the man whose practices were such as to discredit 
him even in the eyes of the great ringleader in those 
ways ? He conspired with Theotimus against his 
father, and betrayed Orni & to him : but he, when he 
had gained possession of the stronghold, after abusing 
him in the flower of youth, ended by imprisoning him 
and holding him to ransom. But his father felt so deep 
a hatred of him that he declared that even though 
he should die he would not recover his bones. When 
his father was dead Archebiades, who had become 
his lover, obtained his release. Not long afterwards, 
having diced away his fortune, he took ship at White 
Cliff, d and attempted to drown his friends at sea. 
Well, to relate all the offences that he has committed, 
gentlemen, either against the citizens, or against 
foreigners, or in his dealings with his own relations 
or with ordinary people, would be a lengthy affair ; but 
Hipponicus assembled a number of witnesses e and put 
away his wife, stating that this man had been entering 
his house, not as her brother, but as her husband. 
And after committing offences of this sort, and being 
guilty of such a number of monstrous and grievous 
crimes, he is heedless alike of the past and of the 
future ; when he ought to have been the most 
orderly of citizens, so as to excuse by his own life 
the offences of his father, he attempts to outrage 

° His father, then an exile in the Thracian Chersonese. 

* One of the residences of Alcibiades in the Chersonese. 

c 404 b.c. d On the Propontis. 

• This was the only formality required for a divorce. 



(J)(77T€p 8vi'dfX€VOS O.V TToXXoGTOV pepOS TCOV oWtSoJV 1 

tcov eavTco irpoar^KOVTCov toZs dXXotg peTahovvai, 

30 /cat ravd* vos cov 'AA/a^tdSou, og eTreive fJL€V 
Ae/ce'Aetav AaKeSacpoviovs eVtret^taat, eirl 8c rds 
vrjaovs aTToorrrjcrajv eirXevae, 8t8do7caAo? 8e toji> 
rrjs TroXecos kolkcov eyeveTO , TrXeovdhas 8e /JL€rd 

TCOV £)(dpU)V €7TL TTJV 77aT0l'Sa €OTpOLT€V(JaTO Tj /JL€TCL 

tcov ttoXitojv eV eKeivovs. dvO* cov /cat vplv /cat 
rots' /xe'AAoucrtv eoeodai TipcopeZuQai TrpoaiqKei ovtivql 

31 XapfidveTe tovtcov. kolitoi cr</>oSoa eWiarcu Xeyeiv 
cos ovk et/cos" ecrrt tov pev Txavrepa avTOV kolt- 
eXdovTa Scoped? rrapd rod Srjpov Xafieiv, tovtov 8* 
dSt/coj? Sid ttjv <f)vyrjV tijv eKeivov Siafie fiXrjcrdaL. 
efMOL Se 8ok€l Seivov et^at, el rd? pev hcopeds 
avrov d^elXeaQe cos ov St/catoj? SeSoj/core?, tov- 
tov Se dhtKovvTos a7Toipr](f)LeZa9e cos tov naTpos 
XprjcrTOV Trepl ttjv ttoXlv yeyevqpevov. 

32 Kat pev S77, co dvSpes St/cacrrat, dAAa>v Te ttoXXcov 
d^iov eVe/ca clvtov KaToaprjcfricraoOai, /cat crrt rat? 
vpeTepais dpeTaZs XPV TCLL TTapaheLypaai Trepl ttjs 
eavTov 7T0VY]pLas. ToXpa ydp Xeyeiv cos 'AA/ct- 
fiidbrjs ovSev Seivov e'lpyaoTai enl r^v iraTpiha 

33 GTpaTevcras 2 ' /cat ydp vpids <f)evyovTas QvXyjv 
KaTaXafielv /cat SeVSpa rc/xetv /cat irpds tci rei)p] 
TrpoofiaXeZv, /cat raura Troir\oavTas ovk oveioos 
tols 77-atcrt /caraAt77etv, dAAd Tiprjv irapd ndaiv 
dvdpcoTTois KTrjaaadaL, cos tcov clvtcov ovtcls d£lovs 
oaoi <f>vyovTes /zeTa tcov 7roXepicov eVt ttjv ■yc j P av 

1 tuii> 6i>€l5Q:i> Markland: tCov el5u>v cod. Pal. 
2 (TTpareva-as Markland: arparevaaadai MSS. 

• In Attica, 413 b.c. 

* In 407 H.c, when he was welcomed back to a brief 


others, as though he might succeed in imparting to 
his neighbours some tiny share of his own store of 
infamies, — and that, too, when he is the son of 
Alcibiades, who induced the Lacedaemonians to 
fortify Decelea, a who sailed to rouse the islands to 
revolt, who became a promoter of mischief to our 
city, and who marched more often in the ranks of 
the enemy against his native land than in those of 
his fellow-citizens against them ! For those actions 
it is your duty, as it is also of those who are to come 
after you, to take vengeance on anyone of this 
family who falls into your hands. Yet it is a constant 
habit of his to say that it is unfair, when his father on 
returning home received gifts from the people, 6 that 
he should find himself unjustly discredited on account 
of his father's exile. But in my opinion it would be 
monstrous if, after depriving the father of those gifts 
as having been unjustly bestowed, you should acquit 
this man, though a wrongdoer, on the ground of 
good service done to the city by his father. 

And then, gentlemen of the jury, besides other 
abundant reasons for which he ought to be convicted, 
there is the fact that he takes your valorous conduct 
as a precedent to justify his own baseness. For he has 
the audacity to say that Alcibiades has done nothing 
outrageous in marching against his native land, since 
you in your exile occupied Phyle, cut down trees 
and assaulted the walls, and by these acts of yours, 
instead of bequeathing disgrace to your children, you 
won honour in the eyes of all the world ; as though 
there were no difference in the deserts of men who 
used their exile to march in the ranks of the enemy 

popularity on the strength of his friendship with the Persian 
satrap Tissaphernes. 



icrrpdrevaav, /cat ocrot /car^ecrav Aa/ccSatjUOvtaw 

34 e'^oVrcov r?p 7ro/W. /cat fxev Sr) ttclolv -qyovfiai 
hrjXov etvat otl ovtol /xev i^rjTovv /cartevat cbs ttjv 
fiev ttjs OaXaTTr/s ocpxW Aa/ccSat^toviot? irapa- 

8d)OOVT€S, aVTOL 8' VflCOV dp£oVT€S. TO 8' VfJL€T€pOV 

rrXfjdos KareXdov tovs fiev rroXepiLovs ef^Aacre, 

tcxjv Se ttoXltcov /cat tovs ftovXop,evovs SovXevetv 

[143] rjXevOepajoev coot oi>x ojjlolcov tcov epycov d/x- 

35 (boTepois yzyevr]nivcx)v tovs Xoyovs 7rotetrat. aXX 
ofxcos tooovtcov ovpLcf)opcov /cat ovtcos olvtoj pLeydXcov 


rt/xetrat, /cat Aeyet cos ovtcos eKelvos pudya e'SuVaro, 


yeyevrjTai. /catrot Tt? ovtcos dneipos ttjs iavTov 


elcrqy-qaaiTO pLev toIs rroXepiioLS a XP 7 ) KaTaXafieZv 

TCOV X C0 P L ' (X>V > OTjXcOO€L€ 8' OLV (X KOLKCOS </>uA(XTT€Tat 

tcov <j)povpLcov, StSafete 8' dv a Trovqpcos ex ei T d>v 
TrpaypLaTcov, fir]vvG€Le 8' dv tovs fiovXopLtvovs 

36 d<f) Lot aodai tcov ovfifidxcov ; ov yap Stjttov, otg 
pi€v €<f)€vye, bid tyjv Svvapuv kclkcos olos t rjv 
iToielv ttjv ttoXlv, eVetS?) Se vp,as i^anaTfjoas /car- 
rjXOe /cat 77oAAaJv rjp£e Tpajpcov, oi)T€ tovs rroXepLLovs 
iSvvaTO e/c ttjs x^P^ expaXeiv, ovre Xlovs ovs 
aTTeoTrjoe TrdXiv cf)iXovs rroLrjoaL, ovt€ dXXo ovhev 

37 dyaOov vp,as ipydcraoOat. coot ov x a ^ e7TOV yvcovai 
otl 'AA/ctjStaS^s- SwdpLtL [xev ovbev tcov dXXcov 
Ste^epe, Trovqpla Se tcov ttoXltcov rrpcoTos rjv. a 
pLev yap rjBeL tcov vp.eTepcov /ca/ccos" e^ovra, pLrjvvrrjs 
avTcdv 2 AaKtoaLpiovLOLs iydveTO' eVetSi^ 8' e8et 

1 tu>v add. Cobet. * a&rup Markland : avrois mss. 



against their country, and those who strove for their 
return while the Lacedaemonians held the city 1 
And again, I think it must be obvious to all that these 
others sought to return that they might surrender 
the command of the sea to the Lacedaemonians, and 
gain the command of you for themselves ; whereas 
your democracy, on its return, expelled the enemy 
and liberated even those of our citizens who desired 
to be slaves. So that there is no such parallel between 
the actions of the two parties as he seeks to draw. 
But despite the many grievous disasters that are upon 
his head he prides himself on his father's villainy, 
and tells us that the man was so mighty that he has 
been the author of all the troubles that have befallen 
our city. And yet, what man is there so ignorant of 
his own country's affairs that cannot, if he chooses to 
be a villain, inform the enemy of the positions that 
ought to be occupied, point out the forts that are 
ill-guarded, instruct them in the weaknesses of the 
State, and indicate the allies who desire to secede ? a 
For if during his exile it was his power that enabled 
him to injure the city, how was it that, having obtained 
his return by deceiving you and being in command 
of many ships of war, he had not power enough to 
expel the enemy from our land or to regain for you 
the friendship of the Chians whom he had alienated, 
or to do you any other useful service ? Thus there is 
no difficulty in concluding that on the score of power 
he had no particular advantage, but that in foul play 
he stood first of his fellows. For he took upon him 
to indicate to the Lacedaemonians the points in your 
affairs which he knew to be in a bad way ; but, when 

° Cf. the treachery of Alcibiades recorded by Thucydides, 
viii. 6. 12. 

N 357 


avrov arparrjyetv, ovSev kolkov ttolcZv CKeivovs 
iSvvaro, dAA' v7tooxojjl€vos oV iavrov rrape^etv 
fiaoiXia xP 1 jf J > aTa > TrXelv r) oiaKocna rdXavra rrjs 

38 rroXecos vcpetXero. /cat ovrco ttoXAcl ivofXL^ev els 
V[Aas r)i.iapTr)K€vaL, coare Xiyeiv hwdjievos Kal 


iXdcov evdvvas iroXfjarjoe oovvcll, aAAa tpvyrjv avrov 
Karayvovs Kal QpaK-qs Kal Traorjs noXecos ifiovXero 
TToXir-qs yevecrdat [xaXXov r) rrjs narpLoos etvat, rrjs 
eavrov. Kal ro reXevralov, to avopes St/caarat, 
V7T€pfioXr)v 7TOLr)crdfi€vos rrjs rrporipas rrovr/ptag 
iroXfirjae rag vavs Avadvopco fxerd 'ASet/zdVrou 

39 irpohovvai. ware et ng vfxcov r) rovg reOvecorag 
iv <rfj> 1 vavfiaxLCL e'Aeet, rj virep rcov hovXevodvrcov 
rolg TToXepiiois alaxvverai, r) rcov reix&v Kadrjpr)- 
jxevcov dyavaKrel, r) Aa/ceSat/xovtous" puoret, r) rolg 
rpiaKovra opyt^erai, rovrcov drrdvrcov XPV TOV 
rovrov iraripa airiov r)y eladai, Kal ivOvfirjOrjvai 
on ' ' AXKifiidoiqv fiev rov rrpo-narrrrov avrov /cat rov 
rrarposirpog jxrjrpos KTrdmrov > 2 Meya/cAeaotu/zeTeoot 
rrpoyovoi Slg apL^orepovg e^coorpaKLoav, rod Se 
narpos avrov ol rrpevfivrepoi vjxcov ddvarov /car- 

40 eyvcoaav, ware vvv XPV r)yr]crajJLevovs rrarpiKov 
exOpov rovrov thai rfj rroXet KaraxpiqcbioaodaL, 
Kal \ir\re eXeov p,-qre orvyyvcofir/v \xr\re X^P LV 
fjL7]$€fiLav rrepl irXtiovos rronqoaoOai rcov voficov 
rcov Keufxevcov Kal rcov opKcov ovs copbocrare. 

1 rrj add. Reiske. * add. Sauppe. 

The fact rather is that Al ibiades tried to warn the 
Athenian commanders of the danger of their being surprised 
at Aegospotami (405 B.C.). 

The famous Alcibiades was the son of Cleinias (son of 


he had the duty of holding the command, he was 
powerless to do them any harm. After undertaking 
that, for his sake, the king would provide us with 
money, he embezzled more than two hundred talents 
of our city's funds. So sensible was he of his numerous 
offences against you that, for all his power of speech, 
his friends, and his acquisition of wealth, he never 
once ventured to come under an inquiry, but con- 
demned himself to exile, and preferred to become a 
citizen of Thrace and any sort of city rather than 
belong to his own native land. Finally, gentle- 
men, he outdid his former villainy by daring, with 
Adeimantus, to surrender the ships to Lysander. a 
So, if anyone among you feels pity for those who 
lost their lives in the sea-fight, or is ashamed for 
those who were enslaved by the enemy, or resents 
the destruction of the walls, or hates the Lacedae- 
monians, or feels anger against the Thirty, he should 
hold this man's father responsible for all these things, 
and reflect that it was Alcibiades, his great-grand- 
father, and Megacles, his father's grandfather on the 
mother's side, whom your ancestors ostracized, 6 
both of them twice, and that the older among you 
have condemned his father to death. Wherefore 
you ought now to condemn this man as one whom 
you have judged to be a hereditary enemy of the 
city, and to set neither pity nor forgiveness nor any 
favour above the established laws and the oaths that 
you have sworn. 

Alcibiades, opponent of the Peisistratids, 510 B.C.), and 
Deinomache (daughter of Megacles, supporter of the 
Peisistratid party, 486 B.C.). The people once a year could 
vote for the expulsion of one citizen from the city, by writing 
his name on a potsherd (6<TTpa.Koi>). 



41 Xf«Eifja(j9ai he XP1> ^ dvhpes St/caaTrt, Std ri 

6.V TLS TOLOVTOJV dvhpWV (f>€l(JOLLTO; norepov OJ? 

irpos jxev ti)v ttoXlv SeSuoru^rj/caoti', d'AAoj? he 
Koa/jLiot etat /cat aaofipovcos /3e/3ta>/cao"tv; oi>x ol 
fiev TroAAot avrojv -qraip-qKaoiv , ol 8' d8eA</>at? 
ovyyeyovaoi, rots 8' e/c dvyarepojv iralhes yeyo- 

42 vaoiv, ol he /xuar^pta Treiron^Kaoi /cat tou? 'Eo/xas" 
7TepiK€KO(f)aoi /cat 7rept Trdvras rovg Oeovs rjo-efirjKacri 
/cat etj anacrav rrjv ttoXlv T^/xaor^/caotv, dSt/cozs" 
/cat 7Tapav6jjLajs /cat Trpo? rous d'AAous" 7roAtreudiAevot 
/cat Trpos 1 crc/ias' avrovs Sta/cet'/zevot, 1 ouSe/xtds - 

t6A{JL7]S CL7T€){6fl€VOL } Ol)hk epyOV heiVOV OJTteipOl 

yeyevrjfxivoi ; dAAd /cat ireirovdaoiv /cat 776770177- 
Kaoiv airavra. ovrco yap Std/cctvrat, coctt' eVt 
ju,e> rot? /caAots- ata^uVea^at, eVt Se rots' /ca/cot? 

43 </>tAortttetcr#at. /cat juey S77, to dvhpes 8t/caorat, 
77S77 rtvcDv aTTOprjcfyiooiode dSt/cetv iiey vopbioavres, 
olofievoi 8' et? to Aot7rdv xp^CTt/xou? up,ty eoreodac. 
ris ovv eXirls V7TO rovrov rt dya^ov TreioeoQai ttjV 
7t6Xiv, ov vjiels, on fiev ovhevos d£td? eartv, 
eVetSdv OLTToXoyrjraL, ei'oeoOe, on he rrovrjpos eoriv 

44 e/c t-ojj; d'AAojy eTnrrjhevfjidrojv fjoOrjcrde 2 ; dAAd 
jitev 817 oi)8' di> e^eXOow e/c rr]s TxdAeojs" ouSeV 

14 4] StWtro kolkov vpL&s epydoaoOat, SetAos 1 cov /cat 
Trevrjs /cat rtpdrreiv dhvvaros /cat rots' ot/cetots - 
hid(f>opos /cat l>77o rdiv dAAa>v tztaou/xeyos'. ajar' 

45 oi)Se toutojv eVe/ca aurov of tov <f>vXdrreo9 ai } dAAd 
770A1) /xdAAov Trapdhetyfia TroirjoaL /cat rots' dAAot? 
/cat rots' rovrov ^tAots 1 , ot rd /zeV 7Tpoorarr6p.eva 
TTOielv ovk edeXovoi, roiovrcov 8' epyojv eVt^u/xouot, 

1 SiaKti/xevoi . . . Tro\(.T€v6fxeioL MSS. : transp. Bckker. 
* Tjadrjode Dobree : etcreaOe mss. 



And you should ask yourselves, gentlemen, what 
reason you could have for sparing such men as these. 
Is it because, unfortunate though their public career 
has been, they are otherwise orderly persons, who 
have lived sober lives ? Have not most of them been 
whoring, while some have lain with their sisters, 
and others have had children by their daughters ; 
others, again, have performed Mysteries, mutilated 
the Hermae, and committed profanity against all 
the gods and offences against the whole city, showing 
injustice and illegality alike in their public treatment 
of their fellow-men and in their behaviour to each 
other, refraining from no audacity, and unversed in 
no outrageous practice ? Indeed, there is nothing 
that they have been spared, or have spared. For 
their propensity is to be ashamed of what is honour- 
able, and to glory in what is base. It is true, 
gentlemen, you have acquitted ere now some persons 
though you held them guilty, because you supposed 
that they would be useful to you in the future. Well, 
what hope is there that the city will derive any 
benefit from this man, Avhom you will know for the 
worthless wretch he is, when he makes his defence, 
and whose villainy you have learnt from the general 
tenor of his life ? But, what is more, even if he left 
the city he could do you no harm, craven and pauper 
that he is, with no ability for business, at feud with 
his own folk and hated by everyone else. So neither 
is there any reason here to be careful of him : far 
rather should you make him serve as an example for 
all people, and particularly his friends, who refuse 
to do what is enjoined on them, who aspire to 



KCLl 7T€pl TOJV 0~(f>€T€pOJV ClUTOJl> KOLKCDS jSouAeUOCl- 

jjl€vol rrepl rcov vfierepcov hrjpLrjyopovcnv . 

46 'Eya> /xei> ow a>s" iSvvdfirjv aptcrra KanqyopiqKa, 
erriGrafiaL 8* on ot /xey a'AAot raw aKpotojiivajv 
davfid^ovcnv, ottcjjs nod* ovtojs aKpiftcos iSvvrjdrjv 
i^€vp€tv rd tovtojv dfJLapTrjiJLaTa, ovtos 8e p,ov 
KarayeXa, on ovoe ttoXXootov jdepos elprjKa rcov 

47 tovtols V7Tapx6vTa>v KOLKtov. vfieTs ovv /cat rd 
€ipr)fi€va Kal rd 77aoaAeAei/i,/zeVa aVaAoyicra/xevot 
ttoXv /xaAAov avrov KaTaifjrjcfrioraoOe, ivdvyaqdevreg 
ort evoxos jxev ian rfj ypacfrfj, /zeyaAi) 8' evTV\ia 
to tolovtojv ttoXltcjv ciTraAAay^vat <^fj> x rroXei. 
dvdyvojQi 8* aurots rous" vdfiovs Kal rovs opKovs 
Kal TTjv ypa^iqv Kal tovtojv {X€fjLV7]fxevoi ipr]' 
<f>LovvTai r<x Si/azta. 


1 T7) add. Markland. 


similar conduct, and who, misguided in their own 
concerns, harangue you upon yours. 

Now, I have made my accusation to the best of 
my ability. I am well aware that the rest of my 
hearers are wondering how I could have discovered 
the offences of these men with such precision, yet 
the accused is deriding me for having told but the 
smallest fraction of the crimes that lie at their door. 
You have therefore to reckon in with what has been 
told the tale of what has been omitted, and to be all 
the more for condemning him ; you must reflect that 
he is liable to the charge preferred, and that it is a 
great blessing to the State that it should be relieved of 
this sort of citizen. Read them ° the laws, the oaths 
and the charge preferred : bearing these in mind, 
they will vote what is just. 

Laws : Oaths : Charge. 

a i.e., the jurors. 



1 'Eyoj fiev, a) dvopeg oiKacrrai, /cat vfidg alrovpai 
to, St/caia i/j-rj^LaacrOaL, /cat to>v Grpari^ycov Seofxat, 
inel /cat Iv rfj aXXrj dpxfj ttoXXov a£tot rfj iroXei ye- 
yovacrt,, /cat rd>v rfjs darpareiag ypacfrajv kolvovs 
etrat ra> re Stoj/covrt /cat ra> cfrevyovri, /cat pur] fior]- 
dovvras a> aV fiovXiovrai irdaav irpodvpiiav e\€iv 

2 irapd to St/catov vpL&s xprj^loaGdai, IvdvpLOvpiivovs 
on cr<^oSo' aV rjyavaKrelre , et <iv> x rfj Vfierepa 
So/ct^tacrta ol dcapLoOeroa, dvafidvres vpLtbv iSeov- 
to Karaipr/cfriaaaOaL, rjyovfievoi oeivov etvat €t ol 
ridevres rdv dyajva /cat rrjv iprj<f>ov Scoovres 2 Trapa- 
KeXevcrovTai rdv p.ev purj < Karai/jrjcfyl^ecrdai ra>v oe> 3 

3 Karatp-qcf)t^€(TdaL. rt 8' dv atcr^iov edos r) o€wo- 
repov TTpaypia rovrov <iv> A rfj TroXei yevotro, et 
roXpLTjoei 6 fiev dp^cov iv rat? 5 tujv eTTiKXripcuv 
St/cats* dvTifioXeiv /cat iKerevew rovg St/caaras" o rt 
ay fiovXrjTdL irpaxOrjvai, 6 Se iroXepLapxos /cat ot 
eVSe/ca oeiqGovTai iv rat? St/cat? rat? u</>' iavrcov 

4 eioayopLevais, wcnrep /cat iw; ^P 1 ? toivvv /cat 
U77ep vpiajv avrcuv tt)v avrqv yvwpurjv exeiv, eV- 

x tV add. Reiske. a diSovres Taylor: 5m5t56^rej mss. 

3 KaTa\J/ri<pLfcadat. tuh> ot add. Baiter et Sauppe. 
• eV add. Frohberger. 6 ^ rats Reiske : eyu/3ds mss. 



I not only request you, gentlemen of the jury, to 
vote what is just, but I beg the generals, as they have 
in all else used their authority to the great advantage 
of the State, to be impartial also in suits for evasion 
of military duty, treating prosecutor and defendant 
alike ; and not to be so intent on supporting some 
favourite of their own as to make every endeavour 
that your vote shall be given against j ustice. Reflect 
how deeply aggrieved you a would be if during your 
scrutiny the recorders should mount the dais to 
request that the vote should go against you : it 
would strike you as monstrous that those who ordered 
the suit and put the question should recommend that 
votes be given against some men, and not given 
against others. What custom could be more shame- 
ful, what proceeding more monstrous, in our city 
than to have the magistrate making bold, in suits 
concerning heiresses, to implore and beseech the 
judges that the matter be settled as he may prefer, 
or to have the war-archon and the Eleven making 
requests, in the suits authorized by themselves, like 
that in the present case ? You ought, therefore, 
to have just the same feeling in regard to yourselves ; 

The speaker now addresses the generals, who had to 
submit to a scrutiny on their appointment. 

N2 365 


dvpLOVfJLei'OVS OTL OvSeV SlOLOei 1 U/XCt? tStCt 7T€pl TTJS 

aorpareias fio-qOelv, rj tovtojv tlvos SeloQai avrovs 

5 ri]v i/jrjcf>ov SiSovras. OKeiftaode Se, to dvSpes StKa- 
orai, edv ikolvov yevryrai reK\xr\piov otl ovSet's ttoj 
tojv dpypvrojv ev rep arparoTreSoj 'AA/a^iaSi] rjv 

7Tap€(JK€VaCrjJL€V09. ixPW YQ-P O-VTOVS, €L7T€p dXrjdrj 

Xeyovcnv, dvaKaXelv p.ev YidpLcfriXov , on d(f)atpdjv 

TOV L7T7T0V tTT7TeOJS drreOTepei T7)V TToXlV , eTTlfidXXeiV 

Se rto cf)v\dp)(cp, on e^eXavvojv 'AAt<ifiid$r)v £k rrjs 
<f>vXrjs aKvpov irroUi ttjv tovtojv rd£iv, KeXevetv Se 
tov ra^iapxov e£aXei<f)eiv avrov eV rod tojv ottXltojv 

6 KOLTaXoyov. vvv Se tovtojv ovSev eiroiiqaav, dXX 
ev [lev to) orparoireSoj rrepieojpojv avrov vito rrdv- 

7T€V0VTGL, €7T€l$r) Se VfA&S Sel 7T0Lpd TOJV dSlKOVVTOJV 

StK'qv Xafifidvecv, ^api^o/xevcu fiaprvpovoiv ixf? 
eavrojv avrov rerdxOai. kclitol Secvov, to dvSpes 
SiKaoral, avrovs p<ev tovs orparr]yovs vtto tov 
SrjfAOV x €L P OTOV7 ]^ VTa9 H'V av ToXfjLrjoaL rrporepov 
Tjfxojv rjyrjoacrdaL, ecus' [ctv] 2 eSoKip.dcr9r)crav Kara 
tovs vopLovs, 'AXKifiidS-qv Se roXpidv napa tovs ttjs 

7 TToXeojs vofiovs vtt* avrdov TOLxOrjvai. SeLvov Se pLOi 
145] SoKel elvat, to dvSpes SiKaoraL, el rtbv fiev SeSo- 

KLfAaopLevojv iTTireojv ovk eirl tovtols eorlv dvnva 
povXovrai avrol els tovs oirXiras KaraXe^ai, tojv 
Se ottXltojv dSoKLpLdoTOjv ovtojv eirl tovtols eoraL 

8 ovtiv dv fiovXojVTai IrnreveLV. el jxev tolvvv, to 

1 Stoia-ei Bekker : derjcrei mss. 2 a^ del. Dobree. 

The six junior archons had charge of the text of the laws 
and the general supervision of the law-courts and certain 
classes of trials. 

6 i.e., that they enrolled Alcibiades in the cavalry, as 
being favourably disposed to him. 


you should reflect that to give your support from 
personal motives to a man accused of evading mili- 
tary service will be exactly the same as if some of 
these officers ° should put in a request while they are 
actually putting the question. And consider, gentle- 
men, if you have not found sufficient proof that none 
of the commanders in the army up to that time was a 
supporter of Alcibiades. For if their statement 6 is 
true, they ought to have cited Pamphilus c for depriv- 
ing the city of a horseman by taking away his horse ; 
to have mulcted the squadron-commander for ex- 
pelling Alcibiades from the squadron to the con- 
fusion of the order they had settled ; and to have 
instructed the commander to erase his name from 
the roll of the infantry. But in fact they did nothing 
of the sort : while he was in the army, they suffered 
him to be grossly insulted by all, and left to serve 
among the mounted archers d ; but now that you have 
to do justice upon the guilty, they obligingly testify 
that he has taken that rank by their orders. But 
I say it is monstrous, gentlemen, that although the 
generals themselves, who have been duly elected by 
the people, would not dare to take command of us 
before they had passed their scrutiny in compliance 
with the laws, Alcibiades should dare to take his rank 
from them in violation of the laws of our city. And 
it is monstrous also, in my opinion, gentlemen, that 
whereas it is not in their power to take a man at 
their own pleasure from the cavalrymen who have 
passed scrutiny, and enrol him in the infantry, it 
should be in their power to pass a man at their 
pleasure from the infantry into the cavalry without 

c Pamphilus was probably a cavalry commander. 
d Light troops of inferior quality, used for skirmishing. 



avSpes SiKacrrai, ovres Kvptoi rroXXcov fiovXopievojv 
parjoeva Ttov aXXcov tTmeveiv e'lacrav, ovk dv Sikollcds 
Xap^oiode avrols' et §' aKvpoi ovres SpLoXoyijoovm 
rd$at, evOv p.elo Oat, XPV OTL dpuopLOKare rd ot/cata 
yvtooeoOai, aXX oi>x o n dv ovroi KeXevojut, ip-q<j)i~ 
elaOai, ware ovSeva xprj rwv heopievajv ire pi TrXeio- 
9 vos vpLwv avrcov /cat ra>v opKOJV rroieZoOai. /cat 
fxev S77, a) dvopes oiKaarai, el rep hoKeZ pLeydX-q r) 
^rjixia 1 elvat, /cat Xlav loxvpos 6 vopcos, p,epLvrjorO at 
Xprj on ov vopboOeWjoovres rrepl avrcov r\Kere y aAAd 
/card rovs Keiptevovs voptovs iprjSiovpievoL, ouSe 
rovs dSiKovvras eXerjaovres, aAAd ttoXv pbdXXov 
avroZs opyuovfxevoL /cat oXrj rfj 7roAet fiorjOrjoovres , 
ev elSores otl vrrep rcov TrapeXrjXvdorojv oXiyovs 
rip.Lop'qadp.evoi 7toXXovs rroLrjcrere Koapuojrepovs 

10 €V TOLS fJidXXoVdL KLvhw€V€LV . XPV °*> <*> dvopes 

St/caorat, coarrep ovros apLeX-qoas rrjs rroXeaJS rrjv 
avrov OLDTTjpiav eoKeiparo, ovrws vpL&s ap,eX-qGav- 
Ta? rovrov rfj 7t6X€L rd fieXriora ijj-qtf)LGacr9at,, 
dXXajs re /cat opKovs 6 piajpLOKor as /cat rrepl 'AA/ct- 
jStdSou pLeXXovras ifjrjcfiLGacrOcu, os edv i$- 
<maTr)<yr) > KarayeXtov rrjs rroXews arteiaiv ov yap 
017 X^-P LV y € vpfiv a7roSd>cret rfj ifj~qtj)cp KpvfiSrjv ev 
naOcov, os rcov cf>iXcov rovs cf>avepcos avrov ev 

11 rronqoavras /ca/ccos" rroiel. vp,eZs ovv, <L dvbpes 
St/caorat, rds rovrcov Se-qcrets rrepl eXdrrovos 2 
<ruw v6p,cov> 3 7roir)ordp.evoL rd St/cata 1/07 </>t era cr#e. 
d^oSe'Set/crat oe /caraAeyet? els rovs onXlras Kal 
Xittcov rr)v rd^iv /cat rcov vop,cov KcoXvovrcov dSo/ct- 

1 ,ueya\T) 77 frifda Eteiske: fiey&X-rjs fofilas mss. 
2 (X&ttovos Markland: i\aTTovui> mss. 
8 r& po/awv add. P. Miiller. 


scrutiny. Now, gentlemen, if they were entitled so 
to act, and allowed none of the many others who so 
desired to serve in the cavalry, you would not be 
justified in obliging them ; but if they admit that 
they were not entitled to rank him as they have done, 
you should reflect that you have sworn to decide 
according to justice, and not to vote in compliance 
with these men ; and so you ought not to have more 
regard for any of these suitors than for yourselves 
and your oaths. Moreover, gentlemen, if any of 
you thinks the penalty a heavy one and the law too 
severe, he should remember that you have come here, 
not to legislate on these affairs, but to vote in accord- 
ance with the established laws ; not to pity the guilty, 
but much rather to be angry with them and to be 
protectors of the whole State. For you know well 
that by punishing a few for what has been done in the 
past you will improve the discipline of many among 
those who have to face danger in the future. And, 
gentlemen, just as this person has disregarded the 
State to provide for his own safety, so you should 
disregard him in voting what is best for the State ; 
especially since you have sworn oaths and have to 
vote on Alcibiades, who, if he is able to deceive you, 
will go away mocking at the city. For he will show 
you no gratitude for the benefit covertly gained from 
your vote, since he repays with injury the open 
assistance of any of his friends. You therefore, 
gentlemen, must have less regard for the requests 
of these persons than for the laws, and give the vote 
that is just. It has been proved that he was enrolled 
in the infantry, that he deserted the ranks, that 
despite the prohibition of the laws he served in the 



[IOlgtos liTTTevaas, Kal nepl (Lv ol vojjioi hiapp-qSrjv 
ovre orparrjyov ovre XiTTtapypv ovre d'AAoy ovhlva 
Kvpitorepov eKeivaiv aTroheiKvvovui, irepl tovtqjv 
12 l$La)T7)s tbv ttjv i^ovoiav avrco heSajKws. iyd> [lev 
ovv Kal (j)L\tp ovtl 9 Apx€<JTpaTL$r) fiorjdcov, Kal 
' AXKifiiahiqv e\dp6v ovra ifiavrov rtju.copou/xevos', 
heojiai ra hiKaia ipiq^iu aadar vpias Se XPV T V V 
avrrjv yvcopar^v exovras ttjv iprjfov <j>ep€iv, r\V7rep 
ore coeoQe irpos tovs TroAe/xtous" hiaKivhvvevcreiv . 



cavalry without passing the scrutiny, and that in 
respect of matters in which the laws expressly declare 
that neither general nor brigadier nor anyone else 
can override their authority he, a private person, 
has given himself a free hand. Now I, as seeking to 
support my friend Archestratides, and to punish my 
own enemy Alcibiades, request you to give the vote 
that is just. You should have the same feelings 
in recording that vote as when you were expecting 
your supreme ordeal in face of the enemy. 




This short speech is admirably adapted to the char- 
acter of a young, gallant and ingenuous man who 
appears to have been elected a member of the 
Council, but who has to pass the usual public scrutiny 
before he can take his seat. At this inquiry he has 
been accused of service in the cavalry during the 
reign of the Thirty oligarchs in 40 1-403 B.C. ; and, 
although some persons who have thus served have 
been allowed to take their seats on the Council, the 
feeling of the restored democracy against anyone 
who can be shown to have actively supported the 
oligarchs is sufficiently bitter to jeopardize his case. 
Apparently the general amnesty which was arranged 
after the return of the democrats does not apply : 
each case is tried on its own merits ; and it must be 
remembered that the knights, or cavalrymen, were 
always noted for their aristocratic or oligarchic 
sympathies, and that their active support of the 
Thirty had made them particularly odious to the 

On the point of fact, Mantitheus states that he was 


not in the cavalry or in Athens at all during the reign 
of the Thirty, except for a few days before they were 
driven out by the victorious democrats. To the 
charge that his name is on the roll of cavalrymen he 
replies that this record is quite worthless for such a 
purpose : names are frequently added or removed at 
anybody's pleasure. More significant by far is the 
list of those cavalrymen who are required to return 
to the Treasury the allowances made to them for 
their equipment : this list, drawn up regularly by 
the tribal officers, nowhere shows his name. 

Not content with this disproof of the specific charge 
brought against him, Mantitheus proceeds to give a 
general account of his life and conduct. He shows 
a confident pride in his private behaviour, his mili- 
tary career and his political ambitions. For the 
last of these he gaily affects to apologize, but only 
to remind his hearers of the Athenians' affection for 
those who evince a proper public spirit. The very 
abruptness with which he ends his speech is in keep- 
ing with his bluff, inapprehensive personality. The 
occasion of the scrutiny was probably some two or 
three years after the battle of Coronea (394 b.c.) and 
before the death of Thrasybulus (389 b.c), to whom 
a reference appears to be made in the contemptuous 
remark on " the fine fellow of Steiria " (§ 15). 



1 Et fxr] ovvfjSr), c5 ftovX-q, rois Kar-qyopous jSouAo- 


civ avrols X^P lv ^X ov Tavr-qs rrjs Kariqyopias' 
rjyovfiai, yap rots ololkqjs Sta/SejSA^/xeVotc rovrovs 
etrat fieyiGrcov dyadtbv alriovs, olrives dv avrovs 
avayKa^axnv els eXeyxov rtbv avrols fiefiiajpLevajv 

2 KaraarrjvaL. eyd> yap ovtoj acf)6Spa ifiavra) tti- 
oreva), war iAn^a) /cat et tls npos fxe rvyxdvei 
dr]Sa)s [rj /ca/cto?] 1 Sta/cet/xevos", eVetSdy ifiov Xeyov- 
ros aKOvar) TiepX r<hv Trerrpayfievajv, [ieTap,eXy\aeiv 
avrcp /cat ttoXv fteXria) fie els rov Xoittov xpdvov 

3 rjyqaeaOai. atjta) he, d* fiovX-iq, eav fxev tovto 
[lovov vjjuv eVtSet£a>, d>s evvovs et/xt rots Kad- 
eoTT\Koai TTpdyfiaat, /cat d>s ^vay/cacr/xat tojv avrdv 
Kivovvaiv fxerexeuv vpuv, pu-qhev ttoj /xot rrXeov elvac- 
eav be </>atVa>/xat </cat> 2 nepl rd aAAa fxerpiajs 
fiefitajKOJS /cat 77oAu irapd ttjv oo£av /cat irapa rovs 
Xoyovs rovs ra>v exQpa)v, oeojxai v/jl&v ep,e fiev 
SoKLfid^euv, rovrovs he rjyeladat ^etpou? etyat. 
npcorov he aTrohei^o) d>s ovx trrrrevov ouS' err- 
ehrjp,ovv enl rQ>v rpiaKovra, ovhe \xereayov rrjs 
rore TToXtreias. 

4 'H/xaj yap 6 7rarrjp npd rrjs ev c EAA^a770vraj 


If I were not conscious, gentlemen of the Council, 
that my accusers are seeking every possible means 
of injuring me, I should feel most grateful to them 
for this accusation ; since I consider that the victims 
of unjust slander have the greatest service rendered 
to them by anyone who will compel them to undergo 
an examination of the record of their lives. For I 
have so strong a confidence in myself that, if there is 
anyone who is inclined to dislike me, I hope that when 
he has heard me speak of my conduct in the past he 
will change his mind, and will think much better of 
me in the future. Now, gentlemen, I make no claim 
to special merit, if I merely make plain to you that 
I am a supporter of the existing constitution and have 
been compelled to take my own share in your dangers : 
but if I am found to have lived, in all other respects, 
a regular life, quite contrary to the opinion and 
statements of my enemies, I request you to pass me 
through and to think the worse of these persons. I 
will begin by showing that I did not serve in the 
cavalry or reside here under the Thirty, and that I 
had no hand in the government of that time. 

Our father, before the disaster at the Hellespont, 
At Aegospotami, 405 b.c. 
1 ■% /ca/oDs del. Reiske. a k<xI add. Reiske. 


J. V SI AS ojs ^Larvpov rov ev ra> Uovrco 8t- 
146] aLTTjaof-Uvovs e^eTrepape, /cat ovre rcov ret^'oV kclO- 
aipovp.eva>v <e7rehr)pLOvpLev> 1 ovre pied tor apievrjs 
rrjs TToXireias, dAA' yjXOopiev rrplv rovs oltto OuAtJs" 
els rov llcipaia KareXOelv irporepov rrevd'' rjfiepats. 
6 /catrot ovre rjp.ds elt<6s ifv els rotovrov /catpdi- 
dcf>iypievovs emdvpielv p.ereyeiv rcov aXXorpiojv 


e\ovres ware /cat rols aTTohrjpLOVoi /cat rols paqhev 
e^apiaprdvovoi pLerahthovai rrjs TToXireias, dAAd 
p,aXXov rjTLpLa^ov /cat rovs o'vyKaraXvoavras rov 

6 hrjpiov. erretra he e/c piev rov oavihiov rovs 
LTTTrevuavras oKorrelv evades ecrriv. ev rovrco 
yap 77-oAAot p.ev rojv opioXoyovvrojv irnreveiv ovk 
eveioiv, evioi he rcov aTroSrjpiovvrcov eyyeypapi- 
p.evoi eloiv. ei<elvos o' ecrriv eXeyxos pieyiorros' 
erreihr) ydp Kari]X9ere, eifirjcfiloao-Oe rovs <f>vXdp- 
Xovs aueveyKelv rovs iTnrevaavras , Iva rds /cara- 

7 ordaeis dvanpa^re Trap* avrcov. ijie rolvvv 
ovhels dv diTohei^eiev ovr d-neveyQevra vrrb rcov 
(f)vXdpx<-ov ovre rrapahoOevra rols crvvhiKOis ovre 
Kardoraoiv KarafiaXovra. 2 /cat-rot rraui pdoiov 
rovro yvcovai, drt 3 avayKalov r)v rots cfrvXdpxois, el 
per) aTrohei^eiav rovs exovras rds Karaordoeis, 
avrols ^rjpuovoB 'at. wore ttoXv dv hiKaiorepov 
eKeivois rols ypdpijjiacnv r) rovrois marevoire- etc 
piev yap rovrcov pdoiov rjv e£aXeitf)drjvai rep fiovXo- 

1 iveSTj/ioOfiev add. Kayser. 

2 Kara t ia\ui'Ta Bake: TrapakaflbvTq. mss. 

3 utl Kayser: 8i6ri :mss. 

At Panticapaeum in the east corner of the 'Jamie 
Chersonese (Crimea), capital of the Kingdom of Bosphorus, 

which exported corn to Alliens. 



had sent us abroad to live at the court of Satyrus, on 
the Pontus a ; we were not residing in Athens either 
when the Malls were being demolished or when the 
constitution was being changed b ; we came here five 
days before the people at Phyle returned to the 
Peiraeus. Surely it was not to be expected that, 
having arrived at such a moment, we should want to 
share in dangers that concerned others ; while 
obviously the Thirty were in no mind to share the 
government with men who were residing abroad and 
were guilty of no crime : they were rather disfranchis- 
ing even the men who had helped them to overthrow 
the democracy. Moreover, to refer to the register 
for those who served in the cavalry is puerile : for it 
does not include many of those who admit that they 
served, while some who were absent abroad are on 
the list. But the strongest proof lies in the fact that, 
after you had returned, you voted that the tribal 
officers should make out a list of those who had served 
in the cavalry, so that you might recover the allow- 
ances d from them. Well, nobody will be able to show 
that I was either put on the list by the tribal officers 
or reported to the Revenue Commission or made to 
refund an allowance : yet it is within the knowledge 
of all that the tribal officers were under the necessity, 
if they failed to show who had the allowances, of 
bearing the loss themselves. Hence you would be 
far more justified in relying on these lists than on the 
register : for anyone who wished could easily have 
his name erased from the latter ; but in the former 

6 In the spring of 404 b.c. c In May, 403 b.c. 

d Granted by the State for the provision of equipment. 
The argument is that this return is more satisfactory evidence 
for ascertaining who served and who did not. 



fievq), iv e/cetVot? Se rovs L7T7T€v(javTas dvayKalov 

8 rjv vtto roov cf)v\dpxu)v aTT€V€xOfjvcLi- %ti Se', a) 
fiovAr), et-nep LTnrevcra, ouk dv rj etjapvos cos SetvoV 
tl 7T€7Toir}KOJS, aA/V Tj^iovv, dTroSei^a? cos ovhels 

U7t' e'jLtOU TO)V 7ToAtTCOV KdKOJS 7T€7TOvd€, So/Ct/ld£e- 

odat. opco Se /cat u/xa? ravrr) rfj yvojfxr] XP *' 

fiovAeVOVTCLS, 77oA\oVS 8' 0LVTO0V arpar-qyovs /cat 
l7T7rdpXOVS K€X£l>pOTOVrHJL€VOVS . 0)GT€ pLTJOeV St* 

aAAo jite 1 rjyeloOe ravr-qv TTOizZodai r-qv dxroAoytav, 
7) ort nepujxiv&s iroApaqadv txou Karaifrevcraadou. 
avdflrjOi Se' jmh /cat fxaprvprjcrov. 


9 Ilept /xev roivvv avrrjs 2 ttjs atrta? ou/c otS' o rt 
Set ttAcLoj Ae'yetv So/cet Se xtot, co ftovArj, iv [xkv 
toIs dXAois dycocrt rrepl avrcov piovcov roov /car- 
rjyoprjfievojv TrpocrrjKecv aTroAoyeta^at, iv Se rat? 
So/ctjLtaatat? St/catov etvat 77avros' too jSt'ou Aoyov 
StSoVat. 8eo/xat ow u/xa>v jLter' ewota? d/cpod- 
oauBai piov. Se T17V a7roAoytav cos av 
SvvcopLOLL Std PpaxvrdToav. 

10 'Eyco yap TTpuorov /xet>, ovaias jLtot ou ttoAAtJ? 
KaraAeKJideiuiqs Std rds avpL(f>opds /cat rd? too 
TTdTpos /cat Taj tt}s 7roAeco?, SJo jLtev dSeA^d? 
e'^e'Sco/ca eVtSoi)? rptd/covra avd? e'/carepa, 77/30? 
r6v dSeA^ov 8* ovtlos iveipidpLrjv coot' €K€lvov 
nAiov o/xoAoyetv e^etv e'^aou tcov Trarptoajv, /cat 
■^pos" rous" dAAou? drravras ovroos jSe/3tco/ca coo-re 
pLrjBeTTOjTTore /xot /x^Se 77po? eVa paqhev ey/cA^/xa 

1 wcttc /-ojo^ in' &XXo /te Taylor: war' el /^S^ Sia/SdXXo/icu 




the tribal officers were obliged to record those who 
had served. Besides, gentlemen, if I had served, I 
should not deny it as though I had done something 
monstrous : I should merely claim, after showing 
that no citizen had suffered injury by my act, to pass 
the scrutiny. And I see that you also take this view, 
and that many of those who served then in the 
cavalry are on the Council, while many others have 
been elected generals and brigadiers. You must 
therefore conclude that my only reason for making 
this defence is that they have dared thus openly to 
attack me with a falsehood. Mount the dais, please, 
and bear witness. 


Now, as regards the charge itself, I do not see 
what more there is to say. But it seems to me, 
gentlemen, that although in other trials one ought to 
confine one's defence to the actual points of the 
accusation, in the case of scrutinies one has a right 
to render an account of one's whole life. I request 
you, therefore, to give me a favourable hearing : I 
will make my defence as briefly as I can. 

In the first place, although but little property had 
been bequeathed to me, owing to the disasters that 
had befallen both my father and the city, I bestowed 
two sisters in marriage, with a dowry of thirty minae 
apiece ; to my brother I allowed such a portion as 
made him acknowledge that he had got a larger 
share of our patrimony than I had ; and towards 
everyone else my behaviour has been such that never 
to this day has a single person shown any grievance 

2 ai/T7]s Frohberger: tclutijs mss. 



11 yeveodai. /cat rd pev t'Sta ovtcos Staj/c^/ca' rrepi 
Se rcbv kolvcov /jlol pbeyccrrov rjyovjJLaL reKpsqpiov 
elvai ttjs ep,rjs eTuet/ceta?, on rdov vea>repa)v ocroi 
ire pi Kvfiovs rj rrorovs r) [77-eptj 1 ras roiavras a/coAa- 
oias rvyxdvovoi rag Siarpifias rroiovpLevoi, rrdvras 
clvtovs oijjeoBe jjlol hiarpopovs ovras, /cat 7rAetoTa 


/catVot SrjXov otl, el rtov avrcov erredvpuovpLev, ovic 

12 aV TOLavTTjV yvLO\JO]v eiypv rrepl epiov. en 8', a> 
/SouAtJ, ovSels av d-nohel^ai rrepl ifxov hvvairo ovre 
ScKrjv alaxpcxv ovre ypa(f)r)v ovre elaayyeXiav 
yeyevrjpevrjv /catrot erepovs opdre ttoXAolkls els 
tolovtovs aywvas KadearrjKorag. rrpos roivvv 
ras orpareias /cat rovs klvSvvovs rovs rrpos rovs 
TToXepiiovs LTKeifjaaQe olov ipuavrov Trape^co rf> 

13 TToXei. rrpcorov p,ev yap , ore rr/v cru/x/xa^ta^ 
eTTturjaacrOe rrpos [rovs] 2 Bollotovs /cat els ' AXiaprov 
e'Sec fiorjOelv, vrro 'OpdofiovXov KareiXeypievos 
vnrreveiv, erreihr) rrdvras etoptov rots p>ev InrrevovGiv 
&(J(f)dXeLav elvac Selv vo/jll^ovtols, rols o' orrXirais 
Ktvhvvov rjyovjJievovs, erepcov dvafidvrcov errl rovs 

[147] L7T7TOVS dboKLfxaaTcov rrapd rov vo/jlov eytb rrpoo- 
eXOcov e<f>r)v tw 'OpdofiovXa) e^aXelipai pie e/c rod 
KaraXoyov, rjyovpievos aloxpov elvai rod rrXrjdovs 
pueXXovros KwSvveveiv aSetav ifiavra) irapa- 
OKevdaavra orpareveoOai. /cat pLOL dvdfirjdi, 'Qp- 


14 HvXXeyevrcov roivvv rtov SrjpLortbv rrpo rr]s 
e£6hov, elSdjs avrtov eviovs rroXiras fiev xp'>l OT0 ^ 

1 Trepi del. Fuhr. 2 rovs del. Pertz. 



against me. So much for the tenor of my private life : 
with regard to public matters, I hold that the strong- 
est proof I can give of my decorous conduct is the 
fact that all the younger set who are found to take 
their diversion in dice or drink or the like dissipations 
are, as you will observe, at feud with me, and are most 
prolific in lying tales about me. It is obvious, surely, 
that if we were at one in our desires they would 
not regard me with such feelings. And moreover, 
gentlemen, nobody will be able to prove that I have 
ever been cited in a disgraceful private suit, or in 
public proceedings, or in a special impeachment ; yet 
you see others frequently involved in such trials. 
Again, as regards campaigns and dangers in face of 
the enemy, observe how I discharge my duty to the 
State. First of all, when you made your alliance with 
the Boeotians, and we had to go to the relief of 
Haliartus, a I had been enrolled by Orthobulus for 
service in the cavalry : I saw that it was everyone's 
opinion that, whereas the cavalry were assured of 
safety, the infantry would have to face danger ; so, 
while others mounted on horseback illegally, without 
having passed the scrutiny, I went up to Orthobulus 
and told him to strike me off the roll, as I thought it 
shameful, while the majority were to face danger, to 
take the field with precaution for my own security. 
Come forward, please, Orthobulus. 


Now, when the townsmen had assembled together 
before their setting out, as I knew that some among 

° See XIV., Introduction, p. 334.. 




etirov on xprj rovs exovras irapeyjE.iv rd em-r^Seta 
rots aTTopco? 8ta/cet/xeVots\ /cat ov fxovov rovro 
avvefiovXevov rots dXXois, dAAd /cat avros e8a>/ca 
SvoTv dvopolv rpiaKovra Spa^/id? eKarepco, ovx 
tbs 77oAAa K€KTT)fjL€vos, dAA' tva rrapdoziypLa rovro 
rols aXXois yevrjrat. /cat fiot dva^re. 


15 Merd ravra rolvvv, to fiovXr], els JHopivdov 
i£6$ov yevofievrjs /cat rravrajv 7rpo€t8dra>v ort 
Se^aet Kivhvveveiv , irepojv dvahvopLevtov iyd> 
8L€7Tpa^dfir]v wore rrjs rrpcLriqs reraypuevos \xd- 
■)(€.odai rols rroXefxiois' /cat jxdXiora rrjs rjfierepas 
<f>vXrjs 8vo-rvxr)crdcrr]s , /cat rrXeiarajv ivanodavovrajv 1 
vorepos dvextbprjcra rod aefivov Hreiptajs rod rracriv 

16 dvdpcoTTOis heiXiav aWtSt/coro?. /cat ov noXXals 
r)ixipais vcrrepov fierd ravra iv Kopivdtp x o} P^ cov 
LGXvpcov KareiXiqpiixivajv , (Lcrre rovs rroXefiLovs 
fir) ovvaodai rrapiivai? 'AyrjcnXdov 8* els rr)v 
BoLOjriav ififiaXovros ifj-q^iaapiivcov rdv dpxovrajv 
aTTOxujpLcraL razees alnves ftorjdrjcrovaL, tfrofiov- 
fjL€va)v drravrajv (etKorcos, a) fiovXr)' Sewov yap rju 
dyairrjraJs oXlytp rrporepov oeaajafievovs i<f>' erepov 
Kivhvvov teVat) rrpooeXdcov iyto rov ra^iapxov 
eKeXevov d/cA^pcort rr)v rjfjLerepav rd^iv rrepLTTeiv. 

17 war 61 rives vficov opyi^ovrai rols rd p.ev rrjs 
TToXews d^Lovoi rrpdrreiVy e/c Se rG)v Kivhvvoov 
drrohiopdoKovoLV , ovk av St/catco? rrepl ifiov rr)v 
yv(jj\ir]v ravrrjv exotev ov yap [iovov rd rrpoa- 

1 £v air od a.v bvrwv Markland : ivdavbvruv mss. 
% irapUvai Herbst : irpovUva.!. mss. 


them, though true and ardent patriots, lacked means 
for expenses of service, I said that the well-to-do 
ought to provide what was necessary for those in 
needy circumstances. Not only did I recommend 
this to the others, but I myself gave thirty drachmae 
each to two men ; not as being a person of great 
possessions, but to set a good example to the others. 
Come forward, please. 

Then after that, gentlemen, there was the expedi- 
tion to Corinth ; and everyone knew beforehand that it 
must be a dangerous affair. Some were trying to shirk 
their duty, but I contrived to have myself posted in the 
front rank for our battle with the enemy. Our tribe 
had the worst fortune, and suffered the heaviest 
losses among its own men : I retired from the field 
later than the fine fellow of Steiria 6 who has been re- 
proaching everybody with cowardice. Not many days 
after this event some strong posts in Corinth had been 
occupied, to prevent the passage of the enemy : 
when Agesilaus had forced his way into Boeotia, 
the commanders decided to detach some battalions 
to the rescue ; everyone felt afraid (with some 
reason, gentlemen ; for it was a serious thing, when 
they had just previously felt the relief of getting off 
in safety, to face a fresh danger), but I went to the 
commander and urged him to dispatch our battalion 
without drawing lots. So if any of you are incensed 
against those who claim the management of the city's 
affairs and yet evade its dangers, you can have no 
right to regard me with any such feeling ; for I not 

a 394 b.c. 

b Probably Thrasybulus : Steiria was a township on the 
east coast of Attica. 



rarrofxeva iirolovv 7Tpodvf.icos, dXXd /cat klv 

hw€V€LV iroXllCOl'. KOLL TdVT ZlToLoVV OW^ CO? OV 

beivov rjyovfievos elvai Aa/ceSat/xoriotS' /xa^ecr^ai, 

dAA' LVOL, €L 7TOT€ a$LKO)S €1$ KLvSvVOV KadLdTaijirjVy 

Std tolvtol fieXriajv uc/>' vjjlcov vopu^opLevos dndvTCOv 
tcov Sikcllcov Tvyxdvoipu. /cat [jlol avdfir)T€ tovtcov 


18 Tcov tolvvv dXXcov arparetcov /cat cfypovpcov ouSe- 
[al&s dneXeicbOiqv 7tco7tot€, dAAa navra tov ypovov 
Siarere'Ae/ca Aterd tcop' npcoTcov jjL-ev rds e^dSou? 
TTOiovficvos, fjL€rd tcov TeXevTaicov Se dvaycopcov. 


jiivovs e'/c tcov toiovtcov <jkott€lv, dAA' ovk et n? 
KOfxa, 1 Std tovto fjLiae'iv tcl jjlzv yap rotaura 
€7TLTr)$evp,aTa oihe tovs ISlcotols ovte to kolvov 

TTJS TToXeCOS ^Aa77T€t, 6/C Se TCOV KLvhw€V€LV iOe- 

19 Aeio-#e. tocrre ovk a£iov drr* oiftecos, cb fiovXrj, 
ovt€ cpiXelv ovt€ pucreiv ouSeVa, dAA' e'/c raV epycov 
gko7T€lv 7roAAot fxev yap jjLLKpov StaAeyd/xevot /cat 
/coayxtojc dpLTTeyopLevoi 2 /xeydXcov kclkcov atrtot yeyo- 


Kayadd vfidg etatv etpyacr/xeVot. 

20 "HS17 Se rii'cov f)trd6iJLr]v, c5 fiovXr), /cat Std raura 
dxOofxevcov /jlol, otl vecoTepos cov eVe^e/p^cra 
Ae'yetv eV ra> h-qjxoi. iyco Se to /xey rrpcoTov rjvay- 
Kaodiqv VTrep tcov ijxavTov TTpayfxaTCOV S^/x^yoprjcrat, 

1 ko/x£ llamaker: To\/.tqi 
• a/nrexufJ-evoi Dobree : direpx^.'-'-'i'OL MS3. 



only carried out my orders with zeal, but I was also 
forward to face danger. I acted in this way, not be- 
cause I did not think it a serious thing to do battle 
with the Lacedaemonians, but in order that, if ever I 
should be involved in an unjust prosecution, the better 
opinion that you would form of me on this account 
might avail to secure me the full measure of my 
rights. Now let the witnesses to this come forward, 


In every other campaign or outpost I have never 
once failed in my duty, but have adhered throughout 
to my rule of marching out in the first rank and 
retreating in the last. Surely it is by such conduct 
that one ought to judge who are the aspiring and 
orderly subjects of the State, and not to take the 
fact of a man's wearing his hair long a as a reason for 
hating him ; for such habits as this do no harm either 
to private persons or to the public weal, while it is 
from those who are ready to face danger before the 
enemy that you all derive advantage. Hence it is 
not fair, gentlemen, to like or dislike any man be- 
cause of his appearance, but rather to judge him by 
his actions ; for many who gossip little, and are 
sober in dress have been the cause of grievous mis- 
chief, while others who are careless of such things 
have done you many a valuable service. 

I have had occasion to observe, gentlemen, that 
some people are annoyed with me merely for at- 
tempting at too early an age to speak before the 
people. But, in the first place, I was compelled 
to speak in public to protect my own interests ; and 

"An aristocratic fashion among the class of knights. 



€7T€ira fievroi koll ifiavTO) Sokoj <^tAort/xorcpov 
BuiTcOnvcu rod heovros, afxa jikv tujv Trpoyovcov 
ivOvfiovfievos, on ovhev 7T€7ravvTai tol 1 rrjs ttoXgcos 
21 7Tpa.TT0VT€S, oijia oe vfias optbv (to, yap dXrjOrj XP 7 ) 
Xlyeiv) rovs tolovtovs 2 fiovovs <rivos> z a^iovs 
vofii^ovras elvai, cocrre opcov vfias raurrjv rr)v 
yvcufirjv exovras ris ovk av ijrapdelr) TTpdrreiv /cat 
Xeyetv vrrep rrjs TroXews; €tl Se ri av rots roiov- 
rois axQoiode; ov yap erepoi Trepl avTUJV KpiraC 
elaiv, aXX vfiels. 

1 to. Dobree : tQjv mss. 
* toi>s tolovtovs Francken : tovtovs mss. 



indeed, in the second, I do feel that my tendency has 
been unduly enterprising : for in reflecting on my 
ancestors, and how they have continually taken part 
in the administration, I had you also in my view — I 
must tell you the truth — as attaching no value to any 
but men of that stamp. So who, on seeing you so 
minded, would not be stimulated to work and speak 
for the benefit of the State ? Moreover, how could 
you be annoyed with such people ? For it is you, 
and none else, who are judges of their worth. 

3 Tiubs add. Dobree. 




This speech is the only example that we have of 
Lysias's skill in dealing with a disputed claim to 
property : it is brief and direct, relying mainly on 
points of fact established by witnesses and records. 
The speaker's grandfather lent two talents to 
Eraton, who died, and whose three sons, Erasiphon, 
Eraton and Erasistratus, inherited the debt but dis- 
continued payment of the interest. The speaker's 
father then took proceedings against Erasistratus, 
the only one of the debtors who was living in 
Attica, for the whole debt, and in 401-400 B.C. he 
obtained a judgement awarding him the property of 
Erasistratus. Difficulties appear to have arisen at 
this point : perhaps the inheritance of the three 
brothers remained undivided. The speaker, after 
his father's death, took possession of some of Erasis- 
tratus 's property at Sphettus, and tried to establish 
a claim to some more at Cicynna ; but here he was 
frustrated by Erasiphon's relatives, who first de- 
murred that the case was laid before the wrong 
court, and then, apparently, contrived delays when 


it came before the right one. What was more, the 
State intervened and, for some unknown reason, con- 
fiscated the whole estate as bequeathed to the three 
brothers, including the part of Erasistratus' property 
which the speaker had been holding for some time ; 
and he now takes proceedings against the Treasury, 
not for the whole, but for only a third : the case is 
heard before an ordinary court, presided over or 
assisted by the Revenue Commissioners. 

Prudence, no doubt, in such a trial prompted the 
claimant to reduce his demand so considerably as to 
ask for only the property of Erasistratus which had 
been adjudged to his father ; but he naturally takes 
credit to himself for his public-spirited relinquish- 
ment of two thirds of his rightful dues to the State. 
Nay, the part that he claims is only worth one eighth, 
on his estimate, of the sum which his grandfather 
originally lent to the elder Eraton. 

The date of the action is probably 397 B.C., about 
three years after the archonship of Xenaenetus (401 - 
400 b.c). The title here given to the speech is a 
substitution by Hoelscher for the obviously erroneous 
one in the manuscripts. 



1 "Icrtos Twes vpicov, a) dvopes St/caorat, Sta, to 
fiovAeaOoLL fie d^tov elvai tivos r\yovvTO.i /cat elrrelv 
dv (jl&AXov €Tepov hvvaodai' iytb Se togovtov Sea) 
nepl tcov jxrj TrpocrrjKovTaiv lkolvos etvat Ae'yetv, 


Ae'yetv, ahvvaTOs a) to, Seovra elneXv. otouat [lev 
ovv, idv iravTa OL7]yrJGtop,aL tol ttctt -a rjpuv 
7rpos 'Eparcava /cat tovs e'/cetVou 77atSa?, pahlojs 
i£ avTow vp.ds evprjcreiv a TTpovqKei GKeipaodat 
nepl TavTrjs Trjs SiaSt/caa^a?. e'£ Q-PXVS °^ v 


2 'EpdVcoy o 'EpacrK^ctji'Tos" TraTTjp eSaretcraro 
rrapa tov ipiov ttolttttov raAarra Suo. ort pcev 
ovv eAajSe Tapyvpiov ko.1 ws togovtov ye ioe^drj 
SaveiGaadaL, [kcu] 2 wv evavTiov iSoOrj, fiapivpas 
vplv 77apit;opLai' a 8' i)(P"'] oaT0 a v r( +> KaL °Ga 
w^AtjOk-) , ol fiaXAov T€ ii.tov cloores /cat irapa- 
yeyevrjpiivoi ols eKelvos eVparre hirjyquovTai 

KOLL p.apTVpTjGOVGL. KCLL flOL KoXtl pidpTVpaS. 

3 "Ecu? Tolvvv 6 'Eparcov et'q, tovs re tokovs air- 

eAa/x/SdVo/xev 3 /cat -rdAAa ra crvyK€ip,€va' eVetS?) oe 

1 IIpos to dr]/juaiou irtpi t£v 'Epdruvos xf >1 l a °- TWV Hoelscher: 
Arjfxoo-itov aOiKrj/xaTuv MSS. * Kal del. Hude. 



Perhaps some of you, gentlemen of the jury, sup- 
pose that, since I desire to be a person of some 
account, I must be able to excel others in speaking : 
but, so far from my being competent to speak on 
matters that do not concern myself, I fear that, even 
on matters of which I am obliged to speak, I may be 
unable to say what is needful. I believe, however, 
that if I can give you the full story of our dealings 
with Eraton and his children, you will easily form 
therefrom a proper judgement on the claim now put 
forward. So let me tell it you from the beginning. 

Eraton, father of Erasiphon, borrowed from my 
grandfather two talents. To show that he received 
this money, and that it was the amount of the loan 
that he requested, I will produce to you witnesses 
before whom the money was paid. As to the use 
that he made of it, and the profit that he got, those 
who know better than I, as having been in touch with 
his business, will relate and testify it to you. Please 
call witnesses. 


Now as long as Eraton was alive, we duly received 
our interest and the terms of agreement were kept ; 

3 aire\a.fx{lai>ofJ.ei> Hertlein: aireKd^avov iyw MS3. 



€T€\€VT7)(J€ KaraXi7T(l)V VOVS Tpet?, *JLpa(Jl<f)COVra 

/cat 'RpdTQjva /cat 'EpacricrTpaTOv , ovroi ovSev 

€Tt TjfJUV rCOV hlKOLLCDV €7TOLOVV. lv fieV OVV rep 

7ToXefJLCp, Scon ovk rjoav St/cat, ov Svvarol rjfiev 
nap* avrcov a cocfieiXov rrpd^aoOai' erreiSr) Se elpr/vrj 
eyevero, ore 7T€p it poor ov at dart/cat 8t/cat eSt- 
Ka^ovro, Xa^cov 6 Trarrjp iravrds rov avjifioXaiov 
y Kpaoicrrpdra) , oorrep fiovos rcov d$eXcf>cov eTrehij/JLei, 
KareSiKaoaro errl 'Eevaiverov dpxovros. fidprvpas 
8e /cat rovrcov 7rapefo/zat vpZv. /cat fxoi, /caAet 


4 "On jxev rd *Eipdrcovos St/caia)? av rjfxerepa etr], 
€K rovrcov pdoiov elSevai, on Se rrdvra SrjpLeveraL, 
i£ avrcov <rcov> x aTroypacbcov rpels yap /cat 
r err apes e/caorra airoyeypdcjyacn. /catrot rovro 
ye iravrl evyvcoorrov , on ovk av TrapeXirrov , ei n 
dXXo rcov 'IZpdrwvos otov re rjv 817/xeuetv, ot ndvra 
rd 'Epdrcovos arroypd^ovres Kal a eych* noXvv 
yjSr] xpovov /ce/cr^aat. cos fiev ovv tj/juv oi)S' 
erepcodev elorrpd^aod ai olov re, edv vfiets ravra 

6 SrjfjLevorjre, evyvcoorov \xoi 80/cet elvai' cos 8e rrjv 
dfJL(f)Lcr^'qrr]OLV e7roir]odjJL'qv irpos re vpL&s /cat rovs 
l$Lcoras, en aKovaare. ecus pep yap i)pXv ot 
*JLpaoitf)Lovros ot/cetot rovrcov rcov xprjfiarcov 
r}}±if)eofirirovv , arravra tj^lovv eua elvau, StoVt virep 
arravros rov xpecos dvnoLKcov rrpos rov irarepa 
6 'Epaot'orparos' r)Trrjdr) m Kal rd fiev Hcfirjrrol tJSt] 

1 tCov add. Reiske. 
1 Kal a 4yCj Reiske : Kal \eyu, tyu Se mss. 

a The time of the stru^le between the thirty oligarchs 
and the democracy, 404-403 B.C. 


but when he died, leaving three sons — Erasiphon, 
Eraton and Erasistratus, — these persons ceased to 
give us our rightful dues. During the war,° of course, 
as there were no suits at law, we were unable to 
make them pay what they owed ; but when peace 
was made, as soon as civil suits began to be tried, my 
father got permission to proceed against Erasistratus 
for the whole debt, as he alone of the brothers was 
resident here, and obtained a verdict against him in 
the archonship of Xenaenetus. 6 I will produce to you 
witnesses of these facts also. Please call witnesses. 


That the property of Eraton should of right be ours 
is easily understood from these statements, but that 
the whole is being confiscated appears from the actual 
inventories ; for these have been compiled in detail 
by three and even four persons. Surely it is obvious 
to everyone that they would not have omitted any 
other property of Eraton's available for confiscation, 
when they were entering all the property of Eraton, 
including even the part that has belonged to me for a 
long time past. Well, that it is not possible for us to 
recover anything even from the other side, once you 
have confiscated this property, I consider obvious ; 
but now let me tell you how I have treated you, c as 
distinct from private persons, in the conduct of this 
dispute. As long as the relatives of Erasiphon were 
contesting this property, I claimed the whole as 
mine, because Erasistratus lost his case when he 
pleaded against my father's suit for the whole debt ; 
and for the last three years I have let out the prop- 

6 401-400 b.c. 
c The jury are addressed as representing the State. 



rpia err) ue/tto#oj/ca, ra>v he KlkvvvoI /cat rrjs 
olklgls ehtKa^ofirjv Tot? e^ouat. nepvcn p.ev ovv 
hteypdipavro jjlov ras 8t/ca?, epuropoi (frdoKOVTes 
elvai' vvvl he Xa^ovros ev ra> TajjLrjXicovi paqvl 01 

6 vavrohiKdi ovk e£ehu<aaav. eirechr) 8' vpuv ra 
'Epaat^ojvTOS' hr/fieveLV eho£ev, d<f>els rfj 77-oAet 
toj hvo fxepec rd 'EpacriorpaTov a£ta> fiou tpr)(f)t- 
adrjvai, Start ravrd ye rjhr) /cat irporepov eyvojKare 
rjjjLeTepa elvai. djpiodurjv ovv efxavrcp to rpirov 

[lipOS TJ]S €K€LVOJV OVULdS OV TTjV aKpifietaV €7TL- 

OKeifjdfievos, dXXd ttoXXco rrXeov r) toj hvo [iepei 

7 to) SrjiAocrLtp viroXnrojv . pdhiov he yvojvat e/c tou 


diravra fiev yap irXeLovos r) raXdvrov T€TLfirjvrai, 
ujv 8' iycb dfi(f)LO^rjra) ra> [xev irivre p,vas ray Se 
X^Xias Spa^/xa? e-neypai\sdp.rrv /cat el irXelovos 
a£id ionv r) rocrovrov, arro K-qpvxOevr ojv to Treptrrov 

8 r) 7t6Xls XrjifjeraL. tva ovv elhrjre on tolvtcl dXrjdrj 
ean, {.idprvpas v/jllv rtape^o\iai irpcorov fiev tovs 
jjLepLiaOwpLevovs nap* ifiov to Sc/^TTOt ^ojoiW, 

[1 19] eireira tou Klkvvvo'l tovs yeirovas, 61 laaoiv r)fi&s 
rjhr) rpia err) d/JL(f)LoPr}TOVvras, en he rovg re 
TrepvGLV dp^avras, npos ovs at St/cat eXrjxOrjcrav, 

9 /cat rovs vvv vavroSiKas. avayvojadiqaovTai he 
v/mv /cat avrai at aTroypa^ar e/c rovrcov yap 
/LtaAtora yvcoueoOe on ovre veojcrn ravra rd XP1~ 

A township of the tribe Acamantis in the south of At i Lea. 

6 As such they could only be tried before a nautical court. 

f December-January. 

4 One at Sphettus and one at Cicynna. 

• A talent was 6000 drachmae, and a mina 100 drachmae. 



erty at Sphettus, a but over the property at Cicynna a 
and the house there I was at law with the occupiers. 
Last year, however, they got my suit quashed by 
alleging that they were sea-traders b ; but at present, 
although I was permitted to bring proceedings in the 
month of Gamelion, c the nautical court has not 
decided the case. Now that you have seen fit to 
confiscate the property of Erasiphon, I relinquish two 
thirds to the State, and claim that the property of 
Erasistratus be adjudged to me, because it is this 
property that your previous decision has already 
made ours. So I have limited my share to one- 
third of their property, making no exact calculation, 
but leaving much more than two-thirds to the 
Treasury. This is easily concluded from the valua- 
tion which has been attached to the schedule of the 
property. For they have valued the whole at more 
than a talent, whereas to one of the properties for 
which I am suing I attached five minae, and to the 
other d a thousand drachmae e : if they are worth more 
than those amounts, the surplus after they have 
been sold by auction will go to the State. And to 
convince you of the truth of this I will produce to you, 
as witnesses, first the persons who rented from me 
the estate at Sphettus, then the neighbours of the 
place at Cicynna, who know that we have been con- 
testing it for the last three years, and next the magis- 
trates of last year, before whom the suits were 
authorized to be heard, and the present judges of the 
nautical court. You will also have these inventories 
read to you : for they above all will convince you 
that our claim to this property is no recent matter, 

He asks for a value of 15 minae — one eighth of the two talents 
originally lent to Eraton. 



fjLOLTa a£iov(i€V r}/.i€T€pa etmt, ovre vvvl raj $r)[iocrittj 
TrAeiovcov aficf)ia{3r}ToviJL€V 7} raj cfXTTpoodev -^povcp 
rols t'Stcorat?. /cat fiou /caAet (.idprvpas. 


10 "On /jlev, u) aiSpes" 8t/caaTat, ov rrapa to Slkcllov 
dC'LCJ fiOL ifit](f)LaaodaL to 8tao7/cao-jiia, dAA' auTOS" 
ttj 77oAet 7roAAa tojv ifiavrov afals rovro d£toj 
juot d7roSo#7Jyat, a7rooVSet/CTat. 77S77 Se /xoi So/cet 
hiKaiov ehai /cat herjOrjvai vjjlcJqv t€ /cat toji> 
avvhiKtov ivavriov vfxajv. 



and also that to-day we are contesting with the 
Treasury an amount that compares favourably with 
that which we formerly contested with private per- 
sons. Please call witnesses. 


That there is no injustice, gentlemen, in my claim- 
ing your verdict on the property in question, but 
rather that I have relinquished to the State a great 
part of my own property before claiming this restora- 
tion, has been clearly proved. And now I deem it 
just to lay my request before you and also before the 
Commissioners ° in your presence. 

* Of Revenue. 

2 397 



Nicias, the Athenian general who was made im- 
mortal by the malice of fate and the genius of Thucy- 
dides, had two brothers, Eucrates and Diognetus. 
The former of these, like the officer Dionysodorus 
of whom we hear in the speech Against Agoratus 
(XIIL), was put to death by the Thirty in 404 b.c. for 
opposing the establishment of an oligarchy ; the 
latter returned to Athens with the democrats in 
403, but died not long afterwards. In or about the 
year 396, during the time of peace which preceded 
the Corinthian War (cf. 15), the two sons of Eucrates, 
having reached an age when they could perform 
the usual duties of wealthy citizens (21), had to 
defend themselves at law against a second attempt 
by a man named Poliochus to obtain a verdict for the 
confiscation of their patrimony — " the property of 
the brother of Nicias." The first attempt had been 
made when they were still minors, shortly after 
the restoration of the democracy : on this occasion 
their case is pleaded by the elder of the two. Per- 


haps the allegation was that their father had em- 
bezzled or mismanaged some public funds : we find 
that the Commissioners of Revenue are prominently 
concerned in the trial (26) ; and if the suit is success- 
ful, the sons of Eucrates stand to lose not only their 
inheritance, but their civic rights as well (1). We 
possess here only the concluding part of a speech — 
perhaps all that Lysias composed — in defence of the 
elder brother; and as the appeal throughout is to 
feeling rather than to reason we have but few facts 
on which to build our conjectures as to the precise 
position of the matter at issue. 

The speaker first recalls the character and services 
of his uncles Nicias and Diognetus and his father 
Eucrates, and draws a pathetic picture of Diognetus 
bringing him and his brother and an infant grandson 
of Nicias to Pausanias and imploring his protection 
against the Thirty (1-12). He then discourses on the 
inconsistency of approving now the confiscation 
which was disallowed before, and on the disruptive 
influence of confiscation in the body politic ; it also 
wastes the resources of the people through its dissi- 
pation by the successful prosecutors (who are awarded 
a large share of the property confiscated), when it 
might be benefiting the State through the public 
spirit of its rightful owners (13-23). The defendants 
are orphans who have no one to support their plea : 
they claim the sympathy due to the relatives of 
men who have suffered in the cause of democracy, 
and pray that they may be saved from ruin (24-27). 



1 'EivOvfjLrjOrjTe toivvv, o> avhpes St/caorat, oloi* 
rives ovres iroXlrai /cat avTol /cut d)v 7TpoorrJKOvres 
ahiKovpievoL a^iovfiev eXeelodai vcj)' vp.cbv /cat twv 
hiKaitov rvyyaveiv ov ydp p,6vov irepl rrjs ovoias 
dyo}vit ) 6p,eQa ) dXXd /cat rrepl rrjs TroXtreias, el xpr) 
hrjpLOKparovpLevrjs rrjs iroXeajs r)puv elvai. 
7Tpa)TOV fxev ovv 7T€pl Nt/ctou rod r)/jLerepov deiov 

2 avapivrjadrjre . eKelvos yap ova p,ev rfj eavrov 
yva)fir) xptopLtvos vrrep rod ttXtjOovs rod vpierepov 
enpatje, rravraxov (fyavqaerat ttoXXojv fieu /cat 3 
ayadayv alrios rfj rroXet yeyevrjfievos, TrXelorra he 
/cat fieyicrra /ca/cd Toys' iroXepLiovs elpyaapLevos' 
oaa he ov fiovX6p,evos dAA' a.KO)v r)uayKao6r) 
TTOirjoai, tG)v fiev KaKOJV ovk eAd^tOTov avros 
fieTeoxe fiepos, rr)v 8' alriav rrjs ovjA^opas oi 

3 ireioavres u/xas" hiKaiojs dv eypiev, errel rr\v ye 
irpos vpuas evvoiav /cat rr)v aperrjv <rr)v>* avrov 
ev rat? cumstats' rats* vpierepais /cat rat? hva- 
ru^tats' rats- rtov eyQp&v eVeSetfaro 5- orparr]yojv 
yap TToXAds ptev iroXeus elXe, 7roXXd he /cat /caAd 

1 Tuiu add. Bekker. ■ ohi Bckker: ol mss. 

• Kal Galen : idia mss. 4 tt\v add. Sauppe. 

6 tiredciZaTo Reiake : iiridei^a, ividei^e mss. 


Now you must reflect, gentlemen of the jury, on 
the character that we bear as citizens ourselves, 
and also on the family of which we come, when we 
claim your pity for the wrongs that we have suffered 
and an award of our rights. For we are contending, 
not merely for our property, but for our citizenship 
as well : we must know whether we are to have our 
portion in the democracy of our city. So first let 
me remind you of our uncle, Nicias : in all that he 
did for your common weal while using his own judge- 
ment, he will be found everywhere to have been 
the author of many benefits to the State, and to have 
inflicted a great number of grievous injuries on the 
enemy ; but in all that he was compelled to do, not 
of his own wish but against his will, he bore no slight 
part of the injuries himself, while the responsibility 
for the disaster ought in fairness to lie with those 
who persuaded you,° seeing that of his own loyalty 
to you and of his merit he afforded proof in your 
successes and your enemies' failures. For as your 
general, he took many cities, and many were the 

8 The reference is to the Sicilian expedition in 415 B.C., 
which Nicias had opposed ; cf. Thucydides, vi. 8 ff. 



Kara row TToXe^ucov ecrrqoe rpoTraia, a>v kglO* ev 
4 zkclgtov ttoXv av epyov €177 Ae'yetv. YLvKpdTrjs 
tolvvv, aSeA^d? H^v tuv €K€lvov, Trarr)p 8' e/xd?, 
■77877 rr\s reXevratag^o.9 y€y€vr)p.evr]s <f>a- 
vepav eVeSct^aro ry]v evvoiav t)v et^e 7T€pl to ttXtjOos 
to vperepov rjrrrjpievajv yap iv <rfj > l muua^ta 
orparrjyos vcf)' Vfxcov fjprjfjLevos xal TrapaKaXovpLtvos 
ixere\eiv rfjs oAtyap^ia? vtto twv eTTifiovXevovTOJV 
6 toj 7rXi]6ei, ovk r)deXr]uev avrols •7T€t#eo/9at, iv 
roLOVTCp Kaipa) Xr)(f)6€LS iv to ol ttXzZotoi rtov 

avdpOJTTOJV KCLL [JLeTafiaXXoi'TOU 7700? rd Trapovra 

/cat Tat? Tu^at? et/couax, Svotvxovvtos tov oij/jlov, 
ovk aTreXavvopLevos rrjs TToXireias odS' t8ta? e^oa? 
V7rapxovar)S 77009 dp^etv piiXXovrag, dXX i£6v 
avrto Kal rtov rpiaKovra yeveodac Kal firjoevog 
eXarrov ovvaoOat, pi&XXov elXero rrpdrrajv vnep 

T7JS VfJL€T€pa.S OOJr7)piaS aTToXioUai 77 €7TL0€LV <TCt> 2 

reix?) KaQaipovfieva Kal rag vavs rols TroAe/xtots' 
7rapahSo}iivas Kal to vpiirepov TrXrjdos Kara- 

6 oeoovXojpiivov . Kal ov rroXXa) xP OVOJ vorepov 
NtKrjparos, dveifjios wv ipos Kal vos Nlklov, 
evvovs tuv rtu v/JLerepco TrXi)dei, ovXArjcfydels vtto 
rtuv rpiaKovra d-rredavev, ovre yivei ovre ovoia 
ovd* r)XiKia ookcjv dvd^ios elvai rrjs TroXireias 
jLteTao^ety aAAd roiavra cVoiu'^eTO 3 rd vrrdpxovra 
avrto rrpos to vpiirepov TrXrjdos etvai /cat 8td rovs 
Trpoyovovs Kal avrov, tbore ovk av ttou* eripas 

7 i-mdv/jLTJcrat iroXireias . ovvrjoecrav yap aTraoiv av- 
rols vtto rrjs TToXewg* r 1 fiojpiivo is, Kal 77oAAa^ou 

1 7-77 add. Rciske. 2 rd add. Markland. 

3 ivofxi^ro Baiter : tVo/wfc mss. 
4 7r6\ea;j Dobree : 7ro\iretas MSS. 


splendid trophies of the foe's defeats that he set up; 
to mention them severally would be wearisome. Now 
Eucrates, his brother, who was my father, just after 
the last sea-fight ° had taken place, gave signal evi- 
dence of his loyal devotion to your democracy. For 
after our defeat in the sea-fight he was elected general 
by you and, although invited to take part in the olig- 
archy by those who were plotting against the people, 
he refused to listen to them. He was involved in the 
kind of crisis & in which the majority of men not only 
shift about according to circumstances, but also 
yield to the vagaries of fortune. The democracy 
was faced with failure ; he was not being driven out 
of public life, nor did he nurse any private enmity 
against those who were about to be the rulers. And 
yet, although it was open to him to become one 
of the Thirty and to have as much power as any 
man, he chose rather to perish in working for your 
safety than to endure the sight of the demolition of 
the walls, the surrender of the ships to the enemy 
and the enslavement of your people. And, not long 
after that, Niceratus, who was my cousin and Nicias's 
son, and a loyal supporter of your democracy, was ar- 
rested and put to death by the Thirty : neither his 
birth nor his means nor his age could be thought to 
disqualify him for a part in the government ; but it 
was supposed that he was in such high credit with 
your democracy on his own account as well as on 
that of his ancestors that he could never be zealous 
for a different government. For they were conscious 
of the honour in which the whole family were held 
by the city, and how they had faced danger on your 

a At Aegospotami, 405 b.c. 
6 The oligarchic revolution of the Thirty, 401 b.c. 



jJLeV V7T€p VflCOV KeKlvhweVKOCTl, fXeydXaS 8' €L<J- 

[150] <j)opas elaevrrvoxdoi /cat XeXrjTovpyrjKooi /cdAAtora, 
/cat rtov dXXcov ovhevos ttcjjttot aTTOGrdaiv tbv r) 
77oAt? avTots Trpooera^ev, dXXd TrpoOvjjLOJS Xrjrovp- 

8 yovcri. /cat'rot rives dv rj/Jicov eliiaav hvarvx^o-TepoL, 
el ev /.lev rfj dAtyap^ta diroOvrjuKoipLev evvoi dvres 
rep irX-qdeiy ev he. rfj S^/xo/cparta cos kolkovoi 1 ovres 

9 rep TrXrjOei oLTToarepoLfjieda rcov ovtcdv; /cat \iev hrj, 
w dvhpes St/caarat, /cat Atoyv^ros" hia^XrjOels /xev 
V7TO rcov crvKofiavrcov cfrevycov ajvero, \ier dXLycov 


revcraro ovr els Ae/ceAetai> d^t/cero' ouS' eunv 
otov /ca/cou airios ovre cjievycov ovre KareXdcbv rco 
Vfierepco TrXrjdei yeyevrjrai, dXX els tovt dperijs 
rjXdev coare fidXXov cbpyl^ero rots et? vfxds 77/xap- 
rrjKocnv rj rols aura) rrjs KaOohov alriois yeye- 

10 vrjixevois <x^piv rjhei>. 2 /cat dpx^jv [xev ovhejdav 
r)p£ev ev rfj dAtyapvta* eTreihr) he rd^tara r)X9ov 
els rrjv *A/caS^/t£tav Aa/ceSat/xoi'tot /cat Ilay- 
oavias, Xafitov rov Nt/c^pdrou /cat rj/ids 7rat3a> 
ovtols, eKelvov fiev KareOrjKev eVt rols yovacri rols 
Tlavaavlov, rjfids he rrapaGrriGdjxevos eXeye irpos 
eKelvov /cat rovs dXXovs rovs rrapovras oaa elr)\Lzv 
7TeTTov66res /cat otat? Teats' /ce^p^/xcVot, /cat r)^cov 
II avcravlav fiorjO'rjaai /cat Std rrjv c/>tAtav /cat Std 
t^j; £evlav rrjv VTrdpxovcrav, /cat ri/xcopov yeveadai 

11 rtuv et? 77 /xa? rifjLaprrjKorcov. 66 ev Flaucrai'ia? 
rjp^aro evvovs elvai rco SrJ/xco, Trapdhetyfxa ttoiov- 
fievos rrpos rovs d'AAou? Aai<ehaLfxovLOVS rds 
rj/jLerepas trvpLtfiopas rrjs rcov rpiaKovra Trovrjplas' 
hrjXov yap drraai rols eXOovcri YieXoTTOvvqoicov 

1 kclkLvoi Marklund: KaKoi mss. a x^/ 3 '" V^ ei add. Cobet. 
40 1- 


behalf in many places, and had made many large 
contributions to your funds, and had most nobly 
performed their public services ; how they had never 
once evaded any of the other duties enjoined on 
them by the State, but had eagerly discharged them 
all. I ask you, whose misfortune can surpass ours, if 
under the oligarchy we are put to death for showing 
loyalty to the people, and under the democracy we 
are stripped of our property as being disloyal to the 
people ? Furthermore, gentlemen, Diognetus was 
so slandered by base informers that he went away 
into exije, and was one of the few of the banished who 
neither took the field against the city nor came to 
Decelea ° ; nor has he been the author of any sort of 
injury to your people either in exile or after his return, 
but he carried principle to such a point that he was 
rather incensed with those who had offended against 
you than grateful to those who had been the authors 
of his recall. He held no office under the oligarchy : 
but, as soon as the Lacedaemonians and Pausanias had 
arrived at the Academy, he took the son of Niceratus 
and us, who were children, and laying him on the 
knees of Pausanias, and setting us by his side, he told 
Pausanias and the others present the tale of our 
sufferings and the fate that had befallen us, and 
called on Pausanias to succour us in virtue of our 
bonds both of friendship and of hospitality, and to 
do vengeance upon those who had maltreated us. 
The result was that Pausanias began to be favour- 
able to the people, holding up our calamities to the 
Lacedaemonians as an example of the villainy of the 
Thirty. For it had become evident to all the Pelo- 

a Where the Spartans kept a strangle-hold on Attica, and 
welcomed exiled oligarchs from Athens. 




drreKreivov , dXX of$ fldXlGra rrpoarJKOv Kal OLCL 
yevos Kal hid rrXovrov Kal hid ttjv dXXrjv aperrjv 

12 Tif.iaodai. ovroj S' rjXeovjJieda Kal rraai heiva 
ehoKodfiev rrerrovOevai, oxttc Ylavoavias ra fiev 
rrapd tG)v rpiaKovra feVia ovk r)9eXr]oe Xaffelv, 
ra. he rrap rj/jicjjv ehe^aro. Kairoi heivov, cu dvhpes 
hiKaorai, vrro /xeV tCjv rroXep.iojv rralhas rjfjias 
ovras eXeelcrOai, ol rfj SXiyapxia fiorjdrjcrovres 
rjXOov, vrro S' VjjLOJV, cb dvhpes hiKaorai, roiovrovs 
yeyevvfiivovs Ttav ovrojv aTroarepelcrOai, ojp ol 
irarepes virep rrjs hrjfioKparias drredavov. 

13 Ev S' o£8', tu dvhpes hiKaarai, on rrepl rrXeicrrov 
dv TTOtrjcratro YloXioxos rovrov rdv dydjva KaropOa)- 
Gai, rjyovfxevos avrw KaXrjv elvai rrjv eTTihei^iv 1 Kal 
rrpos rovs noXiras Kal rovs £evovs, ore 'Adrfvrjcri ro- 
oovrov hvvarai, tocr^' vfids rovs avrovs, rrepl (Lv 
opKovs SfiojixoKare, avrols ra evavria rroielv 

14 ifjiq^iteoOai. rrdvres yap e'ioovrai on rore fiev 
XtXiais hpaxp-als e^-qfiicoaare 2 rdv fiovXofjLevov rrjv 
rjpierepav yrjv hrjfiocriav rroirjcrai, vvvl he. KeXevojv 
hrjfjLevoai veviK7]Ke } Kal rrepl rovrcov hrj dfji<j)orepa>v 
WOrjvaloi, rrapd vopiov 3 <j)evyovros rod avrov dv- 

15 hpos, rdvavria a^ioiv avrols eiprjfiioavro. ovk ovv 

alcrxpoVy el a fiev AaKehaifioviois orvveOeode fie- 

fiaiajoere, a he avrols eip-qcfricraoOe ovrci) pahitos 

BuaXvoere, Kal to? fiev rrpos eKeivovs ovvOr\Kas 

Kvplas rron'-joere, rds he rrpos avrovs aKvpovs; 

1 enioei^iu Dobrcc : a.Tr65ei^iv MSS. 

8 ^?;,u£wa-are Markland: efrfxiuxre MSS. 

8 napa vofxov Taylor : irapavbfiwv MSS. 

° Gifts were offered as tokens of a friendly welcome. 


ponnesians who had come that they were putting to 
death, not the most villainous of the citizens, but 
those who were especially deserving of honour on 
account of their birth, their wealth and their general 
excellence. Such was the pity felt for us, and such 
an impression of our grievous sufferings was made 
on everyone, that Pausanias rejected the hospitable 
offerings a of the Thirty, and accepted ours. Surely it 
will be strange, gentlemen of the jury, if after being 
pitied as children by the enemy who had come to 
succour the oligarchy we, who have proved ourselves 
the men we are, should be stripped of our property 
by you, gentlemen, whose fathers gave their lives for 
the democracy ! 

I am well aware, gentlemen, that Poliochus would 
value most highly his success in this trial, since he 
would regard it as a fine demonstration to citizens 
and strangers alike that he has sufficient power in 
Athens to make you vote in contradiction of your own 
selves on the very question in which you have sworn 
to do your duty. For everyone will know that formerly 
you punished with a fine b of a thousand drachmae 
the man who proposed that our land should be con- 
fiscated, and yet that to-day he has prevailed with 
his demand for its confiscation ; and that in these 
two suits, in which the same man was illegally prose- 
cuted, the Athenians voted in contradiction of them- 
selves. Would it not then be disgraceful of you, 
after confirming your agreements with the Lace- 
daemonians, to shatter so lightly what you have 
voted on your own account, and to make valid your 
covenants with them, but invalidate those that you 

b Inflicted on a prosecutor who failed to obtain a fifth of 
the judges' votes. 



Kal toZs jxev aXXois "EXArjcnv opyi^ecrOe, 1 ei ns 
AaKtoaiLiorlovs vlicov nepl rrXeiovos ttoizZtcli, 
Vfxelg 8' avroi cfravqcrecrde Triororepov rrpos ckclvovs 

16 t) rrpos vpLas avrovs hiaKeiLievoi ; d£tov 8e /laAtoT* 
ayavaKTrjaaL* on ovrcos rjSrj ol rd ttjs ttoXccos 
Trpdrrovres OLaKeivrai, coot* oi>x o rt av rfj iroXei 
fieXriarov f], rovro ol prfropes Xdyovacv, aAA' d(/>' 
cov av avroi KepSalvetv LteXXcocn, ravra vp.els 

17 ifjrjfil^eode. Kal el fiev rco vfxerepco TrXrjdeL crvv- 

€(f)€pe TOVS Ll€V €X€IV TO. aVTWV, TCOV Se aOLKQJS 8e- 

oi~iLL€vodai rr\v ovoiaVy eiKorcos av rjLieXelre rcov vcf> y 
rjfjLOJV XeyoLievojv vvvi 8e Trdvres av o/xoAoy^cratre 
oLiovocav <p,€v> z LieyicTTov ayaOov etvau iroXei, 
orderly Se rrdvrcov KaKcov alriav, oiacfrepeodai 8e 
irpos dAArjAou? £k rcov roiovrcov /xaAtcrr', edv ol 

fl€V TLOV dXXoTpLOJV imOv/JLCDCTLV, ol 8' €K rCOV 

IS Svrcov iKTTiTTTOJOi. Kal ravd* vfielg eyvcore vecocrrl 
i 151 J KareXOovres, opdcos PovXevofxevot' ere yap ific- 
fjuvrjode tcdv yeyevrjLiivcov ovLicfroptov, Kal rot? 
deois et's" OLiovoiav r/vx^crde KaraorrjvaL rrjv -ttoXlv 
fiaXXov rj e77i riiicopiav rcov napeX-qXvdorcov rpano- 
ll€Vcov a ttjv fx€v 7t6Xlv oraoidoai, Tovs 8e Xeyovras 

19 raxecos 7rXovrrjoai. Kairoi nXeicov avyyvcoLirj 
LivqoiKaKelv vecoarl KareXrjXvOoaLV, in rrjs opyfjs 


Tificopiav rcov TTapeXiqXvOoTCov rparreoOai, vtto roi- 
ovrcov TT€ia6ivTas ol ev dorei Lielvavreg ravr-qv 6 

1 dpyi^eaOe Cobet : 6pyi{oi<r0e MSS. 
* fidXiffr ayavaKTrjOcu Dobree : yudXtcrra (pdovrjacu MSS. 
3 fih add. Bekker. 
* Tpairontvuv Ilude : rpaird/xeroi MSS. 



have made with yourselves ? You are incensed with 
any other Greeks who value the Lacedaemonians 
more than you ; and will you show in your own dis- 
position more fidelity to them than to yourselves ? 
But what calls for the highest indignation is that the 
disposition of men in public life to-day is such that 
the orators do not propose what will be most bene- 
ficial to the city, but it is for proposals which must 
bring profit to them that you give your votes. 
Now, if it were to the advantage of your people that, 
while some kept their own, others had to suffer the 
unjust confiscation of their property, you would have 
some reason to neglect our arguments : but in fact 
you must all acknowledge that unanimity is the 
greatest boon to a city, while faction is the cause of 
all evils ; and that mutual dissensions chiefly arise 
from the desire of some for what is not theirs, and 
the ejection of others from what they have. This 
was your conclusion shortly after your return, and 
your reasoning was sound ; for you still remembered 
the disasters that had occurred, and you prayed to the 
gods to restore the city to unanimity rather than 
permit the pursuit of vengeance for what was over- 
past to lead to faction in the city and the rapid en- 
richment of the speech-makers. And yet it would 
have been more pardonable to show resentment 
shortly after you had returned, while your anger was 
freshly kindled, than to pursue so belated a ven- 
geance for what is overpast at the bidding of men 
who, after remaining in the city, conceive that they 

a The law awarded three-quarters of a property confiscated 
to the person who brought the action for its confiscation ; cf. 
§ 20 below. 

6 ravT7]v Taylor : avr/jp mss. 



f ~ 


irepovs kokovs rroLoin-res, dAA' ov ac/xx? olvtovs 
Xpr)OT0vs 77-ape^oi'Te?, /cat vvvl tlov rfjs 7t6X<eojs 
€Vtv)(iujv d-noXavovTZs , dAA' ov Trporepov tojv 
vjxerepcov kivSvvcov fxerexovres . 

20 Kat el pev etopare, o> dvopeg St/cacrrat, aojtopeva 
rfj TToXet tol V7TO tovtojv orjpevopeva, ovyyvojprjv 
dv elxofjiev vvv 8' InidTLxaQe otl ra jxev avrojv 
V7t6 tovtojv d<f>av t£eT at, tcl 8e ttoXXov d£ta dVra 
oXiyov TTLTTpdoKeTou. idv 8' e/.tot TreiOiqoOe, ovk 
iXaTTCj air* avTtSJv vpels cocbeXrjO^oeode t) rjpiels ol 

21 K€KT7]fJL€VOL, €7T€L /Cat VVl'l Al6pm]CFT0<; KCLL iydj KOLL 

6 dSeXcbog £k pads olidas Tpelg ovtzs Tpif]papxov- 

fJL€V, Kol OTOLV T) TToXlS Se^Tat XP 7 ]f JL ° LTOJV > ^ L7TO 

yvojpLr) xpwpevojv, koli tojv npoyovojv tojv rjpeTe- 

22 pojv tolovtojv yeyevrj pevojv, thelSeade r\pojv. ovhkv 
yap dv rjpds kojXvol, d> dvSpes St/cacrrat, dOXiojTa- 
tovs 1 elvai, inl pkv tojv TpiaKovTa optfiavovs /cara- 
Xei(f)OevTas, iv Se rfj Srjp,oKpaTLa tojv ovtojv eare- 
p-qpLevovs, ots rj tvx 7 ! 7To.peSojK€v loot ert rjpds 
Traloas ovtcls em tt]v Ylavaaviov gkt]V7]v iXdovTas 
fior)9rjoai toj TrX-qdei. /cat tolovtojv rjplv vtt- 
apxovTOjv et? TtVa? dv ifiovXijOi^ev St/caards" /cara- 

23 cfjvyelv; ovk els tovs ovtoj TroXtTevopevovs } virep i)<s 
TToXiTetas 2 /cat d TraTrjp /cat ol 7rpoor)KOVT€s rjplv 
diriQavov; vvv tolvvv tolvtijv dvO* dirdvTOJV dir- 
aiTovpev vpag ti]v X.dpiv, p,r) Trepuheiv rjpdg diropoj? 
Stare^eVra? /x^S' eVSeets" tojv eVtr^Set'ajy yevo- 
pievovs, prjSe ttjv tojv irpoyovojv evhaLp,oviav 
/caraAucrat, dAAd ttoXv pd.XXov irapdheiypLa Troifj- 

1 ad\iu>T&Toi'S Stephanus : aSXtodedrovs mss. 


give you a pledge of their own loyalty when they 
make bad subjects of their fellows instead of showing 
themselves good ones, and who to-day reap the fruits 
of the city's successes without having previously 
shared your perils. 

And if you saw, gentlemen, that the property 
confiscated by these men was being secured for the 
State, we should forgive them ; but the fact is, as 
you well know, that some of it is melting away in 
their hands, while the rest, though of great value, is 
being sold off cheap. Yet, if you will take my advice, 
you will receive no less profit from it than we, the 
owners. For at this moment Diomnestus, my brother 
and I, three of one household, are equipping war- 
ships, and when the State requires money we raise a 
special contribution on these properties. Since, then, 
we are of this way of thinking, and our ancestors have 
evinced the same character, spare us. Else we should 
have no escape, gentlemen, from the most miserable 
plight : after being left orphans in the time of the 
Thirty we should be stripped of our property under 
the democracy, — we, to whom fortune vouchsafed 
that, as mere children, we should succour the people 
by going to the tent of Pausanias ! Having such 
a record behind us, with what judges would we have 
chosen to take refuge ? Surely with those who sup- 
port a constitution for which both our father and our 
kinsmen gave their lives. And so to-day this is the 
sole return that we ask of you for all that we have 
done, — that you do not suffer us to be reduced to 
destitution or left in want of bare necessaries, and 
that you do not ruin the prosperity that was our 
ancestors', but much rather give an example to those 

3 rjs iroXireias Taylor : tqs 7roAtrecas rjs M33. 



crat rot? fiovXopevois rr)V rroXiv eu rroitiv, olojv 
vfidjv iv rots' klvSvpols TeV^Ol'TOU. 

24 Ovk e'xto, co dvhpes hiKacrrai, ovcmvas herjcro- 
fievovs vrrep rjpwv dvafiifjao-opai- tojv yap Trpoa- 
tjkovtojv ol pev drSpa? dyadous avrovs napa- 
GX OVT€ S /cat fxeydXrjv ttjv noXiv ttoiovvtzs £v rep 
rroXepcp redvacnv, ol o' vrrep rrjs S^/xo/cparta? /cat 

25 ttJ? vfierepas £Xev9epias vtto tojv rpiaKovra koj- 
veiov TTiovres, coare rrjs eprjplas rjpLerepas atrtat 
yeyovaoiv at re rcoy irpoa-qKovrajv dperal /cat at 
ttjs" ttoAcojs* crvfi(f)opai. a>v d£iov vpas evdvpnqOev- 
ras- rrpoBvpojs rjplv fiorjOrjcrai, rjyrjoapevovs toutou? 
av eV SrjpoKparla St/cata)? €u irduyjiiv vj> vptbv, 
olrrep ev dAtyap^ta raw avpcfropujv fiereaxov 

26 to p,epos. d^icx) he. /cat toutou? tous" ouvSt/cous* 
evvovs rjplv elvai, eKeivov rod xpovov pvYjodevras, 
or e/c -7-77? 7rarpiSog £ktt€ittcqk6t€s /cat ras* ovoias 
drroXajXeKores dVSpa? apterous evopl^er* etvai toj)? 
U7rep vpitov aTroOvrjaKovras , /cat rots' Scots' rjvxeade 

27 BwrjOfjvai ydpiv rot? ef eKelvtov diroo'ovvai. rjpieis 
roivvv, vels ovres /cat avyyevels rtov vnep rrjs 
eXevBepias TrpoKeKivovvevKorwv , dirairovpev lipids 
vvvl ravrrjv ttjv X®-P lv > K0LL d^iov/Jiev p,r) aot/coj? 
^/zds* a77oAeoat, dAAa 7roAu /xaAAov fiorjBeTv rots 
Tajy auTai^ pL€Taoxovcri ovpfiopebv. eyeb pev ovv 
/cat heopai /cat dvnfioXtb /cat iKerevoj, Kal rovrojv 
Trap vpitov rvyxdveiv d^tdr ou ydp 7T€pt piKptov 
Kivhvvevopev, dAAa. 7rept tcDv ovtojv drravrajv. 



who desire to do the State good service of the treat- 
ment that they will receive from you in times of 

I have nobody, gentlemen, whom I can put up 
here to plead on our behalf : for some of my kins- 
men, after giving proof of their valour in promoting 
the greatness of the city, have perished in the war ; 
others, in the defence of the democracy and of your 
freedom, have drunk hemlock under the Thirty. We 
therefore owe our isolation to the merits of our kins- 
men and the calamities of the State. Bearing all 
this in mind, you ought to succour us, judging those 
to be rightful recipients of your favours under demo- 
cracy who bore their share of calamity under olig- 
archy. I also call upon the Commissioners here to 
be kind to us : let them remember that time when, 
expelled from your native land and deprived of your 
property, you esteemed most highly the men who 
gave their lives for you, and you prayed to the gods 
that you might be able to show your gratitude to 
their children. So we, sons and relatives of those 
who have been foremost to meet danger in the cause 
of freedom, ask this return of your gratitude to-day, 
and call upon you not to ruin us unjustly, but much 
rather to succour those who have shared in the 
common calamities. Now I beg and beseech and 
implore you to grant us what we claim. For it is no 
slight matter that we have at stake : it is the whole 
of our possessions. 




Nicophemus, father of the Aristophanes whose prop- 
erty is here in question, was an able staff-officer and 
friend of Conon in the naval operations which re- 
covered for Athens, during the years 398-387 B.C., 
some degree of her former authority over the Greek 
islands and the cities of Asia. From 405 B.C. Conon 
and Nicophemus made their home in Cyprus, where 
Evagoras, King of Salamis, became a valuable ally of 
Athens. Aristophanes, like Conon's son Timotheus, 
resided at Athens ; and he married a sister of the 
present speaker. He also showed himself a man of 
great energy and public spirit : for in 393 he went 
on Conon's suggestion to Syracuse, with the object 
of drawing away its ruler, Dionysius, from his con- 
nexion with Sparta to friendship with Evagoras. In 
390 he went on an expedition from Athens to assist 
Evagoras against Persia : this affair, however, was 
a failure, and it seems probable that the Athenians 
had some special reason for resentment against the 
organizers of the expedition — Nicophemus and 
Aristophanes ; for they were both summarily exe- 



cuted and their property was confiscated. It is to 
be noted that the speaker laments the harsh treat- 
ment meted out to them, but that he does not 
attempt either to establish their innocence of 
the guilt charged against them or to dispute the 
validity of the confiscation itself (7-8) ; although, as 
appears from Harpocration, Lysias had previously 
written a speech against the proposer of this latter 
penalty. At any rate, the amount of the property, 
when confiscated, was found to be much less than 
had been generally expected (11, 45 foil.), and the 
father-in-law of Aristophanes, who was acting as the 
guardian of his daughter and her three children, was 
accused of withholding some part of it. He died 
before he could be brought to trial, and the prose- 
cution was then directed against his only son, the 
brother-in-law of Aristophanes, who speaks here 
before a court presided over by the Commissioners 
of the Treasury. The date of the trial appears (50) 
to have been 388 or 387 B.C., and the defence opens 
with a warning against the insidious peril of slander 
and the prejudice likely to be caused by the present 
scarcity of money. 

The speaker bases his argument — which is to show 
how small the property was — mainly on the prob- 
abilities that his father was not the kind of man to 
withhold money due to the State ; that the public 
spirit of Aristophanes led him to spend so much on 
the ordinary duties of a wealthy citizen that there 
can be but little of his fortune remaining ; that 
Nicophemus, having been a subordinate of Conon, 
and having kept his gains in Cyprus, cannot have 
bequeathed much to Aristophanes ; and that it is 

* S.V. X ( TfOL. 



a common experience to find that a man's fortune is 
much smaller than it has been reported to be during 
his life. 

The speech provides a fine example of Lysias's tact 
in handling a case that is endangered by the popular 
prejudice against men who have made money on 
service abroad during a time of financial stringency 
at home. As J ebb has remarked, " there is con- 
summate art in the sketch of his (the speaker's) 
father, the quiet citizen of the old school, and of 
Aristophanes, the adventurous patriot of the new." 




1 YloWrjV jjlol diropiav irapiyjei 6 dytov ovtoctl, c5 
dvopes St/caorat, orav iv6vfir]9d) on, eav eyd) puev 
fir) vvv €V eiircOy ov \lovov iycb dXXa /cat 6 irarr^p 
So^et aSt/co? elvai /cat tojv ovtcov arravTOiv Grep-q- 
aouat. avdyKT) ovv, el /cat fxrj oeivos rrpos ravra 
7T€(f)VKa, fiorjdelv ra> Trarpl /cat efiavrco ovtcds ottojs 

2 dv ovvajfjLCLL. rrjv fiev ovv 7rapacrK€vrjv /cat <ttjv> x 
7Tpodv{jLiav tcx)v ixOpcjv 6pd.r€, /cat ovSev Set rrepl 
rovTcuv Xeyeiv rrjv S' ifir/V drreipiav TrdvTes toaaiv, 
oaoi ifxe yiyvojoKovotv. atr^ao/xat ovv Vfi&s 
St/cata /cat paoia xaptcraaOai, dvev dpyrjs /cat tj/jlcov 

3 d/couaat, ojairep </cat> 2 rwv Kar-qyoptov. dvdyKTj 
yap tov diroXoyovf.ievoVy /caV i£ laov aKpoaode, 
eXarrov e^etv. ol fJLev yap e/c ttoXXov xpovov 
€7Ti^ovXevovr€s , avrol dvev klvSvvojv ovres, rrjv 
Karrjyoplav eTTonjoavro, rjfJLels Se dyajvi^ofieda 
jLterct Scou? /cat SiafioXrjs /cat klvovvov <tov> 3 
fxeyioTov. et/co? ovv vjjl&s evvoiav TrXelaj e^etv 

4 Tot? dnoXoyovixevoLg . ot/xat yap iravrag vjjl&s 
etSeVat on noXXol rjhrj noXXa /cat Setva Karyyop-j- 
aavres TrapaxprjpLa i^rjXeyxOqcrav ifjevhofievoi ovtoj 

1 tt\v add. Fuhr. 2 koX add. Westermann. 

8 tov add. Francken. 
4 18 


I find myself greatly embarrassed by this trial, 
gentlemen of the jury, when I consider that if I fail 
to speak with effect to-day not only I but my father 
besides will be held to be guilty, and I shall be 
deprived of the whole of my possessions. It is 
necessary therefore, even if I have no natural apti- 
tude for the task, to defend my father and myself 
as best I can. You see, of course, the artifice and 
the alacrity of my enemies ; of these there is no need 
to speak ; whereas everyone who knows me is aware 
of my inexperience. I shall therefore beg of you the 
just and easy favour of hearing us with the same 
absence of anger as when you listened to our accusers. 
For the man who speaks in his defence, even if you 
give him an impartial hearing, must needs be at a 
disadvantage : those people have laid their schemes 
long before, and without any danger to themselves 
have delivered their accusation ; whereas we are 
contending amid fear and slander and the gravest 
danger. It is reasonable, therefore, that you should 
feel more kindness for those who are making their 
defence. For I think you all know that there have 
been many cases in the past of men bringing forward 
a number of formidable accusations, who have been 
convicted then and there of lying on such clear evidence 



<f>avepcos, ware vtto Travrajv rcuv Trapayevop.eva)v x 
piLGrjBevres drreXOelv ol S' au pLaprvpijaavres ra 
ipevhrj Kal olSlkcos drroXeaavres avO pojrrovs edXa>- 
6 uav, rjviKa ovoev i)v rrXeov rot? ireTTOvdoaiv. or 
ovv rotavra noXXa yeyevqrai, d>s eyaj olkovco, 
eiKos Vjxas, d> dvopes St/cacrrat, pjynoj rovs rtov 
KaTrjyopcov Xoyovs rjyeladai ttujtovs, irpiv av /cat 
rjfieZs e'iirojpLev. olkovoj yap eyajye, Kal v/jlojv he 
rovs ttoXXovs olfxat elbevai, on rravrajv heivorarov 

6 icrri Sia/foA^. juaAtcrra he rovro e^ot av ns 
Ihelv, 2 orav 7T0XX0I eirl rfj avrrj atria els dyujva 
KaraarcjGLV. ojs yap hrl to ttoXv ol reXevratoi 
KpLvofievoi crcp^ovraf neTravpLevoi yap rrjs opyrjs 
avrojv OiKpodode, Kal rovs eXey^ovs rjhr] edeXovres 
a7Tohexea9e . 

7 'FivOvpueZcrde ovv on NiKo^ao? Kal 'Aoioto- 
(f>dvr]s aKpiroi drreOavov, Trplv irapayeveadai nvd 
avrois iXeyxopLevoLS d>s tjSlkovv. ovhels ydp ovh* 
elhev eKeivovs pterd rrjv avXArjipiv ouSe 3 ydp Odifjai 
ra G(x>pLar avroov drrehocrav, dXX ovtoj heivf) <tj> x 
avpi(J)opd yeyevryrai wore rrpos rots dXAocs Kal 

8 tovtov €GTepi]vraL. dXXd ravra p,ev edcrar ovhev 
yap av rrepaivoipa.' ttoXv he dOXiajrepoi ookovgl 
pioi ol nathes ol i ApLGro(f)di'ovs' ovheva yap out* 
tola ovre h-qpLoaia r/hiKr^KOTes ov piovov ra rrarpcoa 
0:77-0 AtuAeVaox irapd rovs ropovs rovs vpterepovs, 
dXXd Kal r) vttoXolttos eXing rjv, aird <rcov> b rod 

1 virb ttclvtwv tCjv irapayevofxipwv Dobree : virtp ttclvtoju tCov 
ve-n-payuifiov MSS. 2 iSelv Contius : beivbrarov mss. 

3 ovbk Dobree : ov yap mss. 

4 77 add. Reiske. 5 ivb run* Halbertsman : virb mss. 


that they left the court detested by all who had been 
present ; while others again, after bearing false 
witness and causing people to be unjustly put to 
death, have been condemned too late for it to be 
of any use to their victims. So, when many cases 
of this sort have occurred, as I am told, it is reason- 
able that you, gentlemen, should wait till we have 
had our say before you accept the statements of our 
accusers as trustworthy. I myself am told, and I 
think most of you know also, that slander is the most 
dangerous thing on earth. This is especially to be 
observed when a number of persons are brought to 
trial on the same charge. For, as a rule, the last to 
be judged are let off, since your anger has then ceased, 
and as you listen to them you willingly admit their 

Reflect therefore that Nicophemus and Aristo- 
phanes were put to death without trial, 6 before any- 
one could come to their aid as the proof of their 
guilt was being made out. For nobody even saw 
them again after their arrest, since their bodies were 
not even delivered for burial : so awful has their 
calamity been that, in addition to the rest, they have 
suffered this privation also. But from that business 
I will now pass, as I can do no good there. Far more 
miserable, in my opinion, are the children of Aristo- 
phanes : for, having done no wrong to anyone in 
either private or public affairs, not only have they 
been bereft of their patrimony in violation of your 
laws, but their one remaining hope, of being reared 

The slanderer has the art of raising indignation against 
his victims : if there is time for this to cool down, the falsity 
of his charges is exposed. 

b On a summary impeachment allowed in special cases of 
treason or embezzlement. 

P 421 


7TCL7T7TOV €KTpa.(f>r)vCLL, €V OVTO) heiVO) Ka6eOrTT)K€V. 

9 ert 8' rj^els eoreprnievoi p.ev K-qSearcov, eoreprj- 
fievoi he rrjs TrpoiKos, iraihapia he rpia rjvayKa- 
oyteVot rpefyeiv, Trpooeri avKO^avrovfieda /cat klv- 
hwevofiev Trepl <Lv ol rrpoyovoi tj/jllv KareXmov 
KTTjCjdfievoi e/c rod hiKaiov. /catrot, to dvhpes 
oiKaorai, 6 6/jlos Trarr)p ev airavri rco /3toj irXeioj 
els rrjv ttoXlv dvrjXojoev r) els clvtov /cat rovs 
ot/cetous*, hmXdaia he rj vvv earcv rjfuv, cos iyd> 

10 Xoyit,o\jL€V(jo avrcp ttoXXolkls TTapeyevopLr^v. fir) ovv 
7TpoKarayiyvujGK€T€ aoiKiav rod els avrov [lev 
fiLKpa haTravcovros , vpuv he iroXXd kclo' eKaurov 
rdv eviavrov, dXX oool /cat to. Trarpcoa /cat edv 
ri rroBev Xafiwcnv, els rds atcr^tcrras' rjhovds eldi- 

11 ojiivoi elalv dvaXiuKetv. xaXerrov fxev ovv, d> dvhpes 
hiKaorai, drroXoyeludai Trpos ho£av rjv evioi e^ofcrt 
Trepl rrjs Nt/ccx/^uou ovaias, /cat airdviv dpyvpiov 
rj vvv icTTLv ev rfj rroXei, /cat rod aycbvos Trpos to 

53] SrjfioaLov ovros' ojjlcos he /cat tovtcov VTrapypvTwv 
pahiojs yvcoaeaOe ort ovk aXr/Or) eon rd /car- 
rjyoprjfjLeva. Seo/xat 8* vpicov Trdorr] Teyyr] /cat 
fj,rj)(avfj fier evvoias aKpoacrafxevovs rjfitov Sta 
reXovs 6 tl dv vjjllv dpiorov /cat evopKorarov 
vofXL^rjre elvat, rovro ijjr]<j)Loao9ai. 

12 ilptoTov fxev ovv, a> rpoiTco K7]hecrral rjpiv eye- 
vovto, StSa£a> vfi&s. UTparrvyGiv yap KoVojv Trepl 
HeXoTTOvvqcrov, TpL7]papX'r)0'avTL toj eua) irarpl 
rrdXai <f>iXos yeyev^fievos, iherfdr} hovvai rr)v 
<ijjLTjV> 1 dheX(f>r)v alrovvri toj vcl ra> Nt/co^^aou. 

1 tfx7}v add. Taylor. 

Of the speaker's sister ; <■/. :>2 below* 
b The family of Aristophanes. 
I \1 


with the means of their grandfather, has been placed 
in this serious predicament. Moreover we, bereft 
of our kinsfolk, bereft of the dowry, and compelled 
to rear three small children, are attacked besides by 
base informers, and are in danger of losing what our 
ancestors bequeathed to us after they had acquired 
it by honest means. Yet, gentlemen, my father in 
all his life spent more on the State than on himself 
and his family, — twice the amount that we have now, 
as he often reckoned in my presence. So you must 
not rashly convict of guilt the man who spent little 
on himself, but a great deal on you each year ; you 
ought rather to condemn all those persons who have 
made a habit of squandering both their patrimony 
and whatever they can get from elsewhere on the 
most disgraceful pleasures. It is difficult indeed, 
gentlemen, to defend oneself against an impression 
which some people have received of the property of 
Nicophemus, and in face of a scarcity of money that 
is now felt in the city, and when our contention is 
against the Treasury. Nevertheless, even in these 
circumstances, you will easily perceive that the ac- 
cusations are not true ; and I request you with all the 
insistence in my power to give us a kindly hearing to 
the end, and to deliver the verdict that you may 
esteem best for you and most agreeable to your oaths. 
Now I will inform you, in the first place, of the way 
in which they 6 became connected with us. Conon, 
who was in command of operations around the Pelo- 
ponnese, c and who had formed a friendship long before 
with my father when he equipped a warship, requested 
him to bestow my sister on her suitor, the son of 

e 393 b.c, when he succeeded in re-establishing some 
strongholds of the Athenians on the coasts of Laconia. 



13 d oe opwv avrovs vrr* eKeivov re Tremor ev\ievovs 
yeyovoras re emeLKeZs rfj <re> x TroXei ev ye rtp 
rore XP^V dpeoKovrag, eTreiodr) oodvat, ovk eloobs 
rr)v eoofxeviqv oiafioX-qv, dXX ore /cat vjjlwv oonoodv 
av e/cetVot? r)^iojoe Krjoeorrjs yeveoOai, errel on 
ye ov \p-)-]\xar(jdv eW/ca, pqoiov yvcovai €/c rod filov 

14 7Tavr6s /cat rcov epycov ra>v rod irarpos. eKeZvos 
yap or rjv ev rfj T^At/cta, rrapov fierd ttoXXcvv 
Xprjp-drojv yrjjiai d'AA^y, rr)v ifirjv payrepa eXafiev 
ovoev e7TL(f)epoiJLev7)v, on Se E,evo(f)a)VTOS tjv Ovydrrjp 
rod EvptmSou veos, os ov fiovov tota ^p^crros" 
eSo/cet ea'at, dAAd /cat orparrjyeZv avrov rj£ia)oare, 

15 cos 1 eyoj olkovco. rag rolvvv ifxas doeXcfrds ede- 
Xovrtov nvtov XafieZv airpoiKovs rrdvv ttXovolojv 
ovk eoojKev, on ehoKovv kolklov yeyovevai, dAAd 
rrjv fxev OtAo/x^Aa) rep Ilatavtet, ov oi 7roXXol 
fieXriaj rjyovvrai etvai ?} 7rXovoidjrepov , rrjv oe 
rrevryn yeyevqjxevcp ov otd /ca/ctav, d8eA<^>tSa> oe 
ovn Oatooto 2 <rco> 3 Mvppivovoicp, emSovs rerra- 

16 paKovra p,vas, /car' 4 ' * Apioro<J)dvei ro loov. rrpos 
he rovrots e/zot ttoXXtjv e£6v irdvv TrpoZKa XafieZv 
eXdrraj ovvefiovXevoev , toore ev eloevai on 
K-qoeoraZs xP r ] G0 ^l Jir } v koo/jllols /cat oaxfcpooi. /cat 
vvv eyoj yvvaiKa rrjv \\piroh~qpLov dvyarepa rod 

AXojTTeKrjOev, os vtto AaKeoaipLOviajv direOavev, 

1 re add. Reiske. 

2 6vtl fyaidpy Taylor : (pai8pu 6vtl mss. 

* ry add. Dobree. 4 m?t' Sauppe: xal mss. 

° So far there were no signs of their later disloyal! v. 

6 ( )ne of the Athenian generals to whom the Potidaeans 
surrendered in 430 b.c. He was killed in a fiirht with the 
Chaleidians in Thrace, 429 b.c. (c/. Thucydides, ii. 70, 79). 


Nicophemus. My father, finding that these people 
had been accredited by Conon, and were of proved 
respectability and — at that time at least — in the 
good graces of the city, was persuaded to bestow her : 
he did not know the slander that was to follow. It 
was a time when anyone among you would have 
deemed it desirable to be connected with them ; for 
it was not done for the sake of money, as you may 
readily judge from my father's whole life and con- 
duct. When he was of age, he had the chance of 
marrying another woman with a great fortune ; but 
he took my mother without a portion, merely because 
she was a daughter of Xenophon, 6 son of Euripides, 
a man not only known for his private virtues but also 
deemed worthy by you of holding high command, 
so I am told. Again, my sisters he refused to certain 
very wealthy men who were willing to take them 
without dowries, because he judged them to be of 
inferior birth : he preferred to bestow one upon 
Philomelus of Paeania, c whom most men regard as 
an honourable rather than a wealthy man, and the 
other upon a man who was reduced to poverty by no 
misdemeanour, — his nephew, Phaedrus d of Myrrhi- 
nous, c — and with her a dowry of forty minae ; and 
he later gave her to Aristophanes with the same sum. 
Besides doing this, when I could have obtained a 
great fortune he advised me to take a lesser one, so 
long as I felt sure of allying myself with people of an 
orderly and self-respecting character. So now I am 
married to the daughter of Critodemus of Alopece, c 
who was killed by the Lacedaemonians after the sea- 

• A township of Attica. 

d The same person who appears in Plato's Phaedrus and 



17 ore j] vav[jiaxLO< eyevero ev 'EXXtjo-ttovto). Kairoi, 
a> dvhpes hiKaurai, ooms avros re avev xp^/zdrajv 
€yr)fi€ rdlv re Ovyarepoiv rroXv apyvpiov enehajKe 
rep re vel oXiyiqv npolKa eXafte, ttcos ovk eiKos 

TOVTOLS KT]§€(7Tr)S £y£v€TO / 

18 'AAAd firjv 6 ye ' ' \piGro(j>dviqs -rjhrj eyoav rrjv yv- 
vollkol or i ttoXXoZs dv fiaXXov e)(pi]TO rj tgj e/xto 
Trarpi, pahiov yvcovai. r\ re yap rjXiKta 7toXv 
8id(f)opos, rj re (fyvois en TrXeov eKeivov 1 p.ev ydp 
j)v rd eavrov Trpdrretv, 'ApLcrrofidvrjs he ov fxovov 
rG)V Ihiojv dXXd /cat rdv kolvcov efiovXero eiri- 
pieXeicrdcu, /cat ei ri rjv avra> apyvpiov, dvrjXajoev 

19 e7TtdvfJLa)v rijiaodai. yvajoeode he art dXrjOrj Xeyu) 
e£ avrojv d>v eKelvos err parr e. irpQ>rov fxev ydp 
fiovXofievov K.6vojvos ire\xTreiv rivd els St/ceAtav, 
tpXero VTrovrds fxerd Ewd/zou, Aiovvglov* (j>iXov 
ovros /cat ^evov, rd 7rXrjdos to vp,erepov rrXelora 
dyadd Treiro itjko ro s, ojs eycb d/crj/coa rtov iv 

20 rietpatet rrapayevo[ieva)v . ^aav 8' eXirLhes rod 
ttXov rretuaL Alovvglov Kf]heorr)v pcev yeveadau 
Euaydpa, TroXepaov he Aa/ceSatuovtots", <f>iXov he 
/cat GVfi[xa)(ov rfj 7r6Xei rfj Vfierepq.. /cat ravr 
eTrparrov ttoXXojv Kivhvvojv virap^ovrajv Trpds rr)v 
OdXarrav /cat rovs TroXepiiovs , /cat eireioav Atovu- 
glov fxrj irepajjai rpir)pet,s as rore TrapevKevdaaro 

1 eKeivov Heldmann : <?*eiVy mss. 
* Aiovvalov Sauppe : kclI Avalov mss. 

° At Aegospotami, 405 b.c. After surprising the Athenian 
fleet (there was practically no " sea-fight ) Lysander executed 
3000 Athenians who were captured. 



fight at the Hellespont. a Now I submit, gentlemen 
of the jury, that a man who has himself married a 
portionless woman, who has bestowed large sums 
with his two daughters, and who has accepted a 
small dowry for his son, ought surely in reason to be 
credited with allying himself to these people without 
a thought of money. 

Nay, more, Aristophanes, although he was now 
married, must have preferred to be intimate with 
many people rather than my father, as may readily 
be conceived. For there was a great difference both 
in his age and still more in his nature. It was my 
father's way to mind his own business ; whereas 
Aristophanes sought to concern himself not only with 
private but also with public affairs, and whatever 
money he had he spent in the pursuit of glory. You 
will perceive the truth of what I say from his actual 
conduct. First, when Conon wanted to send some- 
one to Sicily, 6 he offered himself and went off with 
Eunomus, who was a friend and guest of Dionysius, 
and who had rendered a great many services to your 
people, as I have been told by those who were with 
him at the Peiraeus. The voyage was undertaken in 
hopes of persuading Dionysius to connect himself by 
marriage with Evagoras, c and to become an enemy 
of the Lacedaemonians and a friend and ally of your 
city. This they set out to do amid many dangers 
arising from the sea and from the enemy, and they 
prevailed on Dionysius not to send some warships 
which he had then prepared for the Lacedaemonians. 

6 In 393 b.c, to undermine the friendship between 
Dionysius, despot of Syracuse, and the Spartans, who had 
helped him to attain his power in 406 b.c. 

c Despot of Salamis in Cyprus, and steady friend of 



21 AaK€$aifiovioi$. /Lterd Se ravra eVetS^ ol TrpeV/fets 
i)kov e/c KvTrpov iirl tt)v fiorjOeLav, ovSev eveXiire rrpo- 
Ovfilas cnrevoojv. djaet? Se <8eVa> 1 rpiiqpeis avrois 
eSoTe /cat rdAAa iifjrjtfiloraade, dpyvplov 8' ets" tov 
a7r6crroAov rj7r6povv. oXiya fiev yap rjXdov exovres 
XprffiOLTa, noXXcov Se 7TpoaeS€i]9r]oav ov yap fiovov 
els Tas vavs, dAAd /cat 77€Aracrrds' epLio9ajaavTO /cat 

22 oirXa errpiavro. * KpiOTCxfyavqs [S'j 2 ovv tcov XPl' 
fidrajv rd /xev 7rAetOTa avTos Trapioyev* ^retS^ Se 
oi>x LKava rjv, tovs <f)lXovs eVet^e Sedfievos /cat 
iyyvd)jjL€vos, /cat rod dSeA</>ou rod opLorrarplov 
aTTOKtipiivas Trap* avrcp rerrapaKovra /xvd? Xafiajv 

[154] KarexpricrcLTO . rfj Se rrporepaia fj dvrjyero, elcreXdouv 
d>s tov Trarepa tov ifiov e/ce'Aeua-e XPV <J0LL °' TL et9 7 
dpyvptov. Trpoahelv yap €(f)T) rrpog tov puoOdv 
toIs TreXTaoTals. rjaav 8' r\\xiv evhov €7ttol /jlvoZ- 

23 d Se /cat rauras- Aa/3dV KaTexptjvaTO . rtVa yap 
o'ieode, to dvSpes" St/caarat, cfriXoTipLOV fiev 6Wa, 
€TncrToXa)v 8' aura) rjKOvarojv Trapd tov TraTpos 
[i-qhevos 3 OLTToprjcreiv iv Kvirpco, 4, r\pr)[iivov Se 
7Tpecrft€VTr]v /cat fieXXovTa TrXelv a>? Edaydpay, 
VTroXiTTeodat dv tl tojv ovtojv, aXX oi>x <* ^^ 
SuvaTO? rtdvTa napaaxovTa ^apta-ao-^at e'/cetVa) re 
/cat KOfiLaaadai fir) iXaTTw; ujs tolvvv raur' eVrty 
dXrjdrj, /cdAet p,ot EdVo/xov. 


<KdAet jLtot /cat Tod? d'AAous' /xaprupa?. 

1 5^/ca add. Westermann. 

2 o' del. Frohberger. 

8 ixqdeubs iMarkland: /jl7]8ci> mss. 



Next, when the envoys had arrived from Cyprus to 
procure our assistance, his ardent energy knew no 
bounds. You had granted them ten warships, and 
had voted all the material, but they were in need of 
money for the dispatch of the fleet. They had 
brought but scanty funds with them, and they required 
a great deal more : for they had to hire not only 
men to work the ships but light infantry also, and 
to purchase arms. Well, it was Aristophanes who 
personally supplied most of their funds : as he had 
not enough, he persuaded his friends with entreaties 
and guarantees, and he took forty minae which he 
had in deposit at his house for his brother on the 
father's side, and applied the money to that purpose. 
The day before he put to sea, he called on my father 
and pressed him for the loan of such money as he had ; 
for some more was required, he said, to pay the light 
infantry. We had seven minae in the house : he 
took these and applied them also. What man, 
think you, who was ambitious of glory, and was 
receiving letters from his father that told him he 
would lack for nothing in Cyprus, and had been 
elected ambassador and was about to sail to Evagoras, 
would have left behind anything that he possessed, 
and not have rather gratified that ruler by supplying 
everything that he could, with a view to a handsome 
return ? Now, to show the truth of all this, please 
call Eunomus. 


Please call the other witnesses also. 

° Against the Persians. 

4 tV Kinrptp Markland: e/c Kinrpov mss. 
* ol>x & fy Bekker : oxjk e'irjv mss. 

p2 429 



24 Tcov fiev fiaprvpcov aKovere, ov [xovov ore ^XP 1 )' 
oav to <dpyvpLov>* €K€ivov SerjOevros, dXXd /cat otl 
aTreiXi^chacnv eKopLtadr] yap avrols inl rrjs rpnjpovs. 


25 tcov eavTov' o oe fieyicrTOV TeKpaqpiov ArjpLOS yap 

6 HvplAdfJLTTOVS, TpL7]papX<JOV 61$ KvTTpOV, eScrJflry 

l±ov TTpotreXOelv avTco, Xeycov otl o\a/3e <p,ev> 3 
avfipoAov rrapa jSacrtAeco? rod fieydXov cfudXrjv 
Xpvafjv, SdSaet o' 'Apiarotbavei, Xaficbv* e/c/cai'8e/ca 
/xvas £77* avrfj, iv exoL dvaXltTK€iv els r-qv rpirjp- 
apxtw €7T€iS?7 oe els Kvrrpov d^iKoiro, Xvcreodai 
d-nohovs clkoctl fJLV&s" noAAwv yap dyadcov /cat 
aAAojv x? r \\ x ^ LTLOV evTTOptfoeiv Sta to ovfifloXov iv 

20 7rdcrr) rfj rjTreipcp. ' ' ApicrTocf>dvr)s toivvv aKovcov 
jjl€V Tavra Arj/xoi;, heouivov S' ifiov, fieXXcov 8' 
acfetv <rd>* XP VG ' 10V > rerrapas Se pjvas tokov 
Xrjipeadaiy ovi< ec^r) elvat, dAA' cofivve /cat Trpoo- 
oehaveluOai rot? tfeVots 1 dAAo#ey, eVetor) TjhiOT 
<av> 6 dvdpcoircov dyeiv re evdvs ei<eZvo to crvfifioXov 

27 /cat ^apioracr^at 77/Atv a iSeopueda. cos Se Taur' 
eartV dXrjOrj, [idprvpas vfilv Trape^ofiai. 


"On /aeV toivvv ov KariXiTrev 'ApLGTOcfrdvrjs apyv- 
piov ovhk xP V(J lo v > pdoiov yvcovat e/c tojj; elpi^fievcov 
/cat fi€p.apTvpr]iJL€va)V ^aA/caJ/zara Se aivuftet/cra oi) 

1 icdXet . . . fxaprvpes suppl. Westermann. 

* dpyvptov add. Reiske. 3 /x^ add. Sauppe. 

4 diL'Get 8' 'Kpunoipavei \afiwv Sauppe : ws 'Apiarocpdwqv 
} ; mss. * to add. Sauppe. • av add. Markland- 




You hear them testify, not only that they lent the 
money at his request, but also that they have been 
repaid ; for it was conveyed to them in the warship. 

Well now, it is easily concluded from my argu- 
ment that in such emergencies he was not likely 
to spare his own resources. But the strongest 
evidence is this : Demus, son of Pyrilampes, a who 
was equipping a warship for Cyprus, requested me to 
go to Aristophanes ; he said he had received a gold 
cup as a credential from the Great King, and would 
give it to Aristophanes in pledge for sixteen minae, 
so as to have means for equipping his warship ; when 
he got to Cyprus, he would redeem it with a payment 
of twenty minae, since on the strength of that cre- 
dential he would then obtain plenty of goods and 
also money all over the continent. Then Aristo- 
phanes, on hearing this proposal from Demus and 
a request from me, — although he was to have the 
gold cup in his hands and receive four minae as 
interest, — said that it was impossible, and he swore 
that he had already gone elsewhere to borrow more 
for these foreigners ; since, but for that, nobody alive, 
he declared, would have been more delighted than he 
to take that credential forthwith and to comply with 
our request. To show the truth of this, I will produce 
to you witnesses. 


So then, that Aristophanes did not leave any 
silver or gold is easily concluded from what I have 
stated and from these testimonies. Of fine b bronze 

a This Demus had been famous in youth for his beauty 
cf. Aristophanes, Wasps, 98, Plato, Gorgias, 481 d, 513 b. 
6 Containing an admixture of gold or silver. 




ayopou Trpeafizvovras, aiTrjodfievos e^pi'jaaro. a 
oe KartXiTrev, di'ayvcoaeraL vplv. 


23 "Ictojs Iviois Vficov, to aVSpe? StKaarat, ookzT 
SXlya elvai' dXX itcetvo evdvpLeZade, otl <avrco > 2 

\jTplv NtKCx/^UGO T) Kdl 'A/OtCTTO^dVet] 3 TTplv TT)V 

vav/jLaxLCt-v VLKrjaai, <Kora>va> 4 yrj piev ovk rjv 

dAA' T) ■^CUpihlOV (JLLKpOV 'PajJLVOVl'TL. €y€V€TO 6° 

09 <r) > 5 vavvayia err* Eu/3ouAt'Sou 6 dpxovros. Iv ovv 
rerrapaiv r) nivre ereai, Trporepov fir) virapxovuqg 
ovcrlas, ^aAeTToV, to aVopes" St/cacrrat, rpaycpools re 
St? x°P r )y i l (T0LL > ! VTrep avrov re koli rod Trarpos, kol 
rpia err] ovvex&s Tp(,rjpapx7]0~aL, €LO(f>opds re TroAAas" 
€la€V7)vox£vai, oIkIclv re 7T€vtt]kovtcl p,va)V irpia- 
odaL, yijs re ttXIov r) rpiaKocria TrXeOpa KTrjaaadac 
en Se TTpos tovtols oleaOe* xPV vaL €7rt7rAa noXXd 

oq KaraXeXoLirevai; dXX ovft ol irdXai ttXovctlol 
8okovpt€s etvai a^ta Xoyov ex oiev Q- v ii^veyKelw 
ivlore yap ovk ecrrtv, ouS' idv rig irdvv imOvfjifj, 
TrpiaoQai roiavra <a> 9 KTrjcra/jLeva) etV rov Xolttov 

31 XP° vov r ffi ov *) v Q- v tto-P^X 01 ' dXXd roSe OK07T€.Zt€- 
tG)v dXXioVy ogojv iSrjjji€v(jar€ <ra> 10 ^prj/xara, oi>x 
oVco? gk€vyj direSoo-de, dXXd /cat at Ovpai drro 
tCjv OLKrjfxdrcov dcfyrjpTrdcrdrjcrav' Ty/xets" Se 77877 8e- 

1 xa^fw^drwj' Reiske: xpVf J -^ T0}1 ' cod. Laur. C: in PaL 
titulus deest. a clvt$ add. Fuhr. 

3 itjAv . . . 'ApicrTcxpavei del. Sluiter. 

* K6puva add. Bekker. 5 t\ add. Keiske. 

• EtfjftouX/Soy Meursius: ei>j$ov\ov mss. 
7 6is xop- Reiskej oiuxop. mss. 

43 a 


plate he possessed but little : when he was enter- 
taining the envoys of Evagoras, he had to use what 
he could borrow. The list of the pieces that he left 
shall be read to you. 

Inventory of Bronze Plate 

Perhaps to some of you, gentlemen of the jury, 
they appear few : but bear in mind the fact that 
before Conon won his victory at sea, a Aristophanes 
had no land except a small plot at Rhamnus. b Now 
the sea-fight occurred in the archonship of Eubulides ; 
and in four or five years it was a difficult thing, 
gentlemen, when he had no wealth to start with, to 
be twice a producer of tragedies, on his father's 
account as well as his own ; to equip a warship for 
three years in succession ; to have been a contributor 
to special levies on many occasions ; to purchase a 
house for fifty minae ; and to acquire more than three 
hundred plethra c of land. Do you suppose that, 
besides doing all this, he must have left many per- 
sonal effects ? Why, even people credited with 
long-established wealth may fail to produce any 
that are of value : for at times, however much one 
may desire it, one cannot buy things of the sort 
that, once acquired, will be a permanent source of 
pleasure. Again, consider this : in all other cases 
where you have confiscated the property, not merely 
have you had no sale of furniture, but even the doors 
were torn away from the apartments ; whereas 

• At Cnidus, 394 b.c. 6 A district of Attica, 

c Amounting to about 80 acres. 

8 oUade Reiske : oieadai mss. 
9 & add. Taylor. 10 to. add. Sauppe. 



hr]fieufi€i'ajv /cat e^eXrjXvdvLas rrjs ip,fjs aheX<J)fjs 
(frvAoLKa /carecrTrJcra/xev <iv> x rfj epiqurf ot/cta, Iva 
fi^re dvpwfiara \xrpe ayyela [Lryre dXXo \if]hkv 

OLTToAoLTO. €77177 Aa 8e 0LlT€(f)aLV€TO 3 nXeLV Tj XlXlQJV 

32 hpa^LLov, ocra ovhzvos ttojitot* iAdfiere. rrpog he 
tovtois /cat Trporepov rrpos rovs ovvhiKOVS /cat vvv 
eOeXo/jiev ttlgtlv hovvai, tjtls iorl pLeyiarr) rot? 
avQptoTTOLS, j.irjhev A e\eiv rtov ' * ApiUTO(f)dvovs XPV" 
fidrcov, eVo(/>et'Aeo-#at 6 he tt]v 77pot/ca rrjs dheXcf>rjs 
/cat eVra, /xva? a? o)x €T0 Xafiajv irapd rod 7rarp6s 

33 rod ifiov. ttcos dv ovv etev dvOpconoL dOXicorepoi, 
r) el Ta cr^erep' avrcov dnoXojXeKOTes hoKolev 
rd/cetVojf exeiv; o Se 77avTO)v heivoTaTov, ttjv 

[155] dSeX(J)r)v vrrohetjaodai Trathta eypvoav 77oAAd, /cat 
ravra rpecfrew, jx-qh* avrov? e^ovras" fJLrjhev, lav 
vpLels Ta ovt d(f>eXr]crde. 

34 Oeoe 7706? 0eoji> 'OXvpLTTLtov ovto) yap OKOTreire, 
to <dvhpes>* St/caarat. et rt? vpuov erv\e Sou? 
Tifiodea) to) YlOvojvos ttjv dvyarepa rj ttjv dSeA- 
(^v, /cat e/cetVou dTrohrjpaqoavTog /cat eV hiafloXfj 
yevofievou ehrjixevdij rj ovata, /cat /X17 iyivero rfj 
TroXet, TTpaOevTCOv airavTCOv rerrapa rdXavra dpyu- 
piov, Std tovto t)£lovt€ av rovs eKeivov /cat tou? 
Trpoa-qKovras airoXioQai, ort ovhe ttoXXogtov jiepos 

35 rrjs Softs' ttJ? 77ap' vjjlZv efidvr) rd ^pTJuara; aAAa 
/x^v tovto rrdvTes irrLOTaode KoVojva [lev dpxovTa, 

1 ^ add. Emperius. 2 ^77^7; P. Miiller: i/xij mss. 
3 a.7r eifHxlvero Pcrtz : dwecpaiuoi'TO MSS. 

4 firfUv Westermann : m mss. 

* ii>o<peiheoOai Ik'kker : 6<pei\e<jda.i MSS. 
9 &v5pes add. Fuhr. 

ffl A friend of Isocrates, and an important Athenian 


we, as soon as the confiscation was declared and my 
sister had left the place, posted a guard in the 
deserted house, in order that neither door-timber 
nor utensils nor anything else might be lost. Personal 
effects were realized to the value of over a thousand 
drachmae, — more than you had received of any 
previous person. Moreover, we now repeat our 
former offer to pledge ourselves to the Commis- 
sioners, in the most binding terms available to 
man, that we hold no part of Aristophanes' estate, 
but are owed from it the dowry of my sister and 
seven minae which he got from my father at his depar- 
ture. Could human beings have a more miserable 
fate than to lose their own property, and then to be 
supposed to hold that of the mulcted party ? And the 
greatest hardship of all for us will be that, having 
taken charge of my sister and her many children, 
we must rear them with no means available even for 
ourselves, if you deprive us of what we now have. 

I adjure you, by the Olympian gods, gentlemen, 
just consider it in this way : suppose that one of you 
had happened to bestow his daughter or his sister on 
Timotheus, a son of Conon, and during his absence 
abroad Conon was involved in some slander and his 
estate was confiscated, and the city received from 
the sale of the whole something less than four talents 
of silver. Would you think it right that his children 
and relatives should be ruined merely because the 
property had turned out to be but a trifling fraction 
of the amount at which it stood in your estimation ? 
But of course you are all aware that Conon held the 

commander and statesman, c. 380-352 b.c. His father 
Conon, like Aristophanes' father Nicophemus, resided and 
died in Cyprus. 



NiKo<f)r)iJLOV 8e rroiovvra 6 n itceivos rrpoardrroi. 
rQ>v ovv uxfieXeitov YLovtova et/cd? ttoWootov /xe'po? 
dAAo> rivl ixeraStSdi'at, war et olovrai 77oAAd 
yzvioBai Nt/co^na/, d/xoAoy^cretav <av> 1 rd Kdva>- 

36 vo? eti'at rrXelv rj Se/caTrAdata. ert Se <j)aivovrai 
ouSeV ttci)7Tot€ SievexOevres , loot* et/cd? /cat rrepl 
Ttov xp-qudrajv ravrd yvGivai, t/cavd p,ev ivOdoe rqj 
vet eKarepov KaraXirreZv, rd Se a'AAa 77ap' avrols 
€\€iv rjv yap YLovojvi puev vos eV Y^virpcp /cat yvvq, 
y>iKO(f)rj[jL(x) Se yvvq /cat dvydrrjp, rjyovvro Se /cat 
rd e'/cet ouota>? 2 ofy'iuiv elvai era 3 tooirep /cat rd 

37 evddoe. npos Se rodrots' ii>6v(-L€io9e on /cat et Tt? 
/xt) Kr-qad/jLevos dXXd Trapd rod Trarpos TrapaXafiibv 
rol? Traiol SteVetuev, od/c eAa^tcrra av avrqj 
VTreXiire' fiovXovr ai yap rravrts vrro rcov Traiocov 
deparreveadaL exovres XP 1 li Jiara f^dXXov rj ixetvajv 
oeladai diropovvres. 

38 Nw roivvv et S^/xedcratre* ra tou TifjuoOeov, — o 
/xt) yivoirOy et uo] rt /xe'AAet /ze'ya dya#dy eoeoBai rf] 
TroAet, — cXdrroj Se e'£ avr<x>v Xdfioir* r) a 5 e'/c tow 
'Api,aro(f)dvovs yeyevqrai, rovrov eVe/ca rj^covre 
dv rovs dvayKaiovs rovs e'/cetVou to. cr^e'rep' adrdii> 
aTToAeaat; dAA' od/c et/cd?, c5 dVSpe? St/caarar d 

39 yap Kdvcoyos" Odvaros /cat at htadrjKai, as St- 
edero eV Kd77pa>, cracjicos iSrjXojcrav on iroXXoarov 
fiepos r)v rd ^p7J/xara & v d/iet? rrpoaehoKare.- rf\ 
fxev yap "'AOijvaia 6 Kadtepojorev els dvadijfJLara /cat 

1 df add. Emperius. 2 hfioitos Reiske: fi/xws mss. 

* (ra Cobet: f<ra mss. * brintvaaire Reiske : SrjixeuaeTe MSS. 
6 Xdpoir' t) & Fuhr: \d/9oi ■Hjj', \d/3otre us teat mss. 
6 'A''. y '>ug Fuhr: 'Adrjvq. .mss. 

° In Athens. * In Cyprus. 



command, and Nicophemus carried out his instruc- 
tions. Now it is probable that Conon allotted to 
others but a small proportion of his prizes ; so that if 
it be thought that Nicophemus 's gains were great, it 
must be allowed that Conon's were more than ten 
times greater. Furthermore, there is no evidence 
of any dispute having occurred between them ; so 
probably in regard to money they agreed in deciding 
that each should leave his son with a competence 
here, while keeping the rest in his own hands. 5 For 
Conon had a son and a wife in Cyprus, and Nico- 
phemus a wife and a daughter, and they also felt that 
their property there was just as safe as their prop- 
erty here. Besides, you have to consider that, even 
if a man had distributed among his sons what he had 
not acquired but inherited from his father, he would 
have reserved a goodly share for himself ; for every- 
one would rather be courted by his children as a man 
of means than beg of them as a needy person. 

So, in this case, if you should confiscate the prop- 
erty of Timotheus, — which Heaven forbid, unless 
some great benefit is to accrue to the State, — and 
you should receive a less amount from it than has 
been derived from that of Aristophanes, would this 
give you any good reason for thinking that his rela- 
tives should lose what belongs to them ? No, it is 
not reasonable, gentlemen of the jury : for Conon's 
death and the dispositions made under his will in 
Cyprus have clearly shown that his fortune was but a 
small fraction of what you were expecting. He dedi- 
cated five thousand staters d in offerings to Athene 

c Still more would this be the case if, like Conon's, his 
wealth had been acquired by his public services. 
d The Attic stater was a gold coin equal to 20 drachmae. 



tw 'ATrdAAan't els AeXchovs TrevraKiox^Xiovs orarr)- 

40 pas' rep he dheXcpthcp rep eavrov, os ecfyvXarrev 
avrco /cat erapiieve rrdvra rd ev Ku77po>, ehcoKev 
cos fivplas hpaxp<ds, rep he dheXcfxp rpia rdXavra' 
rd he Xonrd tw vel KareXtrre, rdXavra eVra/cat'Se/ca. 
rovrcov he KecpdXaiov n ylyverai rrepl rerrapd- 

41 Kovra rdXavra. /cat ovhevl otov re elrretv on 8t- 
r)p7rdo6r) r) cos ov hiKalcos aTrecpavdrj- avros yap 
ev rrj vocrtp cov ev tf>povcov hiedero} /cat \jloi KaXei 
rovrcov jddprvpas* 


42 'AAAd /jLTjv oanoovv, co dvhpes 8t/caarat, irplv 
dfJLcjyorepa hrjXa yeveoOai, TroXXoordv /.tepos rd 
Nt/ccx/^/zou rcov K.6vcqvos \pr\iidra)V cprjdr) dv 
elvai. ' Apicrrocpdvrjs rolvvv yrjv fiev /cat ot/ctav 2 
eKrrjcraro irXelv r) rrevre raXdvrcov, Karexoprjyijoe* 
he vrrep avrov /cat rod rrarpos rrevraKiox^Xias 
hpaxp-ds, rpirjpapx&v he dvr\Xcooev 6yhoi]Kovra 

43 fJivas. eluevr\veKr ai Se vrrep dficf)orepcov ovk 
eXarrov jxvojv rerrapaKovra. els he rdv enl 
St/ceAta? 4 rrXovv dvijXcocrev eKarov fivds. els he 
rdv drrooroXov rcov rpi-qpcov, ore ol Ktmptot rjXOov 
/cat ehore avrols rds Se/ca i^aus", 6 /cat rd>v ireX- 
raorcov rr)v pLioOcocnv /cat rcov ottXcov rr)v cbvrjv 
rrapeox^ rpiopuvplas hpaxptds. /cat rovrcov K€<f)d- 
Aatov rrdvrcov ylyverai puKpov Xelrrovros rrevre - 

44 /cat'Se/ca rdAai^ra. coore ovk dv elhcorcos r)p,&s 
alncpode, 6 irreV rcov Kovcovos, rcov 6pLoXoyovp,evcov 

1 ouOero Taylor : rjadero MSS. 

8 oUiav Markland: ovalav MSS. 

8 xarexop. Reiske : /ecu £x°P- M SS« 

4 e-rrl ^u<e\las Hertlein : iv 2i/<e\ip MSS. 



and to Apollo at Delphi ; to his nephew, who acted 
as guardian and manager of all his property in Cyprus, 
he gave about ten thousand drachmae ; to his brother 
three talents ; and to his son he left the rest, — 
seventeen talents. The round total of these sums 
amounts to about forty talents. And nobody can say 
that there was malversation, or that the accounts 
were not fairly rendered : for he made his disposi- 
tions himself in his illness, while his mind was sound. 
Please call witnesses to this. 


Why, surely anyone, gentlemen, before the 
amounts of the two had been revealed, would have 
thought that the property of Nicophemus was a 
mere fraction of that of Conon. Now, Aristophanes 
had acquired a house with land for more than five 
talents, had produced dramas on his own account and 
on his father's at a cost of five thousand drachmae, a 
and had spent eighty minae h on equipping warships ; 
on account of the two, no less than forty minae have 
been contributed to special levies ; for the Sicilian 
expedition he spent a hundred minae, c and for 
commissioning the warships, when the Cypriots came 
and you gave them the ten vessels, he supplied thirty 
thousand drachmae d to pay the light infantry and 
purchase their arms. The total of all these sums 
amounts to little short of fifteen talents. Hence you 
can have no reason to lay blame on us, since the 
property of Conon, which is admitted to have been 

a 50 minae. 6 1 talent and 20 minae. 

c 1 talent and 40 minae. d 5 talents. 

5 vclus Taylor: /xvas mss. 
6 alriyade Dobree : aiTiaade mss. 7 e7ret R.eiske : iirl mss. 



Slkclicos drrocbavOrjvai vrr* gvtov eKeivov, ttoAAo,- 
irXaolcov hoKovvrajv rrXelv r) rplrov piepog (f>al- 
v€T(ii tol ' 'ApMJ-ochdvovs '. Kal ov 7rpocrAoyi£o'/xe#a 
oaa euros ev Kvnpqj ecr^e Ni/co^/zo?, ovgtjs 
avra) ei<eZ yvvaiKos Kal Ovyarpos. 

45 'Eyco f±ev <ovv> r ovk d£ia>, oj avhpes SiKacrrat, 
ovtoj rroXXd Kal fieydXa reKpnqpia TrapaG)(opievovs 
rjp.ds anoXeodai olSlkcds. aKTjKoa ydp eyajye Kal 

156] rod irarpos ical dXXojv TrpeG^vrepajv, on ov vvv 
p.6vov aXXd Kal ev rep ejiTrpoauev -^povcp ttoXXojv 
iip€VG0r]T€ ttjs ovcrLas, ot 2 tcovres fiev irXovreZv 
ehoKovv, arroOavovres he ttoXv irapa rrjv ho£av rrjv 

46 viierepav ecf)dvrjGav. avriKa 'iCT^o/xa^aj, ecus' €L,rj t 
iravres toovro elvai TrXeZv r) e^hopcqKOvra rdXavra, 
cbs iyd) aKovoj. eveiLidGdrjv he rdj vet ovhe SeVa 
rdXavra eKarepos 3 aTroOavovros. T^re^dvcp he rep 
QdXXov eXeyero elvai rrXeZv r) 7revrr]Kovra rdXavra,* 
aTroOavovros S' r) ovGia icfrdvr) rrepl evheKa rdXavra. 

47 6 roivvv Nlklov olkos TTpooehoKaro elvai ovk 
eXarrov r) eKarov raXdvrajv, Kal rovrow rd ttoAAcl 
evhov [t)v] 6, NtKrjparos he or aTreOvrjGKev, dpyv- 
piov Liev r) -ftpvoiov ouS' avrds ecjyrj KaraXeiTreiv 
ovhev, dXXa n)v ovoiav rjv KareXt-rre ra> vel, ov 
rrXelovos a^ia i&rlv r) rerrdpeov Kal heKa raXdv- 

48 tojv. KaAAia? roivvv 6 'Ittttovlkov, ore vecoarl 
ereOvr]Kei 6 Tranqp, [o?] 6 TrXelara rcov 'EXAijvwv 
ihoKei KeKTTjoQai, Kal ws $aGi y hiaKoalujv raXdv- 
rojv inpL-qGaro <Ta> 7 avrov 6 TrdinTOs, rd he 

1 ovv add. Markland. 2 of Taylor: Kal mss. 

3 (icdrepos Dohree: tKartp:: MSS. 
* rdXavra Reiske: raXdfTa'!' MSS. 

6 rju del. Scheibe. 


fairly accounted for by the owner himself, and was 
thought to be many times more than that of Aristo- 
phanes, is found to be less than thrice the amount 
of his. And we are omitting from the calculation all 
that Nicophemus held himself in Cyprus, where he 
had a wife and a daughter. 

I claim, therefore, gentlemen of the jury, that 
after having produced such an abundance of weighty 
proofs we ought not to be unjustly ruined. I have 
been told by my father and other elderly people that 
you have had similar experiences in the past of being 
deceived in the fortunes of many men who were 
supposed to be wealthy while they lived, but whose 
death showed your supposition to be wide of the mark. 
For example, Ischomachus during his life was con- 
sidered by everyone to own more than seventy talents, 
as I am told : his two sons, on his death, had less 
than ten talents to divide between them. Stephanus, 
son of Thallus, was reported to own more than fifty 
talents ; but when he died his fortune was found to 
be about eleven talents. Again, the estate of Nicias 
was expected to be not less than a hundred talents, — ■ 
most of it in his house ; but when Niceratus a was 
dying, he said that he in his turn was not leaving any- 
silver or gold, and the property that he left to his 
son is worth no more than fourteen talents. Then 
Callias, 6 son of Hipponicus, just after his father's 
death, was thought to have more in his possession 
than any other Greek, and the story goes that his 
grandfather valued his own property at two hundred 

° Son of Nicias ; cf. above, XVIII., On the Confiscation of 
the Property of the brother of Nicias. 

b A wealthy patron of Sophists ; cf. Plato, Protagoras. 

6 os del. Baiter et Sauppe. ' rd add. Scheibe. 



tovtov rw 1 rtu^ua ouSe Suotv raXd 
KAeocfxjovTa 8e ttolvtzs lure, on ttoXXol errj St- 
e^etptae to. rfjs TroAecos irdvTa /cat rrpooehoKaro 

7TO.VV 77-oAAd 6K T7JS dpxfjS €^€ty (ITToBaVOVTOS 8' 

avrov ovSa/JLod SrjXa rd ^p^/xara, aAAa /cat ot 

49 rrpoarjKovres /cat ot /c^Searat, 7rap' of? <aV> 2 
Kari\i7T€Vy o/jLoXoyovfievcos TTeviqris etcrt. <f>aivo- 
jxeda Brj /cat Ttuy dp;\;at077Aoirra>v 7roAi) ei/feuo/xeVot 3 
/cat tcov vea>CTTt eV 80^77 yeyeviqpievajv. olriov Se 
/xot So/cet etvat, ort paStaj? rtve? roAiztucrt Ae'y €tI/ 
6U? d 8eti^a e^et rdAavra 7roAAd ik rrjs dpx^js- 
/cat dcra fxev Trepl reOvecbrtov Xeyovoiv, ov rrdw 
davp-d^oj (ov yap vrto ye £k€ivo)v e^eXeyxOelev 
dv), dAA' dcra t,a)vra)v eVt^etpoucrt KaraifjevoeaOai,. 

50 auTOt yap evayxos rjKovere iv rfj €KkXtj a la, to? 
Atdrt^tos" £X OL fdXavra rerrapaKovra rrXeia) r) dcra 
avros djp.oX6y€L rrapd rdv vavhcX-qpajv /cat €fx- 
rropwv /cat ravra, iireLhrj TjXdev, Ikzlvov airo- 
ypdcfrovros /cat ^aAe/ito? (f)4povros otl arrujv 8t- 
e/?dAAero, ovSet? i£ijXey£e, SeoueV^s" /xev T77? 

61 noXeajs xP 7 H JL ° LTa) v, i^eXovTos ok €K€luov XoyLoaodai. 
ivdvfieLode tolvvv olov dv iyevero, et J 'Adrjvaiajv 
airdvrajv aKrjKooTOJV otl rerrapaKOvra rdXavra 
e^ot AtoTt/xos", etTa tirade rt Trplv* KaTairXevoai 
Sevpo. etra ot rrpoorjKovTes dv avrov iv klvSvvo) 
rjaav rep /xeytcrra>, et eSet avrovs irpds TooavTrjv 
$(,aftoXr]v drroXoyelcrdaL, pur) etSdra? pLrjoev tcjv 

1 to 5£ tovtov vvv Westermann : t6 re tovtov toIvw, t6 
tovtov roiwv mss. 2 hv add. Emperius. 

8 i\p€va^uoi edd. : €\J/r](pio-/jL{i>oi mss. 
4 7rpif Stephanus : 7r\?> mss. 

a C/. above, XIII. 7, p. 285 u. 


talents ; yet his ratable property stands to-day at 
less than two talents. And you all know how Cleo- 
phon a for many years had all the affairs of the State 
in his hands, and was expected to have got a great 
deal by his office ; but when he died this money was 
nowhere to be found, and moreover his relatives 
both by blood and by marriage, in whose hands he 
would have left it, are admittedly poor people. So 
it is evident that we have been greatly deceived both 
in men of hereditary riches and in those who have 
recently gained a name for wealth. The cause of 
this, in my opinion, is that people make light of 
stating that such an one has got many talents by his 
office. As to the common statements about dead 
people, I am not so much surprised, since there is no 
disproof to fear from them ; but what of the lies with 
which they assail the living ? Why, you yourselves 
were told of late in the Assembly that Diotimus b had 
got forty talents more from the ship-masters and 
merchants c than he himself admitted ; and when he 
rendered an account on his return, and was indig- 
nant at being slandered in his absence, nobody put 
that matter to the proof, although the State was in 
need of money, and he was ready to show his accounts. 
Just imagine what the position would have been if, 
after all the Athenians had been told that Diotimus 
had forty talents, something had then happened to 
him before he reached our shores. His relatives 
would then have been in the gravest danger, if they 
had been obliged to defend themselves against that 
monstrous slander without any knowledge of the 

» An Athenian general, 388-387 b.c. 

In return for the protection given them in their business 
by the general. 




77S77 ifjevodfjvaL koll 817 1 dSt/ctos" ye rwas airoXeoOai 
ol pa-Sltus 2 ToXjjLtovres ipevSeadai Kal GVKo<j)avrelv 

62 dvdpCOTTOVS i7Tldv{lOVVT€S. €7T€t OLOfJLOU VfJL&S €LO*€Vai 

on 'AA/ci^tdSTi? rerrapa 77 irevre errj icf)e£;rjs 
earpaT-qyei eTTiKparcov Kal V€vikt)k6js Aa/ceSat- 
pLOviovs, /cat StTiAdata e/cetVco tj^lovv at TroXeis 
8 i So vat r) aAAa) rtvt toji> orpanqychv, tour (povro 
elvai rives avra) irXelv 7) eKarov rdXavra. 6 8' 
aTToQavujv ehrjXajoev ore ovk dXrjdrj ravra rjv 
iXdrra) yap ovoiav KareXiire rots' iraialv 7) avros 
rrapa tojv eirirpoTTevoavrajv rrapeXafiev. 

53 "Ort puev ovv Kal iv rep epiTrpoodev xpova) roiavra 
eyiyvero, pdhiov yv&vav <f>aol Se /cat rovs apt'orou? 
/cat oo^ajrarovs pdXiora edeXeiv pieraytyvajoKeiv . 
el ovv SoKovpiev et/cdra Xeyeiv Kal LKavd re/cp/^pta 
jrape^o-dai, co avhpes St/cacrrat, 7rdcrr) rexvr) Kal 
prj^avfj eXerjoare' d>g Spiels t^s p,ev SiafioXrjs ovtoj 
jLteyaA^s" ovorjs del TrpooehoKcopiev KparrjGeiv fierd 
rou dXrjdovs' vpLcov 8e paqSevl rpoirtp edeXrjcrdvrojv 
ireio-Qrjvai ov& eXuls GCDTTqpias eooKet 

54 77/xtv elvai. dAAd 77^6? ^edjv 'OXv^uriajv, to dvSpes 
St/cacrrat, fiovXeode r)pas St/catai? oxuaat pt&XAov 
r) d&iKOJS diroXeoai, Kal Tuorevere tovtols dXr}6rj 
Xeyecv, ol dv Kal ouxmcbvTes iv diravri rep ^Sta) 
ixapeyojoi aaxfipovas cr<j>as avrovs Kal St/catous". 

55 llept /xev' oliv avrrjs rrjg ypacfrfjs, Kal a> rpoircp 
KiqheGTal rjpuv eyevovro, Kal ore ovk i£rjpK€i rd 

1 or] Scheibe : loia mss. 
■ a-rroXtcrdai oi paoicos Ka} r ser: l>ao. aw. ol mss. 

a 411-L07 h.c. 
6 He was murdered in Phrygia, 40* h.c. 


facts of the case. So, for your being deceived in 
many people even now, and indeed for the ruin that 
some have unjustly incurred, you have to thank 
those who make light of telling lies and are bent 
on bringing malicious charges against their fellows. 
For I suppose you know that Alcibiades held com- 
mand for four or five years a in succession, keeping 
the upper hand and winning victories over the 
Lacedaemonians : the cities thought well to give 
him twice as much as any other commander, so that 
some people supposed that he had more than a 
hundred talents. But when he died b he left evidence 
that this was not true : for he bequeathed a smaller 
fortune to his children than he had inherited himself 
from his guardians. 

Well now, that such things were common in former 
times is easily judged. But they say that it is the 
best and wisest men who are most willing to change 
their minds. If, therefore, our statements are 
deemed to be reasonable and the proofs that we have 
adduced satisfactory, gentlemen of the jury, show 
your pity by all manner of means. For, grievous as 
was the weight of this slander, we always expected 
to conquer with the help of truth : but if you should 
altogether refuse to entertain our plea, we felt 
ourselves without a single hope of deliverance. Ah, 
by the Olympian gods, gentlemen, choose rather to 
deliver us with justice than to ruin us with injustice ; 
and believe that those men speak the truth who, 
though keeping silent, show themselves throughout 
their lives self-respecting and just. 

In regard to the charge itself, and the manner in 
which they became our kinsmen, and the fact that 
Aristophanes' means were not sufficient for the 



€K€lvov els rov eKrrXovv, dXXd Kal d)s aXXoOev 
[157] Trpouehaveioaro aKrjKoare Kal p,epiaprvp-qraL vjjuv 
7T€pl 8' ifiavrov fipaxea /SouAo/xat vpuv elrrelv. 
iyw yap err) yeyovcbs rjhr) rpiaKovra ovre rep rrarpl 
ovhev ircoTTore avrelrrov, ovre ra)v noXirajv ovheis 
fioi eveKaXeaev , eyyvs re oIkcov rrjs dyopas ovre 
irpos hiKaorrjpicp ovre rrpos fiovXevrr)picp axfidrjv 
ovSeTTWTTore , rrplv ravrrrv rr)v crvpL(f)opav yeveoOai. 
56 rrepl \xev ovv ifiavrov roaavra Xeyaj, rrepl he rov 
rrarpos, eTreiSr) oiairep dhtKovvros at Karr)yopiai 
yeyevrjvrat, crvyyva)pLr)V e\ere y lav Xeyto a dv- 
rjXcoaev els rr)v rroXiv Kal els rovs <f)tXovs' ov yap 
(f)iXorLp,Las eveKa dXXd reK\ir)piov Troiovjievos on 
ov rov avrov eonv dvhpos dvev avdyK-qs re iroXXa 
dvaXioKeiv Kal {xerd Kivhvvov rod fxeylarov eVt- 

67 OvpLrjoai eyeiv ri revv kolvcjv. elol he rives ol 
TrpoavaXiGKOvres ov pidvov rovrov eveKa dAA' Iva 
dpyeiv v$ vpicov d^ccoOevres StTrAdcrta Kop,loa>vrai. 
6 roivvv ifios 7rarr)p dpxetv fiev ovherrcoTTore 
eTTeOvpLTjcre, ras he ^oo^yta? drrdoas KexoprjyrjKe, 
rerpL7]pdxr]Ke he errraKLs, elcrcfropds he TroAAds" accu 
fieydXas eloeviqvoxev . Iva he. elhrjre Kal vpueis, Ka0 y 
eKaonqv dvayvcooer ai. 


68 'AKovere, a) dvhpes hiKaurai, ro 7rXf}9os. rtevrr)" 
Kovra yap err) earlv oca 6 7rarr)p Kal rot? 1 xP r ]l JLaorL 
Kal rtx> crtoaart rfj TroXet, eXrjrovpyei. ev ovv 
Tocrovrco xpovcp hoKovvrd ri et; dpx^S ^X eLV ov $ € ~ 

1 Kai roti Sllliter: ai'To?s MS9. 

a Some men spend money to earn a pood name for public 
spirit: it is spent, not for that end alone, but as a specula- 


expedition, but were supplemented by loans from 
others, you have heard our statements and testi- 
monies : I propose next to tell you briefly about 
myself. I am now thirty years old, and never yet 
have I either had a dispute with my father or been 
the subject of a complaint from any citizen; and 
although I live near the market-place, I have never 
once been seen in either law-court or council-chamber 
until I met with this misfortune. So much let me say 
regarding myself : as to my father, since he has been 
treated as guilty in these accusations, forgive me if 
I mention what he has spent on the city and on his 
friends ; I do this, not for mere vainglory, but to 
bring in as evidence the fact that the same man 
cannot both spend a great deal without compulsion 
and covet some of the public property at the gravest 
risk. There are, indeed, persons who spend money 
in advance, not with that sole object, but to obtain 
a return of twice the amount from the appointments 
which you consider them to have earned. 3 Now, not 
once did my father seek office, but he has discharged 
every duty in the production of dramas, has equipped 
a warship seven times, and has made numerous large 
contributions to special levies. That you on your 
part may be apprised of this, the record shall be 
read in detail. 

Public Services 

You hear, gentlemen of the jury, the whole series. 
For as many as fifty years my father performed 
services to the State, both with his purse and with 
his person. In all that time, with his reputation for 
ancestral wealth, he is not likely to have shunned any 

tion on the prospect of gaining twice as much in gifts during 
their tenure of the office which they hope to obtain. 



Litav €lko$ $<nrdvr)v nefievyevai. o/iajs he /cat 
fidprvpas vfxlv irape^opiai. 


69 Tovrcov (jvjjLTTavrtov Ke<j>dXaiov eoTiv ewea rd- 
Xavra /cat Sto^t'Atat Spa^/xat. ert tolvvv /cat tSta. 
real rGiv ttoXltcJjv aTiopovui awe^eSajKe dvyaTepas 
/cat d$eX(f>ds, tov? S' eAuaaro e/c rd>i> TroXep,LO)v, 
toi? 8' et? racf)7jv irapelyev dpyvpiov. /cat ravr 
eiroiei -qyovLievos elvai dvhpos dyadov dxfieXelv 
tovs cf)lXovg, /cat et LirjSels /xe'AAot etaecr^ar wv 
Se Trperrov ecrrt /cat u/xd? d/coucrat /xou. /cat uot 
/caAet tov /cat tov. 


60 TdV uev ovv fiaprvpajv d/cr^/cdaTe* evOvLieZade 
Se ort dAtyov /xev [ow] 1 ypovov hvva.iT dv rt? 
rrXdoaudai tov Tpoirov tov olvtov, iv efiSoLirjKOVTa 

Se €T€GLV Ol)S' dv etS XddoL 7T0VT]p6s 0)V . TO) TOLVVV 

TTOLTpl Ttp ipup d'AAa jitev dv tis e^ot eVt/caAe'aat 
tcrajs", etS xP 1 lf Lara &£ ovSelg ovSe tcjv i^dpcjv 

61 eroA/xr^cre 7tcjottot€. ovkovv d^tov rot? tc5v /car^- 
yopcov Xoyots TTiUTevaai fidXXov t) rot? epyois, a 
eV pdydrj iv dnavTi tw /3ta>, /cat raj xpovw, ov 
v/xels 2 oacfrioTaTov eXeyyov tov dXrjOovs voLilaaTe. 
el yap litj rjv toiovtos, ovk dv e/c 77oAAd>v dAtya 
KaTeXnrev, eirel el vvv ye e^arraTiqBeiiqTe vrrd 
tovtojv /cat SripLevcraiO* rjpLwv ttjv ovoiav, ovSe 
Sdo TaAavra XdfioiT dv. ware ov fxovov irpos 
to£av dXXd /cat els xP r ll JL< *- TCOV Xoyov AuaxreAet 
pdXXov vjxZv p.7TOifrr)<J>t<ja<jda(,* 7toXv yap TrXeico 

1 ovv om. Aldus. * 8v v/xds Reiske: 8 vvv cis mss. 



expense. However, I will strengthen the case for 
you with witnesses. 


The sum total of them all is nine talents and two 
thousand drachmae. In addition, he also joined 
privately in portioning daughters and sisters of certain 
needy citizens : there were men whom he ransomed 
from the enemy, and others for whose funerals he 
provided money. He acted in this way because he 
conceived it to be the part of a good man to assist 
his friends, even if nobody was to know : but at this 
moment it is fitting that you should hear of it from 
me. Please call this and that person. 


Well then, you have heard the witnesses ; and now 
reflect that, although one might be able to adopt a 
feigned character for a short time, nobody in the 
world could keep his baseness secret for seventy 
years. Now, there are things for which it might 
perhaps be possible to reproach my father ; but on 
the score of money there is no one, even among his 
enemies, who has ever dared to do so. It is not fair, 
then, to credit our accusers' words rather than the 
deeds that marked his whole life, or than time, which 
you are to regard as the clearest test of truth. If 
he had been of another stamp, he would not have 
left but a small remnant of his estate ; for if you 
should now be utterly deceived by these people, and 
should confiscate our property, you would receive 
less than two talents. So not only with a view to 
repute, but also in respect of money, it is more to 
your advantage to acquit us ; for you will get far 



62 wcfieXrjd'qcread* , iai> rjpLels e^co/xev'. GKonelre he 
e/c rod TrapeXiqXvdoros xpovov, ocra <f>aiverai 
ai^AojueVa els ttjv ttoXlv /cat vvv diro rwv vtto- 
Xolttcov rpL7]papxoJ p-ev eycv , TpLTjpapx&v he 6 
TraTrjp aireOavev, 7reipacrouat 8', tooTrep /cat 1 
ehcelvov eojpwv, dXiya Kara paKpov TiapaoKevd- 
oavdai els ra? kolvols ojcfreXelas' axjre to) y epycp 
TrdXai <rrjs 7r6Xecos> 2 tout' cart, /cat our' eyd> 
acfrrjprjpLevos dhiKelaOai ot^ao/zat, vplv re TrXetovs 

63 ovtcjus at dx^eXetaL r) el hrjp,ev<7aLre. irpos he 
tovtols a^iov evdvp,Tjdrjvai olav <f>vcriv elyev 6 
Trarrjp. ooa yap e£co tojv dvayKaiajv eTredvpLTjuev 
avaXioKeiv, Trdvra ^avqoerai rotavra odev /cat 
rfj rroXei tl/jlt] ep.eXXev eaeadau. auTt/ca ore 
urmevev, ov p,6vov Ittttovs eKTrjoraro XapiTrpovs 
dXXa /cat ddXrjrals 3 evLK-qoev 'Iafytot /cat Ne/xea, 
ware rr)v ttoXlv KrjpvxOrjvaL /cat avrov crrecfravcodrjvaL . 

64 SeojLtat ovv vpicuv, d> dvhpes St/caarat, /cat tovtcov 
/cat ra>v aXXwv pLepLvrjpLevovs dndvTOJV tGjv elprj- 
p.evojv fiorjdetv rjpXv /cat p,r) irepuhelv vtto tujv 
ixdpajv dvaipedevras. /cat ravra iroiovvres rd re 
St/cata i/jr)(j)ielode /cat vplv avrots rd avpLcfrepovra. 

1 kclI Scheibe : d jvjss. 

2 rrjs 7r6\ewj add. Dobree. 

8 ad\r)Tals Taylor : dtfX^rds, dflXiprds icai mss. 



more benefit if we keep it. Consider, as you survey 
the time that is past, all that is found to have been 
spent on the city : at this moment, too, I am equip- 
ping a warship from the residue ; my father was 
equipping one when he died, and I will try to do 
what I saw him doing, and raise, by degrees, some 
little sums for the public services. Thus in reality 
it continues to be the property of the State, and while 
I shall not be feeling the wrong of having been de- 
prived of it, you will have in this way more benefits 
than you would get by its confiscation. Moreover, 
you would do well to reflect on the kind of nature that 
my father possessed. In every single case where he 
desired to spend beyond what was necessary, it will 
be found that it was something designed to bring 
honour to the city also. For instance, when he was 
in the cavalry, he not only procured handsome mounts, 
but also won victories with race-horses at the Isthmus 
and Nemea, so that the city was proclaimed, and he 
himself was crowned. I therefore beg you, gentle- 
men of the jury, to remember these things, and also 
everything else that has been stated, and to support us, 
and not to suffer us to be annihilated by our enemies. 
In taking this course you will be voting what is just 
and also advantageous to yourselves. 




The distress and perplexity into which Athens was 
thrown by the hideous failure of the expeditions 
to Sicily resulted in an oligarchical revolution, by 
which the whole administration was placed in the 
hands of a Council of Four Hundred : the Assembly 
was reduced to a nominal body of Five Thousand 
selected citizens, which was only to be summoned 
at the pleasure of the Four Hundred (411 B.C.). 
Within four months Euboea revolted, and food 
supplies were cut off : but in the following year the 
Athenian fleet inflicted a crushing defeat on the 
Spartans and Persians at Cyzicus in the Propontis ; 
the oligarchs in Athens were finally discredited, and 
the old democracy was restored. Polystratus, the 
elderly man who is defended in this speech by one of 
his sons, had been appointed registrar by the Four 
Hundred for the enrolment of the Five Thousand. 
He appears to have been moderate in his views, and 
to have acted throughout against his will : he placed 
as many as nine thousand on the list, and after 
holding a seat on the Council for only eight days he 
went to Eretria in Euboea, where he took part in 
engagements at sea which immediately preceded 
the overthrow of the oligarchs. On his return to 


Athens he found himself under the shadow of his 
oligarchical connexion, and was prosecuted both on 
this ground and for definite acts against the demo- 
cracy. In his first trial he was condemned to pay 
a heavy fine ; he appears to have paid it, and to have 
thus impoverished himself and his family He was 
prosecuted again, probably in 410, and on similar 
charges as before : if convicted, he would be unable 
to pay another fine, and consequently both he and 
his three sons would be deprived of their civic rights. 
The eldest son here speaks for him : the lack of 
clear arrangement and the awkwardness of the style 
seem to indicate that the speech is the young man's 
or the family's own production. However it may 
have come to be included among the works of 
Lysias, who started his professional practice some 
years later, its lack of art serves to show us how he 
may have got the suggestion of writing speeches for 
inexperienced litigants. 



1 Ov [iot SoKel ^/DTJrat Spyt^eadaL vfias ra> ovofiari 

TO) TO)V T€TpOLKOOLO)V, dXXa Tols epyOLS eVLOJV. ol 

[xev yap emfiovXevoavres r\aav avrdjv, ol 8' Iva 
pnqre rr\v rroXiv firjoev kclkov epydaaivro firjO" 
vpiwv firjoeva, aAA' evvoi ovres elarjXdov els to 
fiovXevr-qpiov , Sv els cov ovrool rvyydvei IToAu- 

2 arparos. ovros yap J]pedrj fiev vrrd rcov cpvXercbv 
cos XP Y ) (JT0 ^ cov dvrjp /cat irepl rovs Srjfioras Kal 
nepl ro rrXrjdos ro vpterepov Karrjyopovai he 
avrov to? ovk evvovs rjv rep TrXr^dei rep vfierepcp, 
alpedels vtto rcov cf>vXercov, ol dpiar dv hiayvolev 

3 rrepl otptov avrtov ottoZoi rives eloiv. ovros he 
rivos dv eveKa oXiyap^las erredvpi^ae ; rrorepov cos 
r)XiKiav elx€ Xeycov ri hiaTTpdrreadai Trap* vpZv, 7} 
Ttu ooj/xart marevcov , Iva vfipu^oi els rcov vp.erepcov 
Tivd; dAA' Spare avrov rr]v rjXiKLav, fj Kal rovs 

4 dXXovs iKavos eanv aTrorpeireiv rovrcov. ocrns 
jiev ovv drtaos cov, KaKov rt epyaadp,evos iv rco 
it pood ev xpovtp, erepas rroXireias erredvpLrjae, Sua 
ret rrpooBev a\iaprr\[iara avrov eveK dv eirparre' 
rovrcp he roiovrov ovhev -qfidprrjro, ware avrov 
evei<a puoeZv ro nXrjdos rd vjxerepov, r) rcov nalhcov. 


In my opinion it is not the name of the Four 
Hundred that should incense you, but the actions of 
some of their number. For there were some who 
had insidious designs : but the rest were resolved to 
do no harm either to the city or to any amongst you ; 
they entered the Council-chamber with loyal thoughts, 
and the defendant, Polystratus, is one of that section. 
He was chosen by his tribesmen for the soundness of 
his views in regard to his township and also towards 
your people : yet they accuse him of disloyalty to 
your people, after he has been chosen by his tribes- 
men, who can best discern the character of this or 
that person amongst them. And what reason could 
he have had for courting an oligarchy ? Because he 
was of an age to achieve success amongst you as a 
speaker, or because he had such bodily strength as 
might encourage him to commit an outrage on any 
of your people ? But you see of what age he is : it 
is one that fits him rather to restrain others from such 
proceedings. To be sure, if a man has been dis- 
franchised for some misdemeanour in the past, and 
so has courted a change in the constitution, he may 
be led by his past offences to seek his personal 
interest ; but this man had committed no such 
offence as might lead him to hate your people in his 
own interest or in that of his children. One of these 



6 fl€V yap iv ZtxrcAta rjv, ol 8* eV Bottorots" ware 
/r//Se toutcov IW/ca erepas 77oAtreta? eTTidv^rjuai 

5 [8ta rd irpooOev d/xapr?]/i,ara] 1 . /cat KarTjyopovoL 
fjLev avrov d>s 77oAAds- dp^d? rjp£ev, a77o8etfat oe 
ovocls otos re eortv a>? ou KaAtos" r\p^v. iyd> 8' 
rjyovfiaL ov tovtovs aoLKeiv ev tols Trpdyi±acrLv 
eKeivois, dXX et Tt? dAtya? dp£as dpxds p<r) tol 
apiara rjp$e rfj ttoXcl. ov yap ol KaXcus apxovres 

6 :rpovoiooaav Tr\v ttoXlv, dAA' ot ^77 OLKalojs- ovtos 
Se npGiTov jiev dp^as eV ^CLpamco ovre 7rpoeSojK€ 
ou#' 2 irepav TToXireiav KareGT-qae, tojv dAAcov 
a7TavTa)v ogol r\px ov KaTairpooovTaiv tol irpdypiaTa. 
ol 8' oi>x VTrefxeivav, Karayvovres a<f)0)v avrcov 
aoLKeZv 6 Se r)yovfJL€VOS fJLrjhev r)$iKr)K€vai Blktjv 

7 St'Sojcrt. Kal tovs fiev doiKovvrag ol Kar-qyopoi 
ckkXItttovglv } apyvpiov XapifidvovTes' Trap* Sv 8' 
dv fir] KepSalvojo-iv, dhiKovvras aTTO^aivovaL. Kal 
o/xota? ras Karr^yopiag Troiovvrai rtov re €L7t6vto)v 
yva)/jL7]v rivd eV rfj fiovXfj /cat tojv prq. ovtos 8e 
ovoe yv(x>\L7)v ov$€fiiav etrre 7repl rod vfierepov 

8 rrXrjdovs. eyco 8' rjyod[iaL d£lovs efvat tovtovs 
ftrjSev irdox^iv vcf)' vpLUJV KaKov, et vpxv /zev evvoL 
rjaav, eVetVots 1 8e <ovk>* dirr\x^dvovTO. twv yap 
XeyovTOJV evavTLa eVetVots 1 ol fxev ecfrevyov ol 8e 
arredvriOKOv, coot' et tls Kal efiovXeTO ivavTiovcrdai. 
vnep vpLwv, to $€os Kal 6 (J)6vos l rajv TrcnovdoTOJV 

a7T£TpC7T€ TTaVTaS. <X)CTT€ OL TToXXol TtaVTa dlT- 

eylyvojcrKov 6 aurcTjv tovs /xev yap itjiqXavvov avTa>v, 
rovs 8e aTTtKTLWoav. 61 8e e'/cetVcov e/LteAAo^ 

1 A . . . d/iapr^ara om. plerique codd. 

8 ovO' Taylor : Kal mss. 

* ovk add. Brulart. * (pdvos Reiske : <p6j3os mss. 



was in Sicily, the others were in Boeotia ; so it was 
no interest of theirs that he should court a change in 
the constitution. They do accuse him of having 
held many magistracies, but nobody is able to show 
that he was a bad magistrate. My own opinion is 
that it is not men of his character who are guilty of 
wrong in such situations, but some holder of a few 
offices who has not held them for the best advantage 
of the city. For our city was not betrayed by her 
good magistrates, but by her dishonest ones. This 
man, first of all, as a magistrate in Oropus,° neither 
betrayed you nor set up a new constitution when 
everyone else in office utterly betrayed their trust. 
They did not stay for the reckoning, thus convicting 
themselves of guilt ; whereas he, feeling himself 
innocent, comes up for punishment ! The guilty are 
smuggled out by their accusers in return for pay- 
ment ; but those from whom they can get no profit 
they expose as guilty. They make similar accusa- 
tions against those who have proposed some motion 
in the Council and against those who have not. But 
this man has not even proposed one motion regarding 
your people ; and I presume that these persons 
deserve no ill-treatment at your hands on the ground 
that, while they were loyal to you, they did not incur 
the enmity of that party. 6 For those who spoke in 
opposition to them were either exiled or put to death, 
so that whoever did aspire to oppose them in your 
interest was invariably deterred by fright or by the 
slaughter of their victims. Hence in most cases 
they completely lost heart, since those who were 
not banished were executed. Those among them 
a On the north coast of Attica. b The oligarchs. 

6 direytyv ohtkov Dobree : iyi-yvwuKOv MS3. 



OLKpodordai /cat pLrjoev einfiovXeveiv u^Se e£ayyeX- 
Xecv, tovtovs av KaOloravro. c5ot€ ovk av paoLa>s 
pLereoTTj av vplv r) TroXiTeia. ovkovv olkclioi eloiv, 

10 a)v vplv evvoi rjoav, tovtojv oiK-qv oioovai. oeivov 
oe uot ookcl etvai, el rots' €L7Tov<jl nepl to ttXtjOos 
to vfierepov fir] ra dpiara 6 pbrjhev elTTtbv tolvtcl 

TT€LO€TaL, /Cat €V fJ,€V efi$OpLT)KOVTa €T€GLV OVO€V 

i^rjixaprev els vp&s, ev oktoj 8' rjpepais' /cat ol 
fiev tov fiiov dnavra 7rovqpol ovres xpr]OTol ev 
rat XoyLGTTjpLa) yeyevqrai, ireioavres rovs kclt- 
r)yopovs, ot 8' del xP r ) arOL 'Q (jav y ovtol 7ro- 


11 KatVot ev ye Tat? Trporepov Kariqyopiais rd re 
aAAa KaT7]yopr]Gav tfjevorj rod rrarpos, /cat avyyevrj 
Qpvviyov avrov etvat ecfrrjcrav. /catrot el tls 
fiovXerai, ev ra> Xoyto tw ifxco pLapTVprjoaTO) ojs 

[159] dvayKolov ovtol Opuvt^a). aAAa yap ijjev&rj t<ar- 
rjyopovv. aAAa jjltjv ouS' e/c Traiheias <f>iXos tjv 
avra>' 6 fiev yap ev ay pep Trevrjs tov enoLfjiaivev, 

12 o oe 7Tarrjp ev tco doret eiraioevero . Kal ineiSrj 
dvrjp eyevero, 6 pev eyedjpyei, 6 8' eXOtov els to 
do-TV ecruKoSdvTei, ojare p,rjoev 6p,oXoyelv ra> 
Tporra) to) aAA^Aajv. /cat ot e^eTtve tco S^uootoj, 
ovk elonqveyKev avTco to dpyvptov /catTOt ev toIs 
tolovtols uaAtara S^Aoucrtv ot av </)lXol cLolv. el 
8' rjv St^/xott]?, ov hiKaios Sta, tovto pXaTTTecrOal 

13 euTiv 6 TraTTjp, el p,rj /cat vpuels dSt/cetTe, otl vpucvv 

° An active member of the oligarchy of Four Hundred 
(411 b.c); cf. XIII., Against Agoratus, 70, p. 317. 


who engaged to obey and refrain from plotting and 
reporting, they placed in power. Thus a change of 
government would have been no easy thing for you. 
It is not fair, then, to punish people for matters in 
which they showed their loyalty to you. And I con- 
sider it monstrous that the same treatment meted 
out to those who proposed measures concerning your 
people that were not to its highest advantage should 
also be applied to the man who proposed nothing, 
and who in seventy years has committed no offence 
against you, but did so in eight days ! Those who 
spent their whole lives in knavery have appeared as 
honest men before the auditors, because they have 
tampered with their accusers ; while those who were 
always hones. t towards you — they are the knaves. 

Now, in their previous prosecution, among other 
lying charges that they made against my father, they 
stated that Phrynichus was a relation of his. Well, 
let anyone, if he pleases, bear witness, in the time 
allowed for my speech, that there was kinship with 
Phrynichus. But, of course, their accusation was a 
lie. Nor, indeed, was he a friend of his by upbring- 
ing ; for Phrynichus was a poor man, and kept sheep 
in the fields, while my father was being educated in 
town. On attaining manhood he looked after his 
farm, while Phrynichus came to town and became a 
slander-monger ; so that the characters of the two 
were not at all compatible. And when Phrynichus 
had to pay a fine to the Treasury, my father did not 
bring him his contribution of money : yet it is in 
such cases that we see the best proof of a man's 
friends. If he was of the same township, that is no 
reason why my father deserves to suffer, — unless you 
also are guilty because he is your fellow-citizen. 



€OTl TToXlTiqs. TTUig 8* CIV yll'OlTO $7]IJLOTLKCOT€nOS t 

rj octtls v/Jicov ifj-qfiicrapLevajv rrevTaKicrx^Xlots rrapa- 
oovvai ret TTpay^iara KaraXoyzvs tov evaKio\i\iovs 
KaTeXe^ev, Iva pirjoels avTtp $id(f)opos eh) tujv 
$r}fj,OTcbv, dXX* Iva tov fxev ^ovX6/.ievov eyypdcfroi, 1 
el Be to.) firj olov r eh), x a P^ OLro ' KatroL oi>x 
61 av TrXeiovs tovs 9 noXurag ttoicogiv, ovtol kclto.- 
Xvovai tov SrjjjLOV, dXX* cl av e.K nXetovaiv iXdrrovg. 

i-i euro? Se ovre o/xocrat -fjdeXev ovre KaraXiyeiv , 
dXX avrov rjvdyKa^ov, ernfjoXas eTTifidXXovTes Kal 
triixiovvres' enel Se r)vayi<:dcrdr) Kal copLoae tov 
opKov, okto) ripepas eloeXBcov els to fiovXevTTjpiov 
e^errXei els 'EoeV/Hav, Kal eooKet eKet ttjv ijivxfy 
ov TTOvqpos etvat ev rat? vavfiaxlo^S, Kal rerpoj- 
fievos Sevp* rjXde, Kal rjSr) pLeTeTreTTTWKeL tol 
7Tpdyp.aTa. Kal ovtos [lev ovt elrrobv yvwfi'qv 
ovhefjLtav, ovTe irXeov o/crco -qpuepow eXOdjv els to 
fiovXevTripiov aj(f)Xe xPVI JiaTa TooavTa' tcov 8' 
elnovTOjv vplv rdvavrla Kal Sid TeXovs ev to) 

15 fiovXevT7]pia) ovtojv ttoXAoI aTTOTrefievyacn. Kal ov 
(f)9ova)v tovtois Xeya), dAA' rjpLas eXecov ol p.ev 
yap hoKovvTes ahiKelv e^r^/xeVoi elalv viro tCjv 
vfiiv 7Tpodv(jLa>v ev tols TTpdyp^aoi yevofJLevwv, ol 
8' rjSLKTjKOTes eKTTpidixevoi tovs KaTrjyopovs ouS' 3 
eootjav doLKelv. ttcos [aV] 4 ovv ovk av heuva Trdo~x ol ~ 

\ ( \p.ev; Kal KaTiqyopovai piev tcov TeTpaKoalajv, 
otl rjoav KaKoi' KatToc vpLets avTol ireioBevTes 
V7t6 tovtojv napeSoTe toZs TrevTaKtax^Xiots , Kal el 
avTOL tooovtol ovTes eTreladyyTe, eva eKaoTOV tujv 

1 iyypa<t>oi Dobree : ypacp-q mss. 
2 vXeiovs tovs Dobree: irXelarovs MSS. 
8 ovo Dobree: ovdh mss. 4 hv del. Markland. 



Where could you find a better friend of the people 
than the man who, after you had decreed that the 
government be entrusted to Five Thousand, pro- 
ceeded as Registrar to make a list of nine thousands 
his purpose being to risk no quarrel with any of his 
townsmen, but to enter the names of anyone who 
wished to be included ; and then, if in some cases 
there was a disability, to do it as a favour. Well, the 
democracy is not upset by those who increase the 
number of the citizens, but by those who reduce it. 
He was unwilling either to take the oath or to make 
up the list : they compelled him by the imposition 
of fines and penalties. When he was thus compelled, 
and had taken the oath, after sitting for only eight 
days in Council he took ship to Eretria, a and in the 
sea-fights there he showed no craven heart : he came 
home wounded, just when the revolution had taken 
place. And this man, who had neither proposed any 
motion nor sat in Council for more than eight days, 
was sentenced to pay that large sum, while many of 
those who had spoken in opposition to you, and had 
continued in Council throughout, have been acquitted. 
I speak not in envy of their case, but in pity for ours : 
some who were thought guilty have been begged off 
by persons whose administration evinced their zeal 
in your cause ; others who were guilty bought off 
their accusers, and were not so much as thought 
guilty. Our plight, therefore, would be quite 
monstrous. They accuse the Four Hundred of 
criminal conduct : yet you were yourselves persuaded 
by them to hand over the government to the Five 
Thousand, and if you, being so many yourselves, 
were persuaded, why should not each one of the Four 

a On the coast of Euboea, opposite the north coast of Attica. 
q% 461 


rerpaKooUov ov XPV V TreLordrjvai; dAA' ovx ovroi 
aSih'ovcrw, dXX* 61 vjjl&s i^-qTrdrcov Kal kclkw? 

Kal> X OTL, €L 7T€p Tt V€tOT6pi£,€LV eftovXeTO Ct? TO 

vp.crepov 7TArj9os, ovk av ttot' ev oktcd rjp,epacs, 

17 eloeXOwv els to fiovXevTrjpiov, a>x ero zkttAIcov. dAA' 
enrol av ns on Kephaiveiv imOufxwv e^enXevoev, 
toarrep evioi rjprra^ov Kal ecf>epov. ovhels toLvvv av 
elrroi n OTTOJS 2 Tcbv vp,eTepa>v e^et, dAAct iravra 
p,aXkov Korrfyopovaiv rj els rrjv dpx^v. Kal ol Kar- 
rjyopoi Tore p,ev ovhap,fj evvoi ovreg e<f>aivovTO rco 
hrjpLcp. ovhe efiorjOow vvv he r)viKa avTos eavrcp ev- 
vovcrraTos eanv 6 hrjpios, ftorjOovcrt, to) fjiev ovofian 

18, rep he epytp or</>toti> avrols. /cat p,r) dav- 
jidt^ere, to dvhpes hiKaorai, on rooavra cbcf)Xe 
Xpr\p,ara. epi)p,ov yap avrov Aafiovres avrov re 
Kal rjfjLtov Karrjyopovvreg elXov. rco pev ydp ouS' 
et Tt? et^e piaprvpiav, et^e p^aprvpelv 8td to heos 
to tlov KaTTjyopwv, rots Se Kal tol i/jevhrj hehotKOTes 
eptapTvpovv. rj heivd y aV irdBoipiev, c5 dvhpes 

19 8t/caorat, et tovs /xev ovx olovs Te ovras etjdpvovs 
elvai pur) ov xPVI- Lara *X €LV vpLtvv, tovtovs p<ev 
dcbecTe dvSpl e^atTovpLevcp, rjpuv he avTols Te Trpo- 
BvpLOis yeyevr)p,evoLs uepl to TrXrjOos to vpieTepov, 
Kal tov TraTpos ovhev vpids r)hLK7]KOTos, ov X a P L ~ 
elode. Kal el p,ev £evos tls eXdtov vpids r) ^p^/xara 
fjTet r) evepyeTTjs dvaypacjyrjvai r)^iov, eSore av 
avro)' rjplv he ov hwaere rjpL&s avrovs eTTiTLpiovs 

1 tvvoCov Kal add. P. Miillcr. 

8 Ti iVajs Scheibe : ru virus, owus ti mss. 

• y' av Stephanus : 6,-yav, av mss. 



Hundred have yielded likewise ? Nay, it is not 
these who are guilty, but the men who were deceiv- 
ing you to your hurt. The defendant shows his 
loyalty to you by this fact among many, — that, if he 
did have revolutionary designs upon your people, he 
would never have taken ship and gone off within 
eight days of taking his seat in Council. But, it 
might be said, he took ship in the quest of gain, 
like some people who went raiding and robbing. 
Well, nobody can cite any case of his keeping pro- 
perty of yours : no, they accuse him of anything 
rather than his use of his office. The prosecution 
at the time in no way showed their loyalty to the 
democracy, nor supported it ; but now that the 
democracy is its own most loyal friend, their support 
is given nominally to you, but actually to themselves. 
And do not be surprised, gentlemen of the jury, that 
he was fined such a large sum. For they found 
him without support, and obtained his conviction by 
accusations brought against both him and us. For, 
in his case, even if a man had evidence to give in his 
favour, he was prevented by the terror inspired by the 
accusers, whereas, in theirs, men were ready, through 
terror, to give even false evidence for them. How 
monstrous, gentlemen, would be our fate if, although 
the men who are unable to deny their possession of 
your money are acquitted by you on the intercession 
of a friend, we who have shown our personal zeal in 
your people's cause, and whose father, too, has done 
you no wrong, are not to obtain your grace ! If some 
foreigner had come and either asked you for money 
or claimed to be recorded as your benefactor, you 
would have granted his request ; and will you not 
grant to us, that we ourselves should have civic 


20 Vfitv yeveoOai; el he rives kolkovol eyevovro els rd 
Vfierepa irpdyfxara r) yvcofirfv fir) emrrfhelav etrrov, 
oi>x ol drrovres 1 rovrojv alrtol eloiv, eirel Kal rovs 
rrapovras vfiels dTTeXvorare . ovhe yap el ris roov 
evBdhe fir) rd dpiura Xeyoov rreiOei vfias, ovx vfiels 

21 ecrre a'irioi, aAA' 6 e^anaroov vfias. eKelvoi he. 
crcfrcov avrcov rrpoKarayvovres dhiKeZv ot^ovrat, 

160] Iva fir) hoZev hiK-qv kcll el rives aAAot ahiKovoiv, 
rjrrov fiev €Keiva>v, ahiKovai he, rd heos avrovs 
rroieZ ro re vfierepov koll ro tojv Karrjyopajv fir) 
eirihrifielv dXXd arpareveoOai, Iva r) vfias rrpao- 

22 repovs ttoiooolv r) rovrovs rreidojGiv. ovros he 
vplv hiKrjv hehajKev, ovhev vfias ahiKtov, evdvs 
fierd rd rrpdyfiara, ore vfieZs re fidXiara ifiefivrjade 
rwv yevofxevcov Kal ovros iXeyxOfjcreoQai efieXXe, 
morevoov avrco firjhev rffiaprrjaOat aAA' dyoovieZvdai 
ev fierd rod hucaiov. tbs o' r)v hrjfiorcKos, eycb 

23 vplv arrohei^co. irpcorov fiev yap oacov ovhepuas 
orpareias aireXeicpdr], aXX earparevero, cos crvv- 
eihores dv eirroiev ol hrjfiorai- Kal ei;dv avrcp rr)v 
ovoiav dcj>avrj Karaori^aavri firjhev vfias obtfieXeZv, 
elXero fiaXXov ovveihevai Vfias, tv el /cat fiovXoiro 
KaKOS elvai, fir) e^eirf avrco, aAA' elocfrepou re rds 
elacpopds Kal Xrfrovpyoiiq. Kal rjfias rrapeoKevaoev , 

24 cbs dv rfj rroXei cbcpeXifiooraroL elf) fiev. Kal ifie 
fiev els TiLKeXlav e£ err e flip ev, vplv 8' ovk rj . . ,, 3 
war elhevat rovs IrrTreas, otos rj rrjv tpvxrjv, eojs 

1 airdvTes Taylor : &wai>T€s mss. 

2 e^ei-r] Dobree : ii-rj mss. 
3 lacunam indicavit Marklaml. 

° The revolutionaries. 
• A gap occurs here in the text. 


rights among you ? If there have been cases of 
disloyalty to your government or of the proposal of 
an improper motion, it is not the absent who are 
to blame for these things, since you have absolved 
even those who were present. For, even when one 
of our citizens here persuades you with mischievous 
advice, it is not you who are to blame, but your 
deceiver. But those men, a convicting themselves of 
guilt in advance, have taken themselves off in order 
to escape punishment : while any others who were 
guilty, — though in a less degree than they, but still 
guilty, — are moved by their fear at once of you and 
of their accusers to take the field instead of staying 
at home, in order that they may either mollify you 
or prevail on them. The defendant, having done 
you no wrong, has submitted himself to justice 
immediately after those events, when your memory 
of what occurred was freshest, and he could best 
be put to the proof : he trusted in his own innocence 
and in the success which justice would award him 
in his trial. That he was a friend of the people, 
I will prove to you. First of all, how many were 
the campaigns in which he served without once 
shirking his duty, can be told, from personal know- 
ledge, by his fellow-townsmen. Then, when he 
might well have put his fortune away out of sight 
and refused to help you, he preferred that you should 
have cognizance of it, in order that, even if he chose 
to play the knave, he could have no chance, but must 
contribute to the special levies and perform his 
public services. He also placed us in a position to 
be most helpful to the State. He sent me away to 
Sicily, but I was not . . . b to you ; so the cavalry 
should know what kind of spirit I showed as long as 



to GTparorrehov oldv rjv eVetS^ Se oie^Qdpr] /cat 
aveacodrjv els Karai^v, iXrj^oftrjv 1 opficofievos 
ivrevdev Kal rovs TroXefilovg kolkujs Ittoiovv, o>ot€ 
rfi Sea) re rag oeKaras e^aipedrjvai irXeov rj 
rpiaKorra fivas Kal tois crrparLcoraig els GtOTTjpiav ', 

25 octol Iv rot? TroAefiloLs rjoav. Kal eTreioi) Kararatot 
rjvdyKa^ov Imreveiv, Imrevov Kal ov$€i'6s ovo* iv- 
ravOa klvovvov aTreAenrofJLrjv, ojot eloevai aTravras 
otos i)v rrjv ipyxty limevojv re Kal 6ttAit€vo)v. 
<d)v> z rovs fidprvpas Trape^ojaat. 


26 ' AKijKoare jjl€v tojv fxaprvpojv, to avopes oiKacrrar 
olos 8' etui Tiepl to VfieTepov 7rXrj9os, iycb vpuv diro- 
Sel^a). d(f)LKOfjL€vov ydp €K€LG€ HvpaKovcnov op- 
kiov exovros Kal erolpiov ovtos opKodv /cat upoo- 
iovtos rrpos eva eKaorov rGiv e/cet ovraiv, avr- 
€lttov evOvs avTO), Kal iX9d>v d>s Tvoea $Lr)yovp,rjv 
ravra, Kal cru'AAoyov eVotet, /cat Aoyot ovk oXiyoi 
r)aav. ojv S' ovv iyd> elirov, /caAd> jxapTVpas* 


27 Hi<€ifjaode Srj Kal rod rrarpos rr)v IttkjtoXi^v, 

TjV khwKeV CLTTohoVVai €jJL0L } 7T0T€pa TO) VfJLCTepO) 

rrXrjdei dyaOd ivrjv 3 r) ov. to. re ydp ot/ceta eV- 
eyeypanro, Kal ert, ore KaXcos ^X OL T( * ^ v ^ LK€ Xia t 

1 €\ : i' . ( ontius: ■ijkinfdfi'qv mss. 

2 cD^ add. Stephanus. 

3 tvl]v Francken : ?;/' mss. 

° On the east coast of Sicily. 
6 Presumably Athene. 


the army was safe : but when it was destroyed and I 
escaped to Catana, I used that town as a base for 
depredations by which I harried the enemy, so that 
from the spoil more than thirty minae were appor- 
tioned as the tithe for the goddess & and enough to 
deliver all the soldiers who were in the hands of the 
enemy. And when the Cataneans compelled me to 
serve in the cavalry, I did so, and shirked no danger 
there either ; so that everyone must know what kind 
of spirit I showed on service both with the cavalry 
and with the infantry. I will provide you with my 
witnesses to these facts. 


You have heard the witnesses, gentlemen of the 
jury. As to my disposition towards your people, 
I will make it plain to you. A Syracusan had 
arrived in that place with a form of oath, and was 
ready to administer it, and was approaching the 
people of the place one by one : c I at once spoke 
against him, and went and reported the matter to 
Tydeus ; he summoned an Assembly, and there 
were speeches not a few. However, I will call 
witnesses to what I said myself. 


Consider now the letter from my father, which he 
arranged to be conveyed to me, and say whether its 
contents were of good or evil import to your people. 
In it he had written concerning our domestic affairs, 
and further, that when things were going well in 

c Apparently this man pretended that he had been com- 
missioned by the magistrates to enlist troops. 




war el [AT] evvovg rjv rfj TroXet koli vplv, ovk dv 
rrore ToiavTa erreareXXev. 
2S 'AAAd fjLTJv /cat rov dSeXcf)6v rov vecorarov , otos 
€is vfi&s eonv, eyco arrohei^a). KaraSpofirjs yap 
yevojxivrjs rcov <f>vydoajv , <ot> x ov fiovov evddoe 6 
tl olol t rjcrav kcikov elpyd^ovro, dXXa Kal drro 
rod rei^ovs ecjyepov Kal rjyov u/xd?, etjeXdcras e/c rd)V 
dXXojv IttttIcdv eva arreKreivev. wv vplv avrovs 
lidpTvpas rovs napayevo\xevovs Trape^opuai. 


29 Tov Be rrpea^vrarov doeX(J)6v avrol ol crv~ 
arparevofievoi loaoiv, olrives fiera Aeovros 2 rjre ev 
'JL/^ArjGTrovrcp, ware vopbi^eiv jJLTjSevos ryrrov elvai 

dvdpCOTTOJV T7]V lpV)(TJv . KO.L [LOl dvdf3r]T€ 0€VpO. 

30 TIojs ovv ov XPV X^P LV 7ra P^ vfjidjv aTroXajiPdveiv, 
el roiovrol iujxev; aXX cuv puev 6 Trarrjp 5ta- 
fiefiX-qraL els vptds, Slkollws rovrojv Set rjfxas eveKa 
diroXeodai, [St'] 3 &v oe. rrpodvpLoi els ri]v ttoXlv 
yeyevqpeda, jJL'qoefilav ojc^eXetav yeveodai; dAA' 
ov htKaiov. dAA' el Sid rr\v rovrov SiafSoXrjv hel 
rj/xas <rt>* irdoye iv > oiKaioi eorp,ev Std rrjv rjpLere- 

31 pav rrpodvpiiav rovrov re otooai Kal rjpL&s. ov yap 
Srj 5 r)fJLeis xpr/fidrajv ye eveKa, Iva AdfioLfiev, ev 
Vfias eiroiovfiev, dAA' Iva, el Trore Kivhvvos eli) 

1 ol add. Taylor. 

* fiera A£oi>tos Wilainowitz : 6vres mss. 

3 oi' del. Dobrce. 

* tl add. Wilamowitz. 6 St? Dobrce: hv m^3. 



Sicily I should return. Now surely your interests 
and those of the people there were the same ; so, 
if he had not been loyal to the State and to you, he 
would never have sent such a letter. 

Then again, as to my youngest brother, I will 
inform you of his disposition towards you. When 
a descent was made on us by the returning exiles, 
who not only wreaked here whatever damage they 
could, but also raided and harried you from their 
fortress, he galloped out from the cavalry ranks and 
killed one of them. As witnesses to this I will pro- 
duce to you the actual men who were present at the 

affair. TTT 


Of my eldest brother enough is known by his 
actual comrades in the campaign, — by any of you 
who were with Leon at the Hellespont, — for him to 
be accounted the equal of any man in spirit. Please 
come up here. 


How, then, should we not obtain our reward from 
you, with such characters as those ? Is our destruc- 
tion to be justified by the slanders by which my 
father has been traduced to you, and are we to 
reap no benefit from the zeal that we have shown in 
the city's service ? Nay, there would be no justice 
in it. Supposing that we ought to suffer on account 
of the slander aimed at him, we deserve, on account 
of that zeal of ours, to save both him and ourselves. 
For indeed it was not for the sake of money that we 
might get that we sought your good ; our purpose 
was that, if we found ourselves in trouble, we might 
a Probably (with the Spartans) at Decelea in Attica. 



r)pZv, i£aLTOvfJL€voL Trap* vp,a>v rrjv a^iav x°-P LV 
aTroXdfloipev . XPV ^€ vfi&s /cat rcbv dXXojv eveKa 
tolovtovs elvai, yiyvtboKOvras on, edv tls irpd- 
Bvjjlos els Vfias fj, ov ptovov r)p,ds a)(f)eXrjoeTe' 
r)p,cov p.ev yap /cat rrplv SerjdrjvaL ireireipaoQe, oloi 
eapev els v fid?' tovs Se d'AAous- TTpoOvjjLorepovs 
7T0Lr}<J€T€, /car' d£iav ^apt^o/xevot, oa* av tls vp,as 

32 ev TTOifj. /cat firjoapLoos toXs Xeyovoi fiefiaiojorjTe 
[161] Xoyov rov 1 Travrtov Trov-qporarov Aeyerat yap tovs 

/ca/ccos" 7T€7TOi'66ras piepvrjodai pidXXov r) tovs ev. 
tls yap eVt eQeXiqaei xp^o^tos etvat, el TjTTrjdrjcrovTaL 
ro)v /ca/cajs 1 vpids ttolovvtojv ol ev TTOLovvTes ; ^X ei 

33 8' vpXv, a> dvSpes St/caorat, ovtojs. rrepl rjpcov 
yap ecrTt ijjrjifios vpuv, /cat ov Ttepl xp^/xdraw. ea>s 
fiev yap elprjvr], rjv (f>avepd ovoia, /cat rjv 
6 7Tarr)p ay ados yewpyos' eVetS^ 8e eloefiaXov 
ol TroXefjLLOL, Trdvrajv tovtojv eGTepiqOrjpLev . wore 
avrcov tovtojv eveKa rrpodvpLOL r)p.ev 2 els vp-as, 
elooTes otl xP 1 ll JLaTa l 1 ^ ^P^ v ovk etrj oirodev 
eKTLOojiev, avTol Se rrpoOvpLOL ovTes els vpids 

34 d^LovpLev evpiaKeadai X^P LV ' Kalroi 6pojp,ev y 
vpids, t5 dvopes St/caarat, edv tls naloas avTov 
dvaPiftacrdpLevos /cAan? /cat SXocjjvprjTaL, tovs re 
TratSas 1 8t' 3 avTov el dTLpLOjOr^oovTau eXeovvTas, /cat 
dcj)LevTas tols tojv rraTepojv apapTias 8td tovs 
rralhas, ovs ovttoj tare etVe dya#ot etre KaKol 
r)f$r)oavTes yevi\oovTai' rjpias 8' tare ort rrpoOvpiOL 
yeyevfjp,eda els v/xds, /cat tov irarepa ovSev r)p,ap- 
TTjKOTa. tooTe ttoXXu) St/caidrepot eoTe, a>v Tferrel' 

1 \6yov rbv Markland: Xeybvrm M£S. 
v Thai he im : iafih .m-^.s. 
3 5t' Hirschig: nai mss. 



be saved by this plea, and might obtain our due re- 
ward at your hands. And for the sake of other people 
also you ought to be so disposed, recognizing that, 
whenever zeal is shown in your service, your support 
will be not merely for us, — for even before making 
any request you have proved our attitude towards 
you, — but you will make the others more zealous 
by your bestowal of merited favour in every case of 
service rendered to you. And avoid giving any kind 
of confirmation to those who repeat the most wicked 
of all sayings, — that ill-treated men have better 
memories than the well-treated. For who will keep 
a loyal heart, if those who harm you are to be pre- 
ferred to those who help you ? What you have to do, 
gentlemen, is this : your decision is to be taken on 
us, and not on our estate. For so long as there was 
peace, we had a material fortune and our father was 
skilful in his farming ; but after the invasion of 
the enemy, we were deprived of the whole of it. 
So this was the very reason why we were zealous 
in your service : we knew that we had no funds 
from which we could pay a fine, but that our per- 
sonal zeal in your service entitles us to get some 
recompense. And yet we find, gentlemen, that when 
someone puts forward his children with sobs and 
lamentations you take pity on the children for the 
disfranchisement that they will owe to him ; and 
you overlook the fathers' transgressions on account 
of the children, of whom you cannot yet tell whether 
they will grow up to be good citizens or bad. But of 
us you can tell that we have zealously worked in 
your service, and that our father is clear of any 
transgression. Thus you are far more justified in 



paade, tovtols xapicraoOai, 77 ovs ovk tare ottoZoI 

35 rives eoovrai. rrerrovOafiev he rovvavriov rots 
dXXous avOpdmois. ol fiev yap dXXot rovs 7ratoa? 
TTapao-Trjcrdf-ievoL e^airovvrai vfias, r)fiels he rov 
rrarepa rovrovl koX r)fias e^airovfieda, fir) r)fids 
dvrl fiev eTTiTiixajv drtfiovs TTOirjo-qre, dvrl he 
ttoXltwv aVoAiSas" dAAa eXerjcrare Kal rov rrarepa 
yepovra ovra Kal r)fias. el oe r)fias ooikods drr- 
oXeZre, rrcos r) ovros rjfiZv rjhetos avvearai r) rjfieZs 
dAA^Aois" ev tw avrco, ovres vfitov re dVdfioi koll 
rrjs rroXecos; dAA' vficov heofieOa rpeZs ovres 

36 eaaai rjfias en rrpodvfiorepovs yevevdai. heofxeda 
ovv v[AO)v 7rpos tojv vrxapypvrojv dyadajv eKaarcp, 
orco [lev elalv veZs, rovrojv eveKa eXerjoai, oans 
<8'> 1 rjfiZv rjXtKLOjrrjg rvy^avei r) ra> rrarpi, eXeiq- 
cravras drroiftrftUo-aaOai,' /cat fir) rjuas fiovXofxivovs 
ev rroieZv ttjv rroXtv vfieZs KwXvmjre. heuva 8* dv 
rrdOoifiev, el vrro tCjv rroXefiicjv fiev iowdrj fiev , ovs 
elKos rjv SiaKtoXveLV fir) acn^eoOai, Trap 9 vficov oe 
firjhe evprjoofieOa ro oa)9r)vai. 

1 5' add. Stephanus. 



showing favour to those whose work you have tested 
than to those of whom you cannot tell how they will 
shape in the future. And our position is the contrary 
of that of other people : for others seek your indul- 
gence by producing their children ; but we seek it by 
producing our father here and ourselves, begging you 
not to deprive us of the rights that we now enjoy, and 
so leave us, your fellow-citizens, without a city. 
Nay, pity both our father in his old age, and us. If 
you ruin us unjustly, what pleasure will there be for 
him in our society, or for us in company with each 
other, when we are unworthy both of you and of the 
city ? But all three of us beseech you to let us give 
yet greater proofs of our zeal. We beseech you, then, 
in the name of all that each of you holds dear, — if 
any have sons, pity us for their sake ; if any is our 
equal, or our father's, in age, pity us and acquit us. 
And do not let your act frustrate our purpose of 
rendering service to the State. Dreadful would be 
our lot if, from the enemy, who might fairly have 
denied us safety, we yet obtained safety, but at 
your hands we shall fail to find salvation. 




This speech, like that composed for the son of 
Eucrates (XVIII.), is only the conclusion of a de- 
fence of which the main and more direct argumenta- 
tion does not appear. In the present piece we have 
merely the pleader's general justification of his per- 
sonal character, so that it is not easy to determine 
exactly what the accusation was. In 16 the defendant 
implies that he is charged with retaining public 
money ; but in 21 he begs the court not to condemn 
him for taking bribes, and it is this latter charge that 
has been attached to the piece as its title. It seems 
most probable that, at the usual rendering of accounts 
after tenure of a State office, he has been definitely 
accused of corruption, and has to meet a further 
insinuation of embezzlement. The penalty that he 
would incur, if found guilty, is probably a fine 
amounting to many times the sum or sums alleged 
to have been misappropriated by him : this fine he 
would be quite unable to pay in full, and both he 
and his children would consequently be deprived of 
their civic rights. At several points he dwells on 
the wretchedness of their plight, should they be 
unsuccessful in their present defence (11, 14, 25). 

The pleader attained the adult age of eighteen in 
411-410 b.c. (1) ; he was therefore born in 429-428, 


He gives an exact account of his public services down 
to the year 404-403, so that we may place the date 
of the present action in 403-402, and fix his age now 
at twenty-six. In these eight years of his early man- 
hood he has spent over ten talents on the public 
services which were incumbent on wealthy citizens, 
although less than a quarter of this expenditure 
would have been the normal amount. When he 
undertook the charge of a warship, the confidence 
shown by Alcibiades (of whom he is careful to state 
his personal dislike) proved the thoroughness of his 
equipment, and his vessel was one of the twelve 
which got away safe from the disaster at Aegos- 
potami (405 b.c). Instead of a positive reward for all 
these services, he only claims to be left in possession 
of his property. After the perils he has encountered 
in defence of the city, it is unlikely that he would 
take bribes to the detriment of the State. He ends 
with an appeal for pity towards his wife and children. 
Among the interesting points of the speech are the 
enumeration of the sums spent by the defendant on 
his various public services, which included dramatic 
and choric performances, the equipment and conduct 
of war vessels, naval and athletic contests and reli- 
gious missions and processions ; ° the remark in 13 
on the exhaustion of the Treasury funds ; and alto- 
gether, the skilful way in which Lysias has charac- 
terized the generous spirit of the young man, who is 
proud of his lavish expenditure on public ceremonies 
and entertainments at a time when the State is im- 
poverished, and who expects the just reward of 

° Amounting in all to 636 minae or 10J talents, — a sum 
of a value between £2000 and £3000. 



1 Fleet [.Lev rtov KarrjyoprjiiJvcov, c5 d'vSpes St/ca- 


Trepl rwv dXXojv \)}ias d£ia), tv* iTrianqode irepl 
olov 1 twos ovros ifJiov ifjrjcjuelade. iycb yap e8o/a- 
/jLaaOrjv fX€V eVt 0€O7ro/x7rou dpxovros, Karaords Se 
Xoprjyos rpaycpools dvrjXcoaa rpidi<ovra pivds /cat 
rpiro) pirjvl (dapyrjXiois vtKiqoas avhpiKto X°P < ^ > 
otG)(L\las SpaxjJiOLS, em 8e rAau/ct777rou dpxovros 
els 7TvppixiUTas YiavaOrjvaioLS rots pieydXois o/cra- 

2 KooLas. ert 8' dvhpdcn x°P r iy^ ) v els Atoi'Jcrta errl 
rod avrov dpxovros evLKrjcra, /cat dvqXojoa avv rfj 
rod rptrroSos dvaOecret rrevraKLcrx^Xlas Spa^/xas", /cat 
eVt Ato/cAeous- UavaQ-qvatois rols [iiKpols kvkXlo) 
XOp£> rpiaKooias. rov Se pLeratjv XP° V0V £Tpn]p- 

3 dpxovv enrd err), koX e£ rdXavra dvrjXajora. /cat 
rooavras hairdvas SaTravco fxevos kolI kclO* rjfiepav 
imep Vficov KivSwevaiv /cat aTTohiqpLLov, oficos elcr- 
yopds rr\v pi€v rpta/corra paj rrjv 8e rerpa- 

1 oiov Markland: Utov mss. 

a By the Council, in his eighteenth year : cf. X., Against 
Theomnestus, I. 31, p. 213. b 411-410 b.c. 

c At the festival of Apollo and Artemis, held in the month 
Thargelion (May-June). d 410-409 b.c. 



In regard to the counts of the accusation, gentlemen 
of the jury, you have been sufficiently informed ; but 
I must ask your attention also for what has yet to be 
added, so that you may understand what kind of 
person I am before you give your verdict upon me. 
I was certified of age a in the archonship of Theo- 
pompus 5 : appointed to produce tragic drama, I spent 
thirty minae and two months later, at the Thargelia, c 
two thousand drachmae, when I won a victory with 
a male chorus ; and in the archonship of Glaucippus, d 
at the Great Panathenaea, eight hundred drachmae 
on pyrrhic e dancers. Besides, I won a victory with 
a male chorus at the Dionysia under the same archon, 
and spent on it, including the dedication of the 
tripod, five thousand drachmae ; then, in the time 
of Diocles/ three hundred on a cyclic g chorus at the 
Little Panathenaea. In the meantime, for seven 
years I equipped warships, at a cost of six talents. 
Although I have borne all these expenses, and have 
faced daily peril in your service abroad, I have 
nevertheless made contributions — one of thirty minae 
and another of four thousand drachmae — to special 

* The pyrrhic was a kind of war-dance. f 409-408 b.c. 
9 A circular or dithyrambic chorus, usually associated 
with the worship of Dionysus. 



/ao^tAta? Spa^/xa? ctaei^yo^a. e7reihr) he kclt- 
enXevua inl 'AAe^tou dpxovros, evdvs eyvpLvacrL- 
dp-xpvv els YlpofiijOeLa, /cat eviKcuv dvaXtbcras Sa>Se/ca 
fxv&s. /cat varepov KarecrT^v x o P y )y°S TraihiKO) 
*■ * X°Py **" dvrjXcoaa rrXeov rj TrevreKaiheKa jjlv&s. 

€7TL Se El5/cAetSoU dp^OVTOS KOJfJLtphoLS X°P 7 1'Y ( ^ )V 

KycfyujoScbptp 1 ivLKQjv, /cat dvrjXojaa avv rfj rrjs 
GKevfjs dvadeaet e/c/cat'Se/ca /jlv&s, /cat HavaOrjvaioLS 
rois fiLKpots ixop-qyovv Trvppixicrrais dyevelois, /cat 

5 dvi'iXcoua eirrd pivas. veviKrjKa he rpnqpei [lev 

apuXAa)[JL€VOS €7TL HoVVLCp, aVaAojaa? 7TeVT€Kal$€KCL 

fivas' x^pts ^ apxiOeajpias /cat 9 Kpprj(f>opLas Kal 
dXXa TOLavra, els d epiol hehairdv^rat TrXeov i) 
rpiaKovra fxval. /cat tovtojv d>v KareXe^a, el 
efiovXofjLrjv Kara rd yeypapifieva ev ra> vofxa) 
XrjTOvpyelv, ovS' dv to reraprov fxepos dvrjXojoa. 

6 tov he xpoyov ov erpirjpdpxovv, r) vavs dpiard /xot 
errXei 7tolvt6s rod Grparo-rrehov. TeK\xr\piov he. 
rovrov vpLiv [xeyiGTov epa). npcorov p,ev yap 
1 ' AXKifiidh-qs , ov eyd) irepl 7toXXov dv eTTOiiqadp,r]v 
jjlt] avpLTrXeiv jjlol, ovre </>l\os d)v ovre avyyevrjs 

7 ovre <f>vXeT7]s enXeu inl rrjs ifirjs veojs. /catrot 
V'lds ot/xat elhevat on OTparrjyos a>v } to i£r}v 
-noielv 6 rt efiovXero, ovk dv rrore dvefirj err* dXXrjv 
vavv el firj ttjv dpiora rrXeovoav, fieXXajv avros 
Kivhvvevoeiv. eneihr) he e/cetVou? p-€v Vfiels 

1 Kr](piao5J:p({} Clinton : KrjcpcaoSuTLp mss. 

a 405-404 b.c. 

6 Torch-races were held in honour of Prometheus, 
e 404-403 n.c. 

* A promontory in the south of Attica, on which there 
was a temple of Poseidon. 



levies. As soon as I returned to these shores, in the 
archonship of Alexias, I was producing games for 
the Promethea, b and won a victory after spending 
twelve minae. Then, later, I was appointed to 
produce a chorus of children, and spent more than 
fifteen minae. In the archonship of Eucleides c I 
produced comic drama for Cephisodorus and won a 
victory, spending on it, with the dedication of the 
equipment, sixteen minae ; and at the Little 
Panathenaea I produced a chorus of beardless pyrrhic 
dancers, and spent seven minae. 

I have won a victory with a w r arship in the race 
at Sunium, d spending fifteen minae ; and besides I 
had the conduct of sacred missions and ceremonial 
processions e and other duties of the sort, for which 
my expenses have come to more than thirty minae. 
Of these sums that I have enumerated, had I chosen 
to limit my public services to the letter of the law, 
I should have spent not one quarter. During the 
time when I had charge of a warship, my vessel was 
the best found in the W'hole armament. And I will 
tell you the surest evidence of that fact : at first 
Alcibiades, — I would have given a great deal to 
prevent his sailing with me, as he w r as neither my 
friend nor my relative nor a member of my tribe, — 
was aboard my ship. Now I am sure you must be 
aware that, being a commander who was free to do 
as he pleased, he would never have gone aboard any 
but the best found vessel, when he was himself to 
have his part in the danger. When you removed 

6 In this case, of maidens of the best families, who at the 
Panathenaea carried the sacred robe and other holy objects 
as offerings to Athene. 



8 €7ravaaT€ rrjs apxfjs, rovs 8e fxera QpaGvXXov 
SeVa elXeade, ovtol irdvTes ifiovAovro errl ttjs 
€jj,rjs vecbs TrXelv, dveftr) fievroi noXXcov Xoihopuov 
avTols ytvofiivcov 'Ap^e'arparo? d Opedpptos" 
aiTodavovTos he tovtov iv MvTiXrjirr) 'Epa- 
aii'Lorjs \i€T ifiov ovvenXeL. /carrot ovtco 7rap- 
€GK€vaGficvr]v Tpir\py\ Troaa oteoOe dv7]XojK€vai XP 1 !' 

9 /tara; t) 7ioaa tovs ttoXc/jllovs elpydoOai /ca/cd; 
r) nocra ttjv ttoXlv ev ireiroir)K€vai; reKfi-qpuov oe 
tovtov fieytcrTOV ot€ yap iv rfj TcAeurata, vav- 
juaxta at vrjes ocecfrddp-qcrav, ovSevos /xot ovp,- 
rrXeovTOS UTpaTiqyov (tva Kal tovtov (JLvqcrOa), 
i-n-eiSr) Kal rot? 1 Tpirjpdpxot? (LpyicrdTjTe 8td ttjv 
yevo\x£vr)v crvpLcfropdv) iycb tt\v re ifxavTov vavv 
e/co/xtaa /cat ttjv Naucrt/xa^ou tov OaA^peoj? 

10 eaojaa. /cat ratrra oi)/c a.7ro rvx^S iytyveTO, dAA' 
a770 7TapaaK€vrjs ttjs ifxrjs' elxov yap xP 7 ll JLacrL 
TTelcras KvfiepviJTrjv QavTiav airavTa tov xP ovov > 
&s eSd/cet tCjv 'EAA^vojv dptaro? etvat, 7rap- 
€OK€vaod[jLr]v Se /cat to TrXrjpojjAa npos eKetvov /cat 
tt]v dXXrjV V7T-qp<EGcav aKoXovOov. Kal TavO* OTL 
aXrjOrj Xeya>, TrdvTts eVioracr^e, ocrot €Tvyxdv€T€ 




11 At fX€v Toiwv GOjQeiGai tojv vecov ScoSe/ca rjcrav 
iyd) 8' vfilv ovo eKopnGa, ttjv efiavTOV Kal tt)v 
Nauat^td^ou Tpir\pj], 


1 Kal roh Markland: St ro?s, rots mss. 

2 Savji/xaxov Schott: \v<ri/<>t> mss. 


those men from the command, and selected the ten 
of whom Thrasyllus was one, these all wanted to sail 
on my ship ; though, after much wrangling amongst 
them, it was Archestratus of Phrearrhe a who came 
aboard. After his death at Mytilene, Erasinides 
sailed with me. I ask you, how much money do 
you think that a warship so well furnished must 
have cost me ? How much harm did it do to the 
enemy, and how much benefit to the city ? The 
best proof is this : at the time when our ships were 
destroyed in the last sea-fight, b and I had no com- 
mander on board with me, — I may mention this, as 
your anger on account of the disaster that occurred 
was shown even against those who had charge of 
the warships, — I not only brought away my own 
vessel, but I also saved that of Nausimachus of 
Phalerum. And all this was the result, not of chance, 
but of my arrangements : for by making it worth 
his while I secured as my pilot for the whole time 
Phantias, who was esteemed the best in Greece ; 
and I also provided such a crew and complement of 
oarsmen as were suitable for him. That these state- 
ments of mine are true is fully known to all of you 
who were in the forces over there. But call Nausi- 
machus to support them. 


So the vessels that were saved were twelve in 
number ; and two were brought away for you by 
myself, — my own warship, and that of Nausimachus. 

After so many dangers encountered in your defence, 

A district of Attica. 
6 At Aegospotami, 405 B.C. 



vevKcbg Kal rooavra dyaOd elpyacrpievos ttjv ttoXiv, 
vvvl heofxai ov oajpedv cooirep erepoi dvrl rovrwv 
7rap' vptov XafieZv, dXXd pirj oreprjOrjvai rtov epiavrov, 
rjyovpevos Kal vplv alaxpdv etvai rrapd re £k6vtos 

12 i/jLOV Kal Trap clkovtos XapL^dveiv. Kal ov rocrovrov 
{lot p.eXei el pie Sei ret ovra aTroXeoai' dXX ovk dv 
he^aipuqv vfipioOrjvai, ovhe TTapaarrjvai rois Sta- 
Svopevois rds Xyrovpyias epiol piev dxdpiora etvai 
rd el? vpias dvrjXajpieva, eKeivovs Se SoKeiv opdeos 
fiefiovXevudai on vplv ovhev n poelvr ai rtov ocf)€- 
repojv avrtbv. edv ovv epiol 7reio6ijre, rd re StVata 
ifj-qtfaieicrde Kal rd XvoireXovvra vplv avrois alprj- 

13 creode. Spare yap, to dvopes hiKaarai, rd Trpoa- 
idvra 1 rfj iroXei d>s SXiya eori, Kal ravra d)s vrrd 
rtov etfrecrrr) Kor ojv dprrd^erai' toar d£iov ravrr\v 
rjyeiodai rrpooooov fiefiaiordr-qv rfj rroAct, rag 
over ias rtov edeXovrojv Xrjrovpyeiv. edv ovv ev 
povXevorjcrde, ovoev rjrrov eTTipieXrjoeode rtov rjpie- 
repajv xp^d^rojv 7} rtov ISlwv rtov vpierepojv avriov, 

14 elhores on e^ere iraoi xPV G ^ aL ro ^ s rjpierepois 
toartep Kal rrporepov oipiai Se irdvras Vjxas ert'i- 
oraodai on rtov epitov eytb ttoXv ^eXriwv 
eoopiai rapiias rtov rd rrj? noXeats vplv rapnevovrajv. 
edv 8' e/xe rrevTjra noi'qcnrjre, Kal vpiag avrovs 
dSiKTjcrere' erepoi he Kal ravra Siavepiovvrai, 
wenrep Kal rdAAa. 

15 "A£iov Se eonv evdvpirjOfjvai on ttoXv ptaXXov 
[163] vplv rrpoai]Kei rtov vpierepojv epiol oibovai r) rtbv 

epitov epiol apL^LO^-qrrjoai, Kal rrevrjra yevopievov 
eXerjoai pL&XAov rj rrXovrovvn (f)6ovrjoai } Kal rot? 
deols evx^crOat rovs d/\Xovs etvai roiovrovs noXiras, 

1 Trpoaidura Reiske: Trpoabvra mss. 


and after all the services that I have rendered to the 
city, I now request, not a boon for my reward, as 
others do, but that I be not deprived of my own 
property ; for I consider it a disgrace to you also, 
to take it both with my will and against my will. I do 
not mind so much having to lose my possessions ; but I 
could not put up with an outrage, and the impres- 
sion that it must produce on those who shirk their 
public services, — that while I get no credit for what 
I have spent on you, they prove to have been rightly 
advised in giving up to you no part of their own 
property. Now, if you will admit my plea, you will 
both vote what is just and choose what is to your 
own advantage. Do but observe, gentlemen of the 
jury, how slender are the revenues of the State, and 
how even these are pilfered by their appointed 
guardians : you ought, therefore, to see the surest 
revenue for the State in the fortunes of those who are 
willing to perform public services. So, if you are well 
advised, you will take as great care of our property 
as of your own personal possessions, knowing that 
you will be able to avail yourselves of all that we 
have, as you were in the past. And I think you are 
all aware that you will find me far superior, as 
controller of my property, to those who control 
for you the property of the State : whereas, if you 
impoverish me, you will wrong yourselves besides ; 
others will divide it up amongst them, as they do 
the rest. 

You ought also to consider that it is far more 
fitting for you to give me of what is yours than to 
dispute my claim to what is mine, and to pity me if I 
am impoverished than to envy me my wealth : you 
should pray Heaven that the others may be as good 



7va tlov fiev vpLerepcov 1 <[*?)>* emOvpL^oojOL, rd 
16 oe (j<f)erepa avTtov els Vfi&s avaXiaKOJOiv. rjyovfiat 
S\ cb ai'Spes 8t/caarat (/cat firjSels vfjLtov axOecrdfj) , 
7toXv av 8i/catdreooi> v/j.ds vtto tcov ^rjTrjTtov 
a.7roypa<f>rjvaL rd epia €)(€W t r) e/xe vwi /avSweueiy 
(x)S rod hrj/jLOcriov ^p^/xara e'xovTa. tolovtov yap 
efiavrov rfj ttoXzi Trapiyoi, ojore tSta p,ev rcov 
<ovto>v> 3 </>et'Souat, S^uoota Se XrjTOvpycov TjhopLaiy 
/cat ou/c eVt rots' Trepiovcn txe'ya (/>poroj, dAA' em 
J 7 rots 1 ets" vitas' avrjXajpLevoLs, r)yovp.evos tovtojv p,ev 
clvtos air tos elvai, ttjv o° ovolav irepovs /xot /cara- 
At7retv, /cat Std TavTrjv fxev vtto tcov exOpcov dhiKOJS 
GUKocfyavTeladaL, St' exeiva Se vcf>' vficov St/catojs 
ooj^eodai. war ovk av et/cdrojs" erepot ixe e^r)T7]- 
aavro Trap' v/jlcov, dAAd /cat ct rts - rcuv epicov cJ)lXo)v 
tolovtov dycbva rjyojvi^eTO , u/xas" av r)£iovv euot 
Souvat ttjv yapWy Kai e ^ ^ap' d'XXois eKLl'SvveVOV, 

18 uuas" etVat tovs Seo/ievovs v-nep ifiov. <ov yap 
dV>* tovto ye elnelv e^ot rts, &>s TroXXds apx^-S 
ap£as €/c tcuv VfxeTepojv oj^eXr/fxai, r) d>s alaxpds 
St/cas 1 SeSt/caouat, r) cos" alaxpov tlvos atrtds - etixt, 
r) ojs" rds - r^S" noXeajs crvfjufiopas dapLevws etSov 
U77-ep anavTOJV ok /cat <ra>v> 5 Ihiojv /cat rojv 
^Tjjjiooiojv ovtojs r)yovjJLal /xot TreTroXiTevodai /cat 
uuas- eloevai, ojore ouSey Setv 6 /x€ a77oAoy?joacj#at 

19 r/ept aurcTjy. Seouat ouv vjjlcov, uj avbpes St/caorat, 
r^ avTTjv vvv nepl epuov yvajpaqv ex €LV V V7T6 P K€LL 
ev to) Teojs ^pdvco, /cat /xt? /jlovov twv ftrj/jLocriODi' 
XrjTOvpyiojv fie pLvrj ad ai> dAAd twv ihiojv eVt- 

1 viiertpwv Dobree : ertpuv mss. f ^ add. C'ontius. 

8 gfrwi/ add. Markland. 4 oi ~,ap hu add. Dobree. 

6 tu>i> add. Bekker. 6 oei> Keiske : del mss. 



citizens, so that, instead of coveting your money, 
they may spend their own on you. In my opinion, 
gentlemen, — and let none of you take it ill, — there 
would be far more justice in your being declared by 
the Commissioners to be holding my property than 
in my being prosecuted now for holding Treasury 
funds. For my attitude towards the State is shown 
by the fact that, while I am frugal in the private 
use of my means, I delight in the discharge of my 
public duties : I take a pride, not in the residue that 
is left to me, but in the amounts that I have spent 
on you ; for I regard the latter as my own achieve- 
ment, whereas my fortune was bequeathed to me 
by others, and if on account of this I unjustly incur 
the venal slander of my enemies, those expenses 
have justly earned my salvation at your hands. 
There is no good reason, therefore, why others should 
have interceded with you on my behalf : and indeed, 
if any of my friends had been involved in a similar 
suit, I might expect you to show me your gratitude ; 
and if I were being tried before another court I should 
look to you as the petitioners in my defence. For it 
can never be alleged that I have profited at your 
expense by the tenure of many offices, or that I have 
been the subject of disgraceful suits, or that I am 
guilty of any disgraceful act, or that I saw with de- 
light the disasters of the city. In all my dealings, 
both private and public, I believe that I have shown 
such a character as a citizen, in a manner so well 
known to you, that I have no need to justify myself 
in those respects. I therefore request you, gentle- 
men of the jury, to hold the same opinion of me now 
as you have held hitherto, and not only to remember 
my public services to the State, but also to bear in 

r ±85 


nqoevpLaTtov evBvjieloOai, r)yovp,evovs ravrrjv etvai 
[r-^y] 1 XrjTOvpylav emir ov cot aTiqv , Sta, reXovs rov 
TTcivra xpoi'ov Koopnov elvai /cat otot\>pova /cat ix-qB* 
v^ rjSovrjs rjrrrjOrjvaL /x^' vrro Kephovs e.TTapBr)vai, 
dXXd tolovtov 77apacr^etv eavTov cocrre /jLrjoeva 
tlov ttoXltcov /xrjre pLepLi/jaoBai jLtrjre olkitjv roXfirjaai 
rrpooKaXeoaoBai . 

20 Ovkovv d£iov, a> dvopes St/caarat, rreuBopLevovs 
KaTTjyopois toiovtols ifxov KaTaip-qtf)ioaoBai, ol 
nepl aoefieias p,ev dytovilofievoi ttjXlkovtol ye- 
yovatnv, ovk av hvvdfxevoi 8' virep tcov acj>ereptov 
dpLaprr]jJLdTCOV aTroXoyi^oauBai erepcov Kar-qyopetv 
roXfxcbtn. /cat tov Kwr)crias ovtco Sta/cet'^teyo? 
rrXeiovg OTpaTelas icrTpdrevrai, ovtol rrepl tlov 
rrjg TToXecos dyavaKTOvai. /cat i£ cov jiev -q iroXis 
evoalpLCOv curat, ov crvpL^aXXovrai, rrdvra 8e 


21 oB-qoeoBe. ovtol p,ev ovv, to dvhpes St/caarat, iv 

TO) hrjfJLtp KOLT€l7TOl€V VfJUV T& Ot\>e.Tep* O.VTLOV 

erriTrioevpLaTa' ov yap av €^ot/xt o rt tovtov fiet^ov 
avTols ev^aipuqv /ca/cov iyto 8' vjjlcov oeofiat, /cat 
lk€T€vo) /cat dvTifioXto fir) KaTayvtovai otopo$OKiav 
ifxov, fJirjo' r)yr]oaodai roaaura xP r ]l JLara «ycu, 
<8t'> 2 a iyto povX-qdeL-qv av rt KaKov ttj troXei 

22 yeveoBai. ixaivoipuqv yap <dv>, 9 to dvopes 8t/ca- 
crrat, el rrjv ptev rraTptoav ovoiav tpiXoTLpLovpievos 
els vpids dvaXtaKOLfxi, irrl Se tco ttjs rroXecos 
/ca/caj napa tlov d'XXtov StopohoKOLrjv. iyto fiev 
ovv, to dvopes 8t/caarat, ovk ot8' ovoTivas rj vp,as 
ifiovXrjOrjv Trepl ifxov StKaords yeveoBai, etirep %pf) 

* T7]v del. Dobree. 


mind my private propensities. Consider that the 
most onerous of public services is to maintain through- 
out one's life an orderly and self-respecting behaviour, 
neither overcome by pleasure nor elated by gain, 
but evincing such a character that one is free from 
complaint or the thought of a prosecution in the mind 
of any fellow-citizen. 

It is therefore unfair, gentlemen, that you should 
condemn me in deference to such accusers as these, 
who have gone this length in contesting the charge of 
their own impiety, and then, as they could never 
clear themselves of their own offences, they have the 
hardihood to accuse others. Nay, Cinesias, a with the 
character that we know, has served in more cam- 
paigns than these men, who now show indignation at 
the city's plight ! They make no contribution to any 
scheme for raising the fortunes of the city, but do 
their utmost to incense you against your benefactors. 
Rather is it to be wished that they, gentlemen, might 
recount their own proceedings to you in Assembly ; 
for I could not find a worse fate to invoke upon them. 
On my own part, I request, I beseech, I supplicate you 
not to condemn me for venality, nor to believe that any 
amount of money could make me wish any ill to befall 
the city. For I should be a madman, gentlemen, if, 
after spending my patrimony upon you in the pursuit 
of distinction, I accepted bribes from others with the 
aim of injuring the State. I indeed, gentlemen, can- 
not think what judges I should prefer to you for the 
trial of my case, if one ought really to pray that the 

° A notorious coward ; see Introd. p. xviii. 

8 &' add. Reiske. 3 &v add. Bekker. 



TOl)? €V 7T€7TOvd6raS 7Tepl TCOV €V TTeTTOLrjKOTCQV 

23 evxeadat ttjv i/jrjfiov (f)epeiv. /cat \xev 077, oj dvhpes 
St/caorat, {emBvpLco yap /cat tovtojv pLvrjcrdrjvai) 
ovo€7Tco7Tore Xr^rovpyelv vrrep vfitiov heov <heivov 
rjyov/jirjv > * el togovtco Trevearepovs rovs 7ratSa? 
KaraXeiipco, dXXd ttoXv aaAAov el fir} TrpoBvpiOJS 

24 ttoij]g<jo ret TTpoGTayQivTa,' ovV et ttotz Kivhv- 
vevaeiv ev rats mu/xaxtat? }xeXXoipn y ovheTrumor 
rjXerjoa ovh* eSd/cpuoa ot)8' epLvqoBiqv yvvaLKog 
ovhe iralhwv rwv epLavrov, ouS' rjyovfirjv hewov 
elvai el reXevrrfaas vrrep rrjs rrarpihos rov fiiov 
6p<f)avovs /cat 770/7-00? aTreoTep-qpLevovs glvtovs 

[164] KaraXeiipcOy dXXd 7toXv p,dXXov el crwBels ata^ooj? 

25 dveihrj /cat ifiavrco /cat eKeivois nepionfja). dvB* 
tov vpL&s aTranG) vvv ttjv yapiv> /cat d^tcD, iv rot? 
klvSvvols epiov roiavriqv irepX vfjLwv yvcjpirjv exovrog, 
vpids vvvl ev rco BappaXeco ovras ep,e /cat tou? 
vraThas rovrovg nepl ttoXXov TrouquaoBai, rqyov- 
fxevovs rjpuv p,ev heivov vplv he. alaxpov elvai, el 
dvayt<aoBr)o6pLeBa eVt TOtairrat? atVtat? art/xot 
yevecrBau, rj areprjOevres tojv V7rapxovTcov Trevqres 
elvai /cat noXXcov evheelg dvres Trepuevai, dvdtjta 
[lev rjjjLtov avrajv TrenovBoTes, dvd^ta he rd>v els 
lipids i>7T7]pyiJLeva>v. /r^Sa/xaj?, to dvhpes St/caorar 
dAA' dnoiJjrjcfiLGdjjievoL tolovtols r)puv xPV a ^ € ^o^" 
rat? oloLOTrep ev rw irpoaBev xpdvq). 

1 deivdv ir/ou/jLT)i> add. Rauchenstein : ^v-qaO-qv cod. Laur. 



benefited should give decision upon their benefactors. 
Furthermore, gentlemen, — for this is a point that I 
am anxious to mention, — never once when I had to 
perform a public service in your aid did I consider it 
a hardship that I should leave my children so much 
the poorer, but much rather that I should fail in the 
zealous discharge of my obligations. Nor, when- 
ever I was about to risk my life in our sea-fights, did 
I once pity or bewail or mention my wife or my chil- 
dren, nor think it hard that, if I lost my life in my 
country's cause, I should leave them orphaned and 
bereft of their father ; but hard indeed it would be 
if I should save myself by a shameful act and fasten 
reproach on them as well as myself. In return I 
ask from you the grace that I deserve, and I expect 
that, since I have shown such regard for you in times 
of danger, you in your present security will set a high 
value on me and these children, considering that it will 
be as disgraceful to you as terrible to us if we are 
to be compelled on such charges as these to lose 
our citizenship, or to be deprived of our present re- 
sources, and thus impoverished, and to wander about 
in sore straits and in a plight unworthy of ourselves 
and unworthy also of the services that you have 
received. Let it not be so, gentlemen of the jury, 
but decide on our acquittal, and continue to find in 
us the self-same kind of citizens as you have done 
in the past. 




This plain, business-like speech gives us an intimate 
glimpse of the anxiety felt by the Athenians over 
their food supply about the end of the Corinthian 
War (386 B.C.). The importation of corn from Cyprus 
had become more and more irregular owing to the 
Persian appropriation of that island ; and although 
the importers fixed the wholesale price as they 
pleased, the people had to regard their activities 
with complacence, and vented their feelings, when 
the price rose, upon the retail dealers. These men, 
for the most part resident aliens, worked in concert 
together as a guild, and their operations were sub- 
ject to the control of special officers of the State, who 
had to enforce certain definite regulations. One of 
these was that no dealer could charge more than 
an obol above the cost-price for each " medimnus " 
(about a bushel and a half) ; another, which sought to 
prevent a monopoly of a large stock, forbade any dealer 
to purchase more than fifty " medimni " at a time. 
Before the present hearing of the case in a court of 
law, the defendants have been accused in the Council 
of having purchased more than the permitted amount 
of corn. The Council appears at this time to have 


had no legal power of inflicting the death penalty 
prescribed for this offence : the members, however, 
seem to have been on the point of handing over the 
accused — who admitted the fact — for execution, 
under the influence of a wave of popular indignation. 
But the present speaker opposed this impulse of 
the Council, and induced his fellow-members to let 
the case take a normal course. At the preliminary- 
hearing before the Council, as no one else would do 
so, he preferred the accusation. He did this, he 
tells us, to clear himself of any suspicion of abetting 
the dealers, and to show that he acted solely through 
regard for the law and in the public interest. The 
result was that the case was sent for trial by an 
ordinary court, before whom he delivers the present 

When one of the dealers is interrogated, he admits 
having bought more than the legal amount, but 
pleads that he did so on the suggestion of the magis- 
trates concerned. The speaker then shows that this 
plea is untrue, and even if it were true, it would not 
justify the breach of the law. If the dealers say that 
they were acting in the public interest, to secure a 
good supply of corn at a low price, he points to the 
fact that they committed the further offence of 
raising the price in one day by as much as a drachma, 
to the disadvantage of the public. The latter part 
of the speech (13-22) emphasizes the impudent 
rapacity of the dealers, who trade on the misfortunes 
of the city : " in time of peace they become our be- 
siegers " (15). An additional reason for condemning 
them is that they confess to having combined against 
the importers, who ought to be defended from their 
malpractices (21). 



1 IloAAot jjlol TrpooeXiqXvdacnv, to dvSpes oiKaorai, 
davpbd^ovres otl eyco tcov oltottcoXcov ev rfj fiovXfj 
Karrjyopovv, kcli XeyovTes otl v/JLels, el cbs /xaAtOTd 
avTOvs doLKelv -ryyeioQe, ovbev tjttov /cat tovs Trepl 


odev ovv rjvdyKacrjJLCLL Karr/yopelv avTCov, rrepl 


2 'E^eiS^ yap ol rrpvrdveLS dneSocrav els ttjv fiov- 
Xr)v rrepl avrcov, ovtcos cbpyccrdrjoav glvtols, coore 
eXeyov TLves tcov prjTopcov cos aKpirovs avrovs XP1 
toXs evSeKa irapaoovvai Oavdrco tpqfXLcooaL. rjyov- 
fxevos $e eyco SeLvov elvai roiaura edi^eaOai 
TTOielv ttjv fiovXrjv, dvaords elirov otl jjlol Sokoltj 
Kpiveiv tovs OLTOTTtoXas Kara rov vojjlov, vo/jll^ojv, 
el fxev elaiv a£ia Oavdrov elpyaofievoi, vjjl&s ovSev 
tjttov vpucov yvcooeodaL ra St/cata, el Se (irjoev 
doLKovaiv , ov Selv avrovs aKpirovs drroXcoXevaL. 

3 rreLoOeLcnqs 8e rrjs fiovXfjs ravra, $La/3dXXeLV en- 
eyeipovv fxe Xeyovres cos iyco acorrfpias eveKa rrjs 
tcov oitottcoXcov tovs Xoyovs rovrovs e7TOLOVflTjV . 
7rpos p.ev ovv rr)v fiovXiqv, 6V rjv avTols rj Kpicns, 

a i.e., men who, knowing the dealers were unpopular, 
brought charges against them hoping to be bought off. 
Cf. note, p. 518. 

6 Fifty of the five hundred members of the Council, 


Many people have come to me, gentlemen of the 
jury, in surprise at my accusing the corn-dealers in 
the Council, and telling me that you, however sure 
you are of their guilt, none the less regard those 
who deliver speeches about them as slander-mongers. 
I therefore propose to speak first of the grounds on 
which I have found it necessary to accuse them. 

When the Committee b of the time brought up 
their case before the Council, the anger felt against 
them was such that some of the orators said that they 
ought to be handed over without trial to the Eleven, 
for the penalty of death. But I, thinking it monstrous 
that the Council should get into the way of such 
practice, rose and said that in my opinion we ought 
to try the corn-dealers in accordance with the law ; 
for I thought that if they had committed acts de- 
serving of death you would be no less able than we c 
to come to a just decision, while, if they were not 
guilty, they ought not to perish without trial. After 
the Council adopted this view, attempts were made to 
discredit me by saying that I hoped to save the corn- 
dealers by these remarks. Now before the Council, 
when the case came up for their hearing , d I justified 

appointed for the management of the Assembly during a 
tenth part of the year. e i.e., the Council. 

d Asa preliminary to the trial proper. 

R 2 493 


epytp air eXoyijo a p,rjv tcov ydp dXXwv rjavxcav 
ayovrcov avaoras avTOJV KaTijyopovv, /cat 7raat 
(f>avepov €7TOL7]oa on oi>x vrrep tovtcov eXeyov , 
4 dAAct rot? vopois rot? Keipevois efiorjdovv. r)p£d- 
paqv p,ev ovv tovtojv €V€kol, hehuobs tols atVtas" 
al^xpov S' 1 7]yo u/xat ixpoTepov iravaaoQ at, irplv av 
vjieZs 7T€pl avTcov 6 tl av fiovXifode ifr-qficcrrjade. 

6 Kat 7TptOTOV fJL€V dl'dfir]T€ . et77€ (7U CjJLOL, fJ,€TOlKO$ 

el; Nat. Merot/cets- he noTepov ojs Treioopievos 
rots' vopois toZs rrjs TroXeoJS, t) oj? Trot^aajv o Tt 
aV fiovXrj ; 'Qs Treioopievos. "AAAo rt ow 77 
a^tot? 2 drroOaveZv, el rt TrerroirjKas irapd tovs 
vofAovs, e<f>* ois ddvaros r) £,r)p,ia; "Eyojye. 'Arrd- 
Kpivai h*q /xot, et d/xoAoyet? TrXeioj oZtov ov/jl- 
TTpLaoQai TT€VTr]KovTa (fxDpjJLtov, wv 6 vopcos e^eZvai 
KeXevei. 'Eya> rwv apyovTwv KeXevovTOJV ovv- 

6 'Ecty p,ev tolvvv oL7TOO€L^rj, c5 dvhpes St/caorat, 
d>s ecrTt vo/jlos os /ceAeuet rous* criTOTrwXas ovv 
ojveZodai tov oZtov, idv ol dpxovTes KeXevujouv, 
aTTOij)r](j)ioaode' el he fitf, hiKaiov vp,ds /cara- 
ijjr](j)ioao9 ai. Spiels ydp vplv rrapeaxofieOa tov 
vopov, os dixayopevei parjheva rd>v ev rfj 770'Aet 
nXeia) oZtov TTevrrjKovra </>oppLa>v ovvcuveZodai. 

7 Xprjv ptev tolvvv, w dvhpes St/caorat, LKam)v 
elvai TavTTjv tt)v Karr\yopLav > eTreihr) ovtos p.ev 
opioXoyeZ ovjxirpiaodai, 6 he vopios drrayopevajv 
c/>atVerat, VLteZs he /caret tovs vopuovs SpLOjpLOKaTe 
iprjcfrieZodat,' opLOJS S' Iva rreiodrJTe otl /cat /caret 
tcov dpyovTLQV ifjevhovTai,, dvdyKrj /cat piaKpoTepov 

1 5^, quod est in mss. pone oeotus, post aiaxP^ transp. 
Dobree. 8 f) d£io?s Reiske: d£to?s {) mss. 



myself in a practical way : while the rest kept quiet, 
I rose and accused these men, and made it evident 
to all that my remarks were not made in their de- 
fence, but in support of the established laws. Well, 
these were my reasons for beginning my task, in fear 
of those incriminations ; but I consider it would be 
disgraceful to leave off before you have given such 
verdict upon them as you may prefer. 

So, first of all, go up on the dais. a Tell me, sir, are 
you a resident alien ? Yes. Do you reside as an 
alien to obey the city's laws, or to do just as you 
please ? To obey. Must you not, then, expect to 
be put to death, if you have committed a breach of 
the laws for which death is the penalty ? I must. 
Then answer me : do you acknowledge that you 
bought up corn in excess of the fifty measures b which 
the law sets as the limit ? I bought it up on an order 
from the magistrates. 

Well now, gentlemen, if he proves that there is a 
law which orders the corn-dealers to buy up the corn 
on an order from the magistrates, acquit him : if not, 
it is just that you should condemn him. For we have 
produced to you the law which forbids anyone in the 
city to buy up corn in excess of fifty measures. 

This accusation of mine should have sufficed, 
gentlemen of the jury, since this man acknowledges 
that he bought up the corn, while the law clearly for- 
bids him to do so ; and you have sworn to decide in 
accordance with the laws. Nevertheless, in order 
that you may be convinced that they are actually 
traducing the magistrates, it is necessary to speak 

a One of the corn-dealers is made to go up on the " bema " 



and is questioned. Of. XII. 25, p. 237 ; XIII. 30, p. 297. 
* A basket " or measure was about a bushel and a half, 


8 elnelv irepl avrtov. eVetS^ yap ovtol rrjv alriav 
els €K€lvovs dvefiepov, vapaKaXeaavres rovs apypv- 
ras r^pcoTWjxev. /cat ol jjlev Suo ovhev efiacrav 
etSeVat rov Trpdyfxaros, "Avvros S' eXeyev ojs rod 
nporepov ^et/xcDvos', €7T€L$r) tl/jllos rjv 6 ulros, 

[165] rovratv V7T€ppaXX6vra>v dXXijXovs /cat 7Tp6s acfras 
avrovs fxaxofievajv ovfx^ovXevoeiev avrols rravua- 
adai (^lXovlkovolv , rjyovpLevos ovjjL<f)€p€iv vfxlv rols 
Trapa rovrojv <l)vovfjL<=vois d>s d^Loorarov rovrovs 
TTpiaodai' Setv yap avrovs 6fioXa> jjlovov TrajXecv 

9 TLfALwrepov. ai? roivvv ov avpLTTptafjievovg /cara- 
Seodai itceXevev avrovs, dXXa jjltj aAA^Aots* dvr- 
oiveZodaL crvvefiovXevev, avrov vjjlZv "Avvrov fidprvpa 


Kat [to?] 1 ovros fxev iirl rrjs rrporipas fiovXrjs 
rovrovs elire rovs Xoyovs, ovtol 8' inl rrjohe 2 
ovvo)vov[xevoi fyaivovrai. 

10 "Ort pukv roivvv oi>x vtto rwv dpxdvrojv KeXevcrOev- 
res ovveTTpiavro rov airov, a/c^/coarc* ^you/xat V , 
edv d)s /xaAtcrra 7Tepl rovrajv dXr]6rj Xeyaiaiv, oi>x 
virep avrcijv avrovs aTroXoyqaeoB 'at , dXXa rovrcuv 
KartjyopiqGeiV' nepl yap guv clol vopLOL Stapp^Srp 
yeypajxjjiivoiy ttojs ov XPV StSovat Slktjv /cat rovs 
pL7] 7T€L9ofjL€vovs /cat rovs KeXevovras rovrocs rd- 
vavria rrpdrreuv; 

H 'AAAd yap, co dvSpes St/caarat, oto/xat avrovs 
inl [lev rovrov rov Xoyov ovk eXevaeodat- taws 8' 
ipovaiv, a)cr7T€p /cat iv rfj fiovXfj, ws ctt' tvvoia 

1 tlij del. Pluygers. 
* iirl TrjaSe Bekker : iiriTTjdes, itewiT-qdes mss. 



of them at some greater length. For since these men 
shifted the blame on to them, we called the magis- 
trates before us and questioned them. Two of them 
denied any knowledge of the matter ; but Anytus 
stated that in the previous winter, as the corn was 
dear, and these men were outbidding each other and 
fighting amongst themselves, he had advised them 
to cease their competition, judging it beneficial to 
you, their customers, that they should purchase at 
as reasonable a price as possible : for they were 
bound, in selling, to add no more than an obol to the 
price. Now, that he did not order them to buy up 
the corn for holding in store , a but only advised them 
not to buy against each other, I will produce to you 
Anytus himself as witness. 


These statements were made by him in the time 
of the former Council, whereas these men evidently 
bought up the corn in the time of the present one. 

So now you have heard that it was not on an order 
from the magistrates that they bought up the corn ; 
yet, in my opinion, however true their statements 
may be on these points, they will not be clearing 
themselves, but only accusing the magistrates. For 
where we have laws expressly drafted for the case, 
surely punishment should fall alike on those who dis- 
obey them and on those who order an infringement 
of them. 

But in fact, gentlemen of the jury, I believe they 
will not have recourse to this argument, but will re- 
peat, perhaps, what they said before the Council, — 

° i.e., until the price was raised to their advantage. 



rrjg TToXeajg ovvecovovvro rov alrov, Iv* oj? a£toj- 
rarov v/jlTv ttojXol€v. fieyccrrov 8' v\dv ipco /cat 

12 7T€pl(f)aV€(JTaTOV T€KfJLrjpLOV OTL lp€V$OVTdl' ^XP1 V 

yap avrovg, e'tTrep vficov eW/ca 'iirparrov ravra, 


ras", €(x)S 6 avveajvrjfjLevos avrovg irriXnTe' vvv 8* 
iviore rrjg avrrjg rjfjiipag iircoXovv Spaxfifj rtuta>- 
repov, Locmep Kara, jiihijxvov crvvojvovjxevot. /cat 

13 tovtojv Vjxag fidprvpag 7rape^o\xai. Setvov 8e /Ltot 
So/cet elvaiy et orav fiev elocfyopdv eloeveyKelv 
Ser), rjv irdvreg e'lcreodat piiXXovoiv, ovk ideXovoiv, 
dXXd rreviav it po^aoit.ovr ai t e<^' of? oe ddvarog 
iuriv r) ^rjfiia /cat Xadelv avrolg crvvefiepe, ravra 
€77 evvoia (j)aol rfj vfjuerepa rrapavopirjoai. /catrot 
ndvreg eVtWacr^e ort rovroig rJKLora 7rpocrrjK€L 

14 roiovrovg 7tol€lg6 'at Xoyovg. Tavayrta yap avrolg 
/cat rots' aAAots" ovpi^ipei' rore yap nXelora 
KephaLvovcriv, orav /ca/cou rivos airayyeXSivrog rfj 
7ToAet ripnov rov alrov thjoXGmjiv. ovra> 8' dcrfxevoL 
rds Gvpicfyopds rag vjxerepag opajow, wore rag fiev 
TTporepot rcbv dXXojv TTwOdvovrat, rag 8' avrol 1 
XoyoiTOLovaiVy r) rag vaus" Ste^OdpOat rag iv ra> 
Hovrcp r) V7to Aa/ceSat/xovt'ojv eKTrXeovuag avv- 
€t,Xrj(f)9aL, r) rd ijXTropia /ce/cA^crflat, r) rag airovoag 
fieXXeiv dnoppriQ-qaeaQaiy Kal elg rovr ex^pag 

15 eAr^Au^aatv, ojot' iv rolg avrolg 2 Kaipolg iiri- 
fiovXevovoiv vfxtv, iv olo-nep ol 7ToAe'/xtot. orav yap 
jxaXiora olrov rvyxdvrjre SeopLevou, avapTid^ovoiv 

1 avrol Markland: ovtoi mss. 
8 roh ai'Toh Cobet : tovtols tois mss. 

i.e., six times the legal profit on each measure. 


that it was in kindness to the city that they bought 
up the corn, so that they might sell it to you at as 
reasonable a price as possible. But I will give you a 
very strong and signal proof that they are lying. If 
they were doing this for your benefit, they ought to 
have been found selling it at the same price for a 
number of days, until the stock that they had bought 
up was exhausted. But in fact they were selling at a 
profit of a drachma 3 several times in the same day, 
as though they were buying by the medimnus h at a 
time. I adduce you as witnesses of this. And it 
seems to me a strange thing that, when they have to 
contribute to a special levy of which everyone is to 
have knowledge, they refuse, making poverty their 
pretext ; but illegal acts, for which death is the 
penalty, and in which secrecy was important to them, 
— these they assert that they committed in kindness 
to you. Yet you are all aware that they are the last 
persons to whom such statements are appropriate. 
For their interests are the opposite of other men's : 
they make most profit when, on some bad news 
reaching the city, they sell their corn at a high price. 
And they are so delighted to see your disasters that 
they either get news of them in advance of anyone 
else, or fabricate the rumour themselves ; now it is 
the loss of your ships in the Black Sea, now the cap- 
ture of vessels on their outward voyage by the 
Lacedaemonians, now the blockade of your trading 
ports, or the impending rupture of the truce ; and 
they have carried their enmity to such lengths that 
they choose the same critical moments as your foes 
to overreach you. For, just when you find yourselves 
worst off for corn, these persons snap it up and 

1 About the same as the phormus in § 5. 



OVTOL K0.1 OVK ideXoVOL TTOjXeZv, Iva /JLT) 7T€pl T7JS 

TLfirjs hiacf)€pcx)fie6a, dAA' dyaTrcbpev eav orroaov- 

TLVOOOVV 7Tpid[JL€l'Ol TTap aVTLOV 6,71 1X6 ] LO jJL€V . LOOT 

erlore elp-qvqs ovorjs vrro tovtlov vroXLopKovpLeda. 

16 ovtlo he TTaXai irepX rijs tovtcov rravovpylas /cat 
KaKOVoias r) ttoXls eyvcoKev, coot em p,ev toZs 
dXXoLs chviois aVaat tovs dyopavopuovs cfivXaKas 
KaTeoTiqoaTe, eirl he TavTjj pLovy tt} Teyyr\ \Lop\s 
oiTotf)vXaKas aTTOKXiqpovTe- /cat rroXXaKLS rjhrj Trap* 


eTTiKpaTrjaai. /catVot rt, XPV clvtovs tovs dhiKovv- 
Tas ixjS vpidjv Trdoyeiv, orroTe /cat tovs ov hvvapce- 


17 ^vdvpceZaOaL he XPV OTL dhvvaTov vplv Igtlv airo- 
ijjrjcpiGaoOaL. el yap drToyvLooeode op-oXoyovvTcov 
avTLov eirl tovs epLTropovs trvvLOTaoOai, Sotjed* vpeZs 
eTTifiovXeveiv toZs eloirXeovcriv . el p,ev yap aXXrjv 
Twd drroXoyiav inoLovvTo, ovhels dv et)(e rot? arro- 
ifj-qcpicrapLevois irrLTLpLav ecf>' vplv yap oiroTepoLS fiov- 
Xeode TTiOTevew vvv he ttlos ov heiva dv Sofatre 
TToieZv, el tovs opioXoyovvTas napavopueZv d£,r]p,iovs 

18 dcjuqoeTe; dvapLvqo6r]Te he, to dvhpes St/caarat, 
otl ttoXAlov 17017 exovTLov TavT-qv T-qv ahlav, dp- 

.166] vovptevatv he 1 /cat pdpTvpas TrapexopLevLov, ddvaTOV 
KaTeyvajTe, TTLVTOTepovs r)yi)odpLevoL tovs tlov 
KaTrjyopojv Xoyovs. /catrot ttlos dv ov uavpLavTOV 
elr), el rrepl tlov avTLov dpLapTTjpaTLOV hiKdt,ovTes 
p,aXXov emdvLieZTe rrapa tlov dpvovp,evLov hiKTjv 

19 XapiftdveLV ; /cat Liev hrj, lo dvhpes St/caaTat, TrauLV 
rjyovpLai tf>avep6v elvac otl ol rrepl tlov tolovtlov 

1 apvovntvuv oe Fuhr : if mss. 


refuse to sell it, in order to prevent our disputing 
about the price : we are to be glad enough if we come 
away from them with a purchase made at any price, 
however high. And thus at times, although there is 
peace, we are besieged by these men. So long is it 
now that the city has been convinced of their knavery 
and disaffection that, while for the sale of all other 
commodities you have appointed the market-clerks 
as controllers, for this trade alone you elect special 
corn-controllers by lot ; and often you have been 
known to inflict the extreme penalty on those offi- 
cials, who were citizens, for having failed to defeat 
the villainy of these men. Now, what should be your 
treatment of the actual offenders, when you put to 
death even those who are unable to control them ? 
You should reflect that it is impossible for you to 
vote an acquittal. For if you reject the charge, when 
they admit that they are combining against the 
traders, you will be regarded as aiming a blow at the 
importers. If they were putting up some other de- 
fence, nobody could censure a verdict for acquittal ; 
for it rests with you to choose which side you are to 
believe. But, as matters stand, your action cannot 
but be thought extraordinary, if you dismiss un- 
punished those who confess to breaking the law. 
Remember, gentlemen of the jury, that many in the 
past have met this charge with denial, and have 
produced witnesses ; yet you have condemned them 
to death because you gave more credence to the 
statements of their accusers. But surely it would be 
astounding if, in passing judgement on the same 
offences, you are more eager to punish those who 
deny ! And, moreover, gentlemen, I conceive it is 
obvious to you all that suits of this kind are of the 



aycvves kolvotoltoi Tvyxdvovmv ovreg rot? iv rfj 
rroXei, ware TrevGovrai rji'Twa yvoj\xr\v 7repl avrow 
e^ere, r)yovfievoi y iav jjlzv OdvaTOV tovtojv 1 Kara' 
yi'tore, KOG^LLcorepovs ecrecr#at rovs Xolttovs' iav 

O d£,T]pLOVS OL(f)fJT€, 7ToXXr]V dSet(XV dUTCH? 6lfj7)(f)L- 

20 crfxevot e create ttolzlv 6 tl av fiovXajvrai. xprj Se, 
to dvSpes SiKaarai, fxrj p.6vov tojv TTapeXrjXvdoTOjv 
eveKa avrovg KoXd^etv, dXXd Kal vrapaheiy pharos 
tveKa tojv p.eXX6vTOJV ecrecr#ar ovtoj ydp eaovrac 
pioyis aveKTOi. ivdvptelade Se otl Ik TavTiqs rrjs 
T€x vr )S ttXclgtol rrepl rod crojpLaTog etcrtv rjyojvL- 
GpLevoL' Kat ovtoj p,eydXa i£ avrrjs oj^eXovvrai, coore 
pL&XAov alpovvrai Kad' eKaGrrjv rjpLepav nepl rrjs 
ipvxrjs klvSvv€V€lv r) iraveaOaL Trap* vp,a>v doLKajs 

21 K<EphaivovT€s. Kal p,ev Srj oi)S' iav dvripoXcoaiv 
lyxa? Kat LK€T€va>cn t St/catco? av avrovs eXerjaatre , 
aXXd [idXXov tojv re ttoXltojv ot Std ttjv tovtojv 
rrovrjpLav diridvrjOKOv, Kal tovs ipuropovs e\/>' ovs 2 
ovtol orvveGTrjaav of? uuet? xaptet<7#e /cat irpo- 

6vpLOT€pOVS 7TOLT]Cr€T€, $LK7]V TTapd TOVTOJV 3 AdU" 

fidvovTes. el Se paq, t'lv avTovg oleade yvojpL-qv 
efetv, i-nethav irvdojVTai otl tojv KaTrrjXojv ol 
tols eiGrrXeovGLV* ojp.oX6y7]crav eVtjSouAeuetv, drr- 
€iftrj(f)Loacrd€ ; 

22 Ovk otS' o tl Set ttXzloj Xeyeiv Trept p,ev yap tojv 
olXXojv tojv doLKovvTOJv, ot€ St/az£oj.'rat, Set Trapd 
tojv KaTTjyopojv TTvOeodai, ttjv Se tovtojv Trovqpiav 
aTTavTes erricrTaade. iav ovv tovtojv /cara- 
i/jr](f)LO"r]crd€ , rd re Strata Troir\a€Te Kal d^tojTepov 
tov g'ltov ojvr;oead€' el Se /xrj, tlllloji epov . 



closest concern to the people of our city; and hence 
they will inquire what view you take of such matters, 
in the belief that, if you condemn these men to death, 
the rest will be brought to better order ; while if you 
dismiss them unpunished, you will have voted them 
full licence to do just as they please. You must 
chastise them, gentlemen, not only on account of the 
past, but also to give an example for the future : even 
so these people will be barely tolerable. Consider 
that great numbers in this business have been tried 
for their lives : so much profit do they make by it 
that they choose rather to risk death every day than 
to cease making illicit gain out of you. Nay, more, 
not even if they implore and beseech you, would you 
be justified in taking pity on them : far rather ought 
you to pity those of our citizens who perished by 
their villainy, and the traders against whom they 
have combined. These you will gratify and render 
more zealous by punishing the accused. Otherwise, 
what do you suppose their feelings will be, when they 
learn that you have acquitted the retailers who con- 
fessed to overreaching the importers ? 

I do not see what more there is to say : when suits 
against other malefactors are heard, you have to get 
your information from the accusers ; whereas the 
villainy of these men is understood by you all. So, 
if you convict them, you will both do jusVce and buv 
your corn at a fairer price : otherwise, it will be dearer. 

1 tovtwv Kayser : avrQv mss. 

2 ovs Taylor : oh mss. 

8 trapa tovtwv Taylor : irap clvtuv mss. 

4 eicTrXiovo-iv Reiske : iKir\£ovcnv mss. 




The speaker here is answering, in the few minutes 
allotted to him by the court, the special plea by which 
the defendant, Pancleon, had demurred to the juris- 
diction of the Polemarch, before whom he had been 
charged as a resident alien with some unknown 
offence. His special plea (avTiypa^rj) alleged that he 
was a Plataean by birth, and could therefore claim 
the rights of an Athenian citizen : he also called him- 
self a townsman of Decelea in Attica. The speaker 
explains, by means of a rapid narrative, why this 
plea should be rejected. He tells how he made 
inquiries among people belonging to Decelea ; the 
only information he could get concerning Pancleon 
was from one man, who said that a slave of this name, 
who seemed to be like the defendant, had run away 
from him. Not long after, the accuser saw Pancleon 
being arrested as the slave of Nicomedes : but his 
friends gave security for producing him next day, 
when his brother would vindicate him as a freeman. 
But when the speaker went to see this done, instead 
of any attempt to vindicate him, two persons claimed 



him as their slave. Thereupon his friends carried him 
off by force, thus showing that he and they knew him 
to be a slave. Again, on being prosecuted by Aristo- 
dicus, Pancleon had made the same plea against the 
jurisdiction of the Polemarch : but this time it had 
been decided that he was not a Plataean, and al- 
though he had accused the witness of falsehood he 
went no further, was convicted, failed to pay the sum 
required by the judgement, and took refuge in 
Thebes, which (until 387 b.c.) was bitterly hostile to 

The speech, which is certainly the work of Lysias, 
was probably delivered some little time before 387 b.c. 
The narrative part (2-1 1) gives us some vivid glimpses 
of daily life in the streets of Athens : the rather 
hurried conclusion (12-16) states the inferences from 
the facts already adduced, and deals a final blow at 
the pretension of Pancleon by mentioning his flight 
to Thebes. 



1 IIoAAa, [lev Xeyetv, tu di'Spes hiKaorai, nepl tov- 
tovl rod Trpdy/JLOLTOS ovr av hvvaipaqv ovre p,oi 
Sok€l 8etv co? 8e 6p9cbs rrjv Slkt]v e'Aa^ov rovron 
YlayKXewvL ovk ovti nAaratet, rovro vplv ireipaoo- 
fjLoa, a7ro8etfat. 

2 f Q,s yap ahiKcov fie ttoXvv xpovov ovk iiravero, iX- 
dtbv iirl to yva<f)€lov, iv a> elpyd^ero, TrpoaeKaXead- 
fxrjv avrov npos rov TroXefjiapxov, vopLi^cov \i£toikov 
elvai. cIttovtos Se tovtov otl YlXaraievg etrj, 
rjpofirjp oTToOev 1 SrjpLorevoLro, irapaivecravTos tlvos 
twv TrapovTiov TrpooKaXeaaaBaL /cat npos ttjv 
(jyvX-qv, fjoTLvos elvau gktJtttolto. €7T€l$t) 8e dir- 
CKpivaro otl Ae«:eAeto#ev, TrpoGKaXeadfievos avTov 

3 Kal Trpos tovs Trj 'InTTodcovTiBt, hiKOi^ovTas, iXdwv 
eVt to Kovpelov to Trapd tovs 'Ep/zas 1 , ol Ae/ce- 


Ae/ceAciecoy iTTVvdavojjLrjv et Tiva yiyvcxJGKOiev Ae- 
KeXeioOev 8rjjj,oT€v6pL€vov TlayKXetova. e7T€L$r) 8e 

OuSetS" €(f>aOK€V yiyVOJOKtlV O.VTOV, 7Tv66fJL€VOS OTk 

1 6k60(i' Markland: owoTe mss. 


To speak at length upon this matter, gentlemen 
of the jury, is both beyond my powers and, to my 
mind, unnecessary ; but that I am correct in obtain- 
ing leave for my suit against this man Pancleon as 
being no Plataean, I will attempt to prove to you. 

As he continued to injure me for a long time, I went 
to the fuller's where he was working and summoned 
him before the Polemarch, a supposing him to be a 
resident alien. On his stating that he was a Pla- 
taean, I asked to what township he belonged, since 
one of my witnesses there advised me to summon 
him also before the court of the tribe of which he 
might pretend to be a member. When he replied 
" to Decelea," I summoned him before the court of 
the tribe Hippothontis ; I then went and asked at 
the barber's in the street of the Hermae, 6 where the 
Deceleans resort, and I inquired of such Deceleans 
as I could discover if they knew a certain Pancleon 
belonging to the township of Decelea. As nobody 
spoke to knowing him, and I learnt that he was then 

a The third archon, who had to decide whether proceedings 
should be taken against an alien. 

b These figures stood in a covered way beside the market- 



/cat irepas St/ca? to? fiev (f>evyoi rag 8' oj^AtJ/coi 
rrapa rco TroXejiapx^ > eXa^ov /cat eyoj. 

4 Wpcbrov piev ovv vpuv AeKeXeuetov ovs rjpopLrjv 
fxdprvpas TrapetjofjLOLL, eireiTa he /cat rtov dXXcov tCjv 
Xaxovrcov re 8t/ca? avTcp 77/309 tov 7roXefjLapxov /cat 
/caraSt/cacra/LteVaw, oaot Tvyxdvovoi TrapovTes. /cat 
juot eVt'Aa/3e to vhcop. 


5 'E/c jitev toutojv ireioOels irpos tov TroXqxapxov 
auTW tt)v St/c^v e'Aa^ov eirethrj he liol olvttjv dvr- 

167] eypdi/jaro lit) eloaytbyiiiov elvai, nepl ttoXXov 
iroiovLievos Lirjhevl 8o£at vfipc^eiv fiovXeodai LiaXXov 
7} St/CTiv Xafielv wv -qhiK-qdi-jV, Trpcorov Liev Eu#u- 
Kpirov, ov TTpeofivrarov re nAarate'ojy eyiyvojGKov 
/cat jLtaAtcrra ojoLirjv etSeVat, rjpoLirjv et Ttva yt- 
yvcvGKOL 'iTTirapnohwpov vov Ilay/cAeojva nAaratea* 

6 eWtra 8e, eVetSr) eKetvos direKpivaro liol otl tov 
'iTnrappLohoopov pcev yiyvcjuKoi, vov he e/cetVoj 
ouScVa oure Ilay/cAeojva oure dAAov oi)8eVa elhelrj 
ovra, rjpcjrojv 87) /cat rcov d'AAojv ogovs 7]hrj IIAa- 
ratea? oVra?. TidvTes ovv dyvoovvTes to ovopLa 
avrov, d/cpt^SeWara dV ecfraodv /xe irvdeodai eX- 


yap Tjj r) pie pa tov litjvos eKaoTOV e/cetae cruA- 

7 Xeyeodai tovs HXaTaieas. eXOcbv ovv els tov Tvpov 
TavTTj tjj rjpiepa eirvvdavofi-qv avTO>v t et Tiva yt- 
yvcooKotev Hay/cAe'ojva ttoXlttjv G(f>eTepov. /cat ot 
jLt€i^ d'AAot ou/c ecf>acrav yiyvujGKew s els he rt? e?7rey 
ort tojv Liev 7toXltcov ouSevt elhei'rj tovto ov to 

Which ran from a globe, measuring the time allotted to 


a defendant in some other suits before the Polem- 
arch, and had been cast in some, I took proceedings 
on my own part. 

So now, in the first place, I will produce to you as 
witnesses some Deceleans whom I questioned, and 
after them the other persons who have taken pro- 
ceedings against him before the Polemarch and have 
obtained a conviction, — as many as chance to be 
present. Please stop the water. 


Relying on this evidence I took proceedings 
against him before the Polemarch : but he then put 
in a special plea against the admissibility of my suit ; 
and as I felt it important to avoid any imputation of 
oppressive aims, instead of a desire to get satisfaction 
for my wrongs, I first asked Euthycritus, whom I 
knew as the oldest citizen of Plataea and whom I 
supposed to be best informed, whether he knew a 
certain Pancleon, son of Hipparmodorus, a Plataean. 
Then, on his answering me that he knew Hipparmo- 
dorus, but was not aware of his having any son, either 
Pancleon or any other, I went on to ask all the other 
persons whom I knew as Plataeans. Well, they w r ere 
all ignorant of his name ; but they told me that I 
should get the most definite information if I went 
to the fresh-cheese market on the last day of the 
month : for on that day in each month the Plataeans 
collected there. So I went on that day to the cheese 
market and inquired of the people if they knew 
a certain Pancleon, their fellow-citizen. They all 
denied knowledge of him, except one who said that, 
although he knew no citizen of that name, there was 

the speaker, and was stopped during the reading or speaking 
of evidence, 



ovofia, SovXov \xivTOi ecfyrj iavTov a^eartora etmi 

8 nay/cAe'an'a, ttjv re ^At/ctav Xiycov ttjv tovtov /cat 
tt)v rexvqv fj ovros XPV TaL ' tclvt ovv cos dXrjOrj 
earn, tov re JLvduKpurov, ov npcoTov rjpofirjv, /cat 
tcov aXXcov YlXaraUcjov octols 7TpoorfjX9ov, /cat tov 
os €<f>r) heuTTOT-qs tovtov elvat, fxdpTVpas rrape'foxxat. 
/cat /xot €77tAa^e to vScop. 


9 H/xepat? Tolvvv jaera. raura ou 77oAAat? vot€- 
pov IScbv dyofievov tovtovl ITay/cAea>va u?7o Nt/co- 
/x^ou?, o? e/jLapTvprjoev avTov Sea^or^? etvat, irpocr- 
rjXOov fiovXofxevos etSeVat ottoZov tl irepl avTov 
7Tpax0rjcroLTO. tot€ fiev ovv eVetS^ eiravoavTo 
/xa^d/xevot, et7rdv rtves" tojv tovtco irapovTcov otl 
€lt] avTtp dSeA</»d? 6V efatp^ootro aurdv et? e'Aef- 

10 depiav eirl tovtols kyyvr\ad\xevoi Trape^eiv els 


dvTiypatf>fjs eve/ca TavT-qol /cat olvttjs ttjs St/07? 
e'So^e /xot xPW aL pdpTVpas XafiovTi 7rapay€V€o9ai, 
lv* elheirjv tov t i^atprjoofxevov olvtov /cat 6 tl 
Xiycov d^aip-qaoiTO . kcfS ots /xev ovv itj-qyyvqdrj , 
ovt€ dSeXcpos ovt€ aAAo? ouSet? rjXde, yvvr) Se 
cbdcjKovaa clvttjs olvtov elvac SovXov, dfi<f)LGfir]Tovara 

11 to) Nt/co/x^Set, /cat ovk ecf>7) edaeiv clvtov dyeiv. 
doa fxev ovv avTodi ippijOrj, ttoXvs dv etrj /xot Xoyos 
SirjyeloOai- els tovto Se fiLaiOTrjTOS tjXOov ol t€ 


[lev tov Nt/co/x^Sou? ideXovoiqs Se TTJS yvvcuKos 
d<f)L€vaL, et tls r) els iXevdepiav tovtov <d(f>aipolTO> 

1 aCpioi> Rauchenstein : dyopav mss. 


a slave of his own called Pancleon, who had deserted, 
and he told me his age and his business, which is 
that of this man. To show the truth of all this, 
I will produce as witnesses Euthycritus whom I 
questioned first, all the other Plataeans to whom 
I applied, and the man who said he was this person's 
master. So please stop the water. 


Well then, not many days later, I saw this man 
Pancleon being arrested by Nicomedes, who has testi- 
fied to being his master ; and I went up to them, 
desiring to know what it could be that was going to 
be done with him. So, when they had ceased fight- 
ing, some of his witnesses said that he had a brother 
who would vindicate him as a freeman : on this 
understanding they gave security for producing him 
on the morrow, and departed and went their way. 
On the following day, in view of the present special 
plea and the suit itself, I decided that I ought to 
appear there with witnesses, in order that I might 
know the man who was to vindicate him, and what 
plea he would urge for his discharge. Now, as 
regards the condition on which security was taken 
for his release, neither a brother nor anyone else 
appeared ; but a woman asserted that he was her 
slave, in dispute of Nicomedes' claim, and she said 
that she would not allow him to be arrested. Well, 
to recount all that was spoken in that place would 
make this a long story ; but with such violence did 
his supporters and the man himself behave that, 
while Nicomedes on his pnrt, and the woman on hers, 
were both willing to let him go if somebody should 
either vindicate him as a freeman or arrest him on 



rj dyot 1 cf)d(JKtov eavTov SovXov etvaL, tovtcov ovSev 
7TOLrjcravT€s dcfreXofievoL cpx ovTO - <bs ovv rfj re 
irpoTepaLa eirl tovtols e£r)yyvrjdr] kcll rore jSia 
a>X 0VTO d<f)eX6fievoL avrov, fxdpTvpas Trape^ofiaL 

VJJLLV. KO.L jJLOL €7TiXa^€ TO vSdjp. 

12 'PaSiov tolvvv eloevaL otl ouS' avTos TlayKXecov 
vo[ii£,€i iavrov fir) otl nAaraiea etvaL, dXX ouS' 
eXevdepov. ootls yap e^ovX^dr] jSta d(f>aipe6els 
evoxovs KdTaoTrjoai tovs iavrov e7TLTrjSeLOV? tol? 
jStatot? fJL&XXov 7} Kara tovs vojjlovs els rrjv eXev- 
Bepiav e^aLpeBels Slktjv Xafielv napd tQ>v dyovTiov 
avrov, ovSevl x^Xenov yvajvai otl ev elotbs iavrov 
ovTa hovXov eheLcrev eyyvrjTas KaTacrTrjoas Trepl 
tov GCJjxaTOS dyajvLoaoOaL. 

13 "Otl fj,ev ovv HXaraLevs etvaL ttoXXov SeX, otpLdL 
vpids €K tovtojv o~xehov tl yLyva)GK€LV otl he Ol3S' 
<oli>t6s> 2 ovtos, os dpLCTTa olhe Ta olvtov, -qyiqaaTO 
Sd£ai dv vfjLLV nAarateus" etvaL, e£ cLv eirpa^e 
pahiojs [xadriGeade. ev rrj dvTCOfioGLa yap ttjs 
Slktjs rjv avTtp eXaxev 'Apto-rdSiKos ovtool, d[i(f)L- 

14 ofirjTtov p,rj irpos tov rroXejiapxov etvaL ol ra? olhcas 
$LefAapTVpr)dr] [jltj UXaraLevs etvaL. e7TLOKr)ipd[ie- 
vos he to) jJidpTvpL ovk eTTe^rjXOeVy dXX elaue 
/caraSt/cacjacr^at avrov 3 tov 'AptordSi/cov. inel 

1 acpaipo'cTO i) Ayoi Sauppe : dyot. 9j MSS. 

a at'ros add. Hertlein. 

8 avrov Reiske: avrov mss. 

a In certain disputes the evidence itself sufficed for the 


the claim of owning him as a slave, they did nothing 
of the sort, but carried him off and departed. Now, 
to prove that security was taken for him on that 
condition the day before, and that they then carried 
him off with them by force, I will produce to you 
witnesses. So please stop the water. 


It is easy, then, to make sure that even Pancleon 
himself, far from regarding himself as a Plataean, 
does not suppose himself to be even a freeman. For 
when a man has chosen, on being carried off by force, 
to make his own associates liable to action for assault 
rather than to be vindicated as a freeman by legal 
process and to get damages from those who were 
arresting him, nobody can have difficulty in perceiv- 
ing that he was so conscious of his being a slave that 
he was afraid to provide guarantors and to face a 
trial concerning his civil status. 

Now, that he is far from being a Plataean, I think 
you perceive pretty clearly from these statements ; 
and that even the man himself, who is most fully 
aware of his own position, did not expect you to 
believe that he was a Plataean, will be readily im- 
pressed on you by his own conduct. For in his 
counter-deposition at the proceedings brought against 
him by Aristodicus, here present, when he contended 
that his case did not lie before the Polemarch, he was 
declared on evidence ° not to be a Plataean. But 
although he denounced this witness, he did not 
pursue the matter, but allowed Aristodicus to obtain 
a verdict against him. And when he failed to pay on 

decision, unless the convicted person could incriminate the 
witness : the first step to this was a denunciation (iiricrKr]\f/is). 



8e VTrepijfiepos iyevero, efencre rrjv hiKTjv, Kad* 
on €7T€ide. Kai rovrcov, o>s" dXr]9rj eon, fidprvpas 
eyw 7rapi^op,ai vplv. Kai fxou eiriXa^e to voa>p. 


15 Tlplv roivvv ravra 6p,oXoyqdrjvai aural, SeSicos" 

1(38] TOV ' ' KpiGTOOlKOV {JL€TaOTCLS ivT€V0€V QrjfijJOl fJL€T- 

raievs, Travra-)(ov uaAAov 7) (drjfirjcnv et/cos" rjv 

CLVTOV fJL€TOLKf)craL. d)S OVV (X)K€L <€K€L> 1 TToXlJV 

Xpovov, tovtojv vpLiv fidprvpas nape^op^ai. Kai 
uot eniXafie to vocop. 


16 'EfapKetv uot voui£a> rd elprjfxeva, a> dv&pes 
OLKaorai' idv yap Siaixvrj/jLovevrjre, 018' on rd re 
oi'/cata /cat rdX-qOrj i/jrjcfrieiode, a Kai 2 iyd) V{jlcjv 

1 tnei add. Markland. 
2 a /cat Wilamowitz : Kai a MS9. 



the appointed date, he discharged the debt on such 
terms as he could arrange. To prove the truth of 
all this, I will produce to you witnesses. So please 
stop the water. 


Now, before making this agreement with him, he 
had removed from the city through fear of Aristo- 
dicus, and was living as an alien in Thebes. But 
I think you understand that, if he was a Plataean, 
he might be expected to live as an alien anywhere 
rather than in Thebes. Well, to prove that he lived 
there a long time, I will produce to you witnesses. 
So please stop the water. 


I consider, gentlemen of the jury, that the state- 
ments I have made are sufficient. For if you will 
bear the whole of them in mind, I know that you will 
give the just and true decision, which is all I ask 
of you. 




Every year the Council of Athens examined the 
claims of disabled persons who, if they could show 
that they were incapable of work and had insufficient 
means of support, were entitled by law to a pension 
from the State. An obol a day was the statutory 
amount at the time of this speech, which was prob- 
ably delivered some little time after the restora- 
tion of the democracy in 403 B.C. At this annual 
inquiry any citizen could challenge the claims made 
by an applicant, and after hearing the latter 's defence 
the Council decided whether a pension was to be 
continued or awarded. In the present case, a 
man of feeble health, who is just able to carry on 
some little business requiring his attendance on 
customers at various distances from his dwelling, 
argues forcibly and, at times, with sarcasm, against 
the statements of someone who has accused him of 
not being officially classed as disabled, of not being 
poor, and of showing a presumptuous and disorderly 
character. The speaker declares that the motive 
of the attack on him is personal envy, and relates the 
difficulties that he finds in carrying on even his meagre 


business (5-9) ; he then turns to the accusation 
that he has the insolence to ride horses, and shows 
that, being unable to afford a mule, he occasionally 
borrows a horse from a friend, so that he may get 
about more easily than when he limps on two sticks. 
He asks the Council if they are going to class him as 
able-bodied, and so make him eligible for the archon- 
ship (10-14). Lastly, he is too poor and old to 
indulge in reckless outrage : that suggestion of his 
adversary must be some sort of joke (15-18). If his 
little shop is described as a rogues' rendezvous, why 
not say the same of any other place where men meet 
for business or talk ? To deprive an invalid of his 
pension, when his character is blameless and he has 
shown himself a good democrat, would be an intoler- 
able act of injustice (19-27). 

This speech displays in a remarkable degree the 
sympathy which enabled Lysias to enter into the 
humble way of life of a small, struggling tradesman, 
who has to conceal his uneasy sense of being able 
to do a certain amount of work under the brave air 
of a crippled man who is making a hard fight for 
existence. His case was probably on the border-line, 
and we may well feel, as many of the Council must 
have felt, that we should like to hear something more 
definite about his business and himself. 



1 Ov 7toXXov Seco X^P LV ^X €LV > <** fiovXrj, tco kolt- 
rjyopcp, on fioc 7TapeaK€vaa€ tov dycova tovtovi. 
Trporepov yap ovk eyojv 7Tpo<^aaiv e\/>' tjs tov {3lov 
Xoyov hoi-qv, vvvl oia tovtov elXrjcfra. Kal ireipaoo- 

fLCLL Tip X6yCp TOVTOV fJL6V €77lSei£ai lp€V0OfJL€VOV , 

ifiavTov Se fiepiojKOTa ^XP l TrjcrSe Trjg rjfiepas 
knaivov fxaXXov at;iov 7} (f)66vov Sid yap ovSev 
dXXo {jlol SoKel napavKevdoai roVSe jjlol tov 


tols (f)9ovel ovs ol aXXoi iXeovGL, tlvos dv V/JLLV 6 
toiovtos diTooxeod at So/cei rrovripias ; el p<ev yap 
eveKa xprjixaTOjv /xe WKocfravTel — • et S' ojs 
ixOpov eavTod /xe Tiuajpeirac, ifjev$€Tai' Sid yap 

TTjV TTOVqpiaV aVTOV OVT6 (f)lXtp OVT€ ixOpd) 7rd)7TOT€ 

3 ixp^odfxiqv aura). tjot] tolvvv, a> fiovXiq, hrfXos 

ioTl (f)doVO)V, OTL TOiaVTJ) K€Xp7]pL€V0S OVfji(f)Opa 

tovtov PcXtlqjv etui iroXiT-qs. /cat yap olfiai Selv, 
to fiovXr], Ta tov cjaj/xaros" SuaTU^uara tols ttjs 
tfrvXVS eVtr^Scuuaatv laadau, [/caAaj?]. 3 €t yap i£ 

1 irpbs tt)v daayyeklav del. LipsiuS. 

1 w(pi tov adwarov llarpocration. 

8 KaXws del. Cobet. 

A poor man like the speaker was not the natural prey of a 


I can almost find it in me to be grateful to my ac- 
cuser, gentlemen of the Council, for having involved 
me in these proceedings. For previously I had no 
excuse for rendering an account of my life ; but now, 
owing to this man, I have got one. So I will try 
to show you in my speech that this man is lying, and 
that my own life until this day has been deserving of 
praise rather than envy ; for it is merely from envy, 
in my opinion, that he has involved me in this ordeal. 
But I ask you, if a man envies those whom other 
people pity, from what villainy do you think such a 
person would refrain ? Is it possible that he hopes 
to get money by slandering me ? ° And if he makes 
me out an enemy on whom he seeks to be avenged, 
he lies ; for his villainy has always kept me from 
having any dealings with him either as a friend or as 
an enemy. So now, gentlemen, it is clear that he 
envies me because, although I have to bear this sore 
misfortune, I am a better citizen than he is. For 
indeed I consider, gentlemen, that one ought to 
remedy the afflictions of the body with the activities 
of the spirit ; for if I am to keep my thoughts and the 

slander-monger, who would hope to be bought off by a 
wealthy defendant. 



icrov ttj ov[i<f)opa Kal ttjv hidvoiav e£a> Kal tov 
d/^Xov fiiov $id£to, tl tovtov hioiooj ; 

4 Wepl fiev ovv tovtojv Tooavrd fioi elprfadoj' virep 
ojv Se pLOL 7TpoG^K€i Xeyeiv , tos" dv olov re 8td 
^paxvrdrajv epd). (frrjal yap 6 Kan^yopos ov 
SiKalcus fie to rrapd rrjs TroXews dpyv- 
pLov Kal yap rep ooofiaTi SvvauOai Kal ovk elvai 
tluv dovvdrajv, /cat rexvrjv eTTLoraodai Toiavrqv 

5 ware /cat dvev rov Stoofievov tovtov £r}v. /cat 
TeKpaqpiois xprJTai, Trjg fiev tov acufiaTOS pd)firjs, 

OTL €7TL TOVS ItTTTOVS dvafiaiVO) , TTjS 8' €V TTJ T€)(Vrj 

eviTopiaSy otl hvvafiai ovvelvai Svvafievotg dv- 
dpamois dvaXioKeiv. ttjv fiev ovv e'/c ttjs Ti\vqs ev- 
TTOpiav /cat tov dXXov tov ifidv fiiov, otos" Tvyydvei, 
TtavTas vfias oto/xat yiyvoiOKeiv Sfiws 8e /cdya> 

6 8td fipayeaiv epa>. ipiol yap 6 fiev 7raTrjp kot- 
eXnrev ovSev, tt\v 8e firjTepa TeXevTrjaaaav ireiravfiai 
Tpe<f)a)v TpiTov eros" tovtl, rraloes 8e fioi ovtto) 
elcrlv ol fie Bepairevaovoi. Te^inqv he KeKTiffiai 
flpaxea Svvafievrjv aj^eXetv, rjv ai)Tos fiev 97877 
XciXe7Ta>s epydtojiai, tov hiaoet;6fievov 8' avrrfv 
ovtto) Svva/iai KTTqoaadai. rrpoooSos Se fioi ovk 
eoTiv dXXr] ttXt)v TavT-qs, rjv 1 dv d(f)eXr]crde fie, 
Kivovvevoaifi dv vtto tj) hvox e P e(JT( ^ Tr ] ytveoBai 

7 tvxj). fir) ToivWy erreihiq ye eoTiv, co fiovXij, acuaat 
fie StKalajs, aTToXearjTe doLKOJS' firfhe a veajTepcp 
/cat fidXXov eppojfievcp ovtl e'Sore, rrpeofivTepov Kal 
dodeveoTepov yvyvofievov d<f>eXr)ode- firjhe rrpoTepov 
Kal irepl tovs ovhev exovTas KaKov eXerjfioveoTaTot 
SoKovvTes elvat vvvl bid tovtov tovs Kal 2 tols ex" 

1 ?)»/ Contius: ys use. 
■ tovs /ecu Rciske : Kal tovs mss. 


general tenor of my life on the level of my misfor- 
tune, how shall I be distinguished from this man ? 

Well, in regard to those matters, let these few 
words of mine suffice : I will now speak as briefly as 
I can on the points with which I am here concerned. 
My accuser says that I have no right to receive my 
civil pension, because I am able-bodied and not 
classed as disabled, and because I am skilled in a 
trade which would enable me to live without this 
grant. In proof of my bodily strength, he instances 
that I mount on horseback ; of the affluence arising 
from my trade, that I am able to associate with people 
who have means to spend. Now, as to the affluence 
from my trade and the nature of my livelihood in 
general, I think you are all acquainted with these : 
I will, however, make some brief remarks of my own. 
My father left me nothing, and I have only ceased 
supporting my mother on her decease two years ago ; 
while as yet I have no children to take care of me. 
I possess a trade that can give me but slight assist- 
ance : I already find difficulty in carrying it on my- 
self, and as yet I am unable to procure someone to 
relieve me of the work. I have no other income 
besides this dole, and if you deprive me of it I might 
be in danger of finding myself in the most grievous 
plight. Do not, therefore, gentlemen, when you 
can save me justly, ruin me unjustly ; what you 
granted me when I was younger and stronger, do not 
take from me when I am growing older and weaker ; 
nor, with your previous reputation for showing the 
utmost compassion even towards those who are in 
no trouble, be moved now by this man to deal harshly 

° He means a slave who would learn the business and 
carry it on for him. 



OpoZs eXeivovs ovtols dypicos drrohe^rjaOe' jLt^S' ifie 
ToAjjLrjoravT€s dSt/c^oat /cat tovs dXXovs tovs opboicus 

8 ifiol hiaKeipLevovs ddvp^rjaai rroirjG7]Te. /cat yap 
av aroTTOV e'lrj, d> fiovXr), el ore fxev olttXtj [jlol rjv r) 
ovp.^)opdy rore fiev cf)atvoL[xr]v XapL^dvoov to dpyv- 
piov tovto, vvv V €7T€L$r) /cat yrjpas /cat voctol /cat 

[160] rd tovtols enofieva 1 /ca/ca irpoayiyverai fioi, tot€ 

9 acfraipedeirjv. hoKel Se jitot rrjs Trevias rrjs epirjs 
to fieyeOos 6 Kanqyopos dv emheZ^ai CTa</>eWaTa 
fxovos dvdpajTTCjjv. el ydp eycb Karaaradels x o P r )} / ^ s 
rpaycohoZs 7rpoKaXecraLpL7)v 2 avTov els dvTihocriv, 
Se/ca/ct? aV kXoiro yppT)yy\vai puaXXov rj dvTihovvai 
ana^. /cat ttojs ov heivov eon vvv piev Kajrryyope'iv 
cos hid ttoXXtjv evTTopiav et; lgov SiW/xat ovveZvai 
toZs TrXovGiajrarois , el he Sv eycb Xeyco rvyoi ti 
yevofievov, tolovtov elvai; /cat rt 3 TTOvqporepov ; 

10 Ileot Se rrjs ifirjs Ittttlktjs, rjs ovtos eroX/jajae 
[Avrjcrdfjvai Trpos vpids, ovre rrjv Tvyy)v heluas ovre 
vfias alaxvvdeis, ov 7toXvs 6 Xoyos. eycb ydp t <Z 
fiovXr], Trdvras olpai rovs e^ovTas rt Suorir^ua 
tovto* t^Telv /cat tovto <f>iXoao(f)eZv , ottcqs cos 
dXvTTOTaTa u^ra^etp to (Wat to ovfi^e^rjKos irddos. 
a>v els eyu), /cat irepiTTeTTTCOKcos toiglvtt) crvficfropa 
tolvt7]v ifiavTO) pqGTOJvqv e^rjvpov elg rds ohovs 

11 Tas fJLOLKpoTepas tcov dvayKaicov. o he pLeyLcrrov, 
w fiovXiq, TeKprqpiov otl hid ttjv ovp(f)opdv dXX 
OV hid T7JV vfipiV, d)S OVTOS <f>r)OLV, eVt tovs lttttovs 

1 e-n-6/j.eva Reiske : ^x^va mss. 
* ir pOK oXecr at p.t\v Reiske: TrpoiXKaXecraifirjv MSS. 
3 rl Halm : £rt mss. 
* tovto Stephanus: toiovto } toiovto pa.aT&vt)v two. mss. 



with those who are objects of pity even to their 
enemies ; nor, by having the heart to wrong me, 
cause everyone else in my situation to despond. 
And indeed, how extraordinary the case would be, 
gentlemen ! When my misfortune was but simple, 
I am found to have been receiving this pension ; but 
now, when old age, diseases, and the ills that attend 
on them are added to my trouble, I am to be de- 
prived of it ! The depth of my poverty, I believe, 
can be revealed more clearly by my accuser than by 
anyone else on earth. For if I were charged with 
the duty of producing tragic drama, and should 
challenge him to an exchange of property, he would 
prefer being the producer ten times over to making 
the exchange once. Surely it is monstrous that he 
should now accuse me of having such great affluence 
that I can consort on equal terms with the wealthiest 
people, while, in the event of such a thing as I have 
suggested, he should behave as he does. Why, what 
could be more villainous ? 

As to my horsemanship, which he has dared to 
mention to you, feeling neither awe of fortune nor 
shame before you, there is not much to tell. For I, 
gentlemen, am of opinion that all who suffer from 
some affliction make it their single aim and constant 
study to manage the condition that has befallen 
them with the least amount of discomfort. I am 
such an one, and in the misfortune that has stricken 
me I have devised this facility for myself on the 
longer journeys that I find necessary. But the 
strongest proof, gentlemen, of the fact that I mount 
horses because of my misfortune, and not from insol- 
ence, as this man alleges, is this : if I were a man of 

a See note on III. 20, p. 80. 



avafiaivu) [pdoiov ian ua^etV] 1, et yap €K€ktt]- 
fjLTjv ovoiav, i-rr* doTpdfirjs av cbxovfJLrjv, dAA* oi';c 
€ttl tovs aXXorptovs Ittttovs dvefiaivov vvvl 8' 
eVetSr) tolovtov ov ovvafiai KTijcraodaL, tols dAAo- 

12 rpLOLs lttttols dvayKa^ofxai xprjadai TroXXaKis. /cat- 

TOL TTWS OVK 6.T07TOV €OTLV } CO fiovXl] , TOVTOV 6.V ,* 

el fiev eV aoTpafirjs 6xovpL€vov ecopa /xe, oico-nav 
(ri yap av /cat eXeyev;), on 8' enl tovs fjT-qfidvovs 
Ittttovs dvaBacvco, Treipaadai TreiOeiv una? cos 
Bvvaros elpu 3 ; Kal on p,€v SvoXv fiaKT-qpLaiv 
XpcofiaL, tcov aXXojv uta ^/Dco/xeVcov, firj /carry - 
yopelv a)s Kal tovto tcov hvvafievcov eonv on 8' 
eVt tovs Ittttovs dvafiaivco, TeK\xt]pico xpr?a0at TTpog 
vpL&s cos etfil tcov ovvapLevcov ; ols iyco Std tt)v 
avrrjv alrlav dpLchordpoLs x/oa>uai. 

13 Tooovrov 8e hievqvox^v dvaiorxvvTLa tcov a.Trdv- 

TCOV dvd pCOTTCOV , COGT€ Vfl&S TTeip&Tai TT€ld€LV, 

togovtovs ovras ft? cov, cos ovk etnt rcov d- 
SvvaTcov iyco. Kalroi €t tovto tt€lg€l tlvols vpucov, 
cb fiovXrj, rt fie KcoXvei KXrjpovoOaL tcov iwea 
dpxovrcov, /cat vaas e/xou fiev acfreXeoOai tov 
ofioXov cos vyiaivovTOSi tovtco Se iprjcpLGaodai 
Trdvras cos dvaTn)pto; ov ydp Stjttov tov avTov 
VfieTs fJLCV cbs hvvdjJLevov dtfyaiprjoeoOe to SiSofievov, 
ol Se <^ecr/xo^erat> 4 cos dSiWrov ovTa /cArrpou- 

14 a#at KcoXvcrovoiv . dXXd yap ovre vjjl€ls tovtco tt]i> 
avTTjv e^ere yvcbpaqVy ovd* ovtos ev ttolcov. 6 fiev 
yap coo-rrep erriKX-qpov ttjs avficpopas ovoiqs dp,- 
(^io^Trjacov tjK€l /cat TreipaTai TreWeLV u/xaj cos 

1 frq.5i.6v i<7Ti fxadelv del. Scheibe. 
1 &i> Weidner: avrdv mss. 8 ei^xi Kayser: d-r\v mss. 

4 dca/xotUrai add. Frohberger. 


means, I should ride on a saddled mule, and would not 
mount other men's horses. But in fact, as I am unable 
to acquire anything of the sort, I am compelled, now 
and again, to use other men's horses. Well, I ask 
you, gentlemen, is it not extraordinary that, if he 
saw me riding on a saddled mule, he would hold his 
peace, — for what could he say ? a — and then, because 
I mount borrowed horses, he should try to persuade 
you that I am able-bodied ; and that my using two 
sticks, while others use one, should not be argued by 
him against me as a sign of being able-bodied, but 
my mounting horses should be advanced by him as a 
proof to you that I am able-bodied ? For I use both 
aids for the same reason. 

So utterly has he surpassed the whole human race 
in impudence that he tries with his single voice to 
persuade you all that I am not classed as disabled. 
Yet if he should persuade any of you on this point, 
gentlemen, what hinders me from drawing a lot for 
election as one of the nine archons, b and you from 
depriving me of my obol as having sound health, 
and voting it unanimously to this man as being a 
cripple ? For surely, after you have deprived a 
man of the grant as being able-bodied, the law- 
officers are not going to debar this same person, as 
being disabled, from drawing a lot ! Nay, indeed, 
you are not of the same opinion as he is, nor is he 
either, and rightly so. For he has come here to dis- 
pute over my misfortune as if over an heiress, and 
he tries to persuade you that I am not the sort of 

a It would be natural for a cripple to ride about on a 
cheaply hired mule, if only he could afford it. 

6 The archons were appointed by lot from all the citizens, 
rich or poor, except, apparently, those who were formally 
classed as infirm. 

S2 525 


OVK etjLtt TOLOVTOS oloV V[JL€LS 6pa.T€ 7TaVT€S' Vf.L€LS 

8e (o tQ>v €u (frpoi'ovvTiov epyov eort) jjl&XXov 

7TLGT€V€T€ Tols V/JL€T€pOLS aVTO)V 6(f)6 'aA/XOtS" Tj TOLS 

rovrov Adyot?. 

15 Ae'yet 8' cos vfipLcrr-qs €t/xi /cat ftlcuos /cat Atai> 
acreAyaJS" ota/cet/xeyos', coarrep et cfyof^epcos oro- 
juacrete, [leXXatv dXrjOrj Aeyetv, aAA' ou/c, edv 7rdVi> 
7Tpa6vtos [/^^Se i/fei^Tat], 1 ravra Troiiquojv. eyco S' 
Vfi&s, c5 fiovXrj, oa.(f>u)s ot/xat Setv hiayiyvojaKetv 
ols T lyyiopel tGjv av9pto7rcuv vfipiOTals elvai 

16 /cat o?s ou npoGJ]K€i. ov yap <toi>s> 2 Trevo- 
fievovs /cat Atav airopcos Sta/cet/xeVous" vfipi^tLV 
eiKos, dAAd rous" 77oAAa> ttX<elo) rd)y avayKaicov 


ovtcls, dAAd Toys' /xdAtcrra mGTevovras rats' aurojy 
pojfxais' ovhe tovs r\orj TrpofieftrjKOTas rfj -qXiKta, 
dAAd rous" ert veous 1 /cat veat? rats' otayotats" ^oa>- 

17 ixevovs. ol fxev yap ttXovolol rots* xPVf ia(JLV *£~ 
iovovvrai tovs klvovvovs, ol $€ Trivqres vtto ttjs 
irapovorqs drropias uax^povelv av ay Kat,ovi at* /cat 
ot /xev veot ovyyv(x>\xr]s a^iovvrai TvyxdveLV 7rapa 
tQ>v TTpeofivrepojv, rots' Se TrpeoftvTepoLs* i£j m 

18 apiaprdvovGLV o/jlolojs €7tltljjl<jjglv apLcftorepoi' /cat 
rots' /xey iaxvpols ey^ojpet jxrjhev avrols iraoypvaiv , 
ovs dV fiovXrjdajcriv, vftpl^ew, tols 8e daOevioiv 
ovk eoriv ovre vfipLL^ofidvoLs dfxvvecrdaL rovs vtt- 
dp^avras ovre vfipL^euv fiovXopLevoLS Treptyiyveodai 

[170] ro)v dhiKovjievcuv. ojore /xot 8o/c€t d Kanqyopos 

€L7T€LV 77601 TTJS €pL7JS vfip€0)S OV OTTOvhd^OJV , dAAd 

Trai^cov, ouS' vpL&s ireloai fiovXofievos dog et/xt 
roLovros, dAA' €/ie Ka)p,cpheZv fiovXofJLevos, tbcnrep 
rt /caAdv ttoiojv. 


man that you all see me to be ; but you — as is in- 
cumbent on men of good sense — have rather to 
believe your own eyes than this person's words. 

He says that I am insolent, savage, and utterly 
abandoned in my behaviour, as though he needed 
the use of terrifying terms to speak the truth, and 
could not do it in quite gentle language. But I 
expect you, gentlemen, to distinguish clearly between 
those people who are at liberty to be insolent and 
those who are debarred from it. For insolence is 
not likely to be shown by poor men labouring in the 
utmost indigence, but by those who possess far more 
than the necessaries of life ; nor by men disabled in 
body, but by those who have most reason to rely on 
their own strength ; nor by those already advanced 
in years, but by those who are still young and have a 
youthful turn of mind. For the wealthy purchase 
with their money escape from the risks that they 
run, whereas the poor are compelled to modera- 
tion by the pressure of their want. The young are 
held to merit indulgence from their elders ; but if 
their elders are guilty of offence, both ages unite in 
reproaching them. The strong are at liberty to insult 
whomsoever they will with impunity, but the weak 
are unable either to beat off their aggressors when 
insulted, or to get the better of their victims if they 
choose to insult. Hence it seems to me that my 
accuser was not serious in speaking of my insolence, 
but was only jesting : his purpose was, not to per- 
suade you that such is my nature, but to set me in a 
comic light, as a fine stroke of fancy. 

l ^-qbk \p€v5r)TaL del. Kayser. 

a tovs add. Reiske. 

8 vpeafivTepois Frohberger : ertpois mss. 



19 "Ert Se Kal avXXeyeodai cfrrfaiv dvOpcbrrovs wg 
e/Lte TTOvrjpovs Kal noXXovs, ol tol fiev eavrcbv 
di'rjXojKaGL, rols Se rd acperepa acpt,eiv fiovXofie- 
vots emfiovXevovcnv. vfiets Se evQvfxrfiy]re rrdvres 
on ravra Xeycov ovSev efiov KariqyopeZ fidXXov rj 
rcov dXXcov ocroi rexvas ^X OV(JLV ov °£ T &>v &>? ifie 


20 ovpyovs. eKaaros yap vficbv eWiarai rrpoafyoirdv 

6 fiev TTpOS fJLVpOTTcbXlOV, 6 0€ TTpOS KOVpeiOV, 6 S<£ 
TTpOS (JKVTOTO[JL€LOV, 6 S' OTTOL dv TV^T] , Kal TrXei- 

gtol fxev cos rovs iyyvrdroj rfjs dyopas Kar- 
eaKevaafxei'ovs t eAa^tcrrot Se cos tovs TrXeicrrov 
drrexovr as clvttjs' coar et ns vfxcov Trovr\piav 
Karayvcbcrerat rcbv cos e/xe elaiovrcov, SrjXov on 
Kal rcbv irapd rots dXXocs hiarpi^ovrcov el Se 
KaKeivcov, dnavrcov *A.dy]vaLcov d-navres yap eWi- 
ode TrpoacboiTav Kal oiarpifieiv dfiov 1 ye ttov. 

21 'AAAa yap ovk otS' o n Set Xiav fie aKpificos diro- 
Xoyovfievov Trpos ev eKaarov vfilv rcbv elprjfievcov 
evoxXelv TrXeico xP ovov ' € ^ 7^-P vnep rcbv pLeyiarcov 
ecpi]Ka, ri Set 77ept rcov cf>avXcov dfxoicos rovrcp 2 
GTTOvSd^etv; eyco 8' v/jlcov, cb ftovXij, Se'o/xcu 
rrdvrcov rr\v avrrjv eyeiv rrepl efiov Sidvoiav, 

22 rjvrrep Kal rrporepov. jU/^S' ov fiovov 3 fieraXafielv 
ehcoKev rj rvx 7 ] f- lOL T ^ )V ^ v r V Trarploi, rovrov Sta 
rovrovl drTOGrepy^Giqre fie' firjo* a TrdXai Koivfj 
Trdvres eSore fioL, vvv ovros els cbv ireiar) rrdXiv 
{/fids dcpeXeadai. eireiorf ydp, cb fiovXtf, rcov 
fieyiarcov [dpxdjv] 1 ° oalfxcov dTrecrreprjaev r}fias, 

1 aiJ.Qv Bekker: dXXov mss. 
1 (pavkuv ofiotus TovTip Dobree: b^olm tout^ ^auXwy mss. 
8 ubvov Markland : ixovov mss. 4 6.px&v del. Frohberger. 


He further asserts that my shop is the meeting- 
place of a number of rogues who have spent their 
own money and hatch plots against those who wish to 
preserve theirs. But you must all take note that 
these statements of his are no more accusations 
against me than against anyone else who has a 
trade, nor against those who visit my shop any more 
than those who frequent other men of business. For 
each of you is in the habit of paying a call at either a 
perfumer's or a barber's or a shoemaker's shop, or 
wherever he may chance to go, — in most cases, it is 
to the tradesmen who have set up nearest the market- 
place, and in fewest, to those who are farthest 
from it. So if any of you should brand with roguery 
the men who visit my shop, clearly you must do the 
same to those who pass their time in the shops of 
others ; and if to them, to all the Athenians : for 
you are all in the habit of paying a call and passing 
your time at some shop or other. 

But really I see no need for me to be so very par- 
ticular in rebutting each one of the statements that 
he has made, and to weary you any longer. For if I 
have argued the principal points, what need is there 
to dwell seriously on trifles in the same way as he 
does ? But I beg you all, gentlemen of the Council, 
to hold the same views concerning me as you have 
held till now. Do not be led by this man to deprive 
me of the sole benefit in my country of which fortune 
has granted me a share, nor let this one person pre- 
vail on you to withdraw now what you all agreed to 
grant me in the past. For, gentlemen, since Heaven 
had deprived us ° of the chiefest things, the city voted 

a The speaker here solemnly appeals for himself as one 
of an unfortunate class. 



7) ttoAis tj/jlTv cipr)(f)L(ja.TO tovto to dpyvpiov, 
r)yovfievrf kolvols elvai ras ru^a? rot? artaoi kcli 

23 tcov kolkwv Kal tcov dyaOcov. ttcos ovv ovk dv 
SeiAaidraro? 1 eZr)v, el tcov fiev KaAXiaTCOv Kal 
fieyiGTCOV hid rrjv ovfitf^opav aTreoTeprffievos eirjv, 
a 8' r) ttoAis eScoKe TrpovorjOeTcra tcov ovtcos 8ia- 
Keifievcov, Sid rdv KCLTTjyopov dcf) at pedeirfv ; fxrjSa- 
ficos, co ftovArj, ravrr] Orjcrde tt)v i/jrjcfyov. 8id rl 

24 yap av Kal tv^oi/ju tolovtcov vjxcov; rrorepov otl 
Si' e/xe ns els dycova ircorroTe Karaoras drrctjAeoe 
ttjv ovoiav; dAA' ouS' av els drrohei^eiev. dAA' 
on TroAvirpdyficov ei'/xi Kal dpatrvs Kal cj>iAaTT- 

25 eydr]\xa)v; dAA' ov Toiavrais dtkopfials rov /Siou 
77009 to, roiavra Tvyydvco ^pto/xevos". dAA on 
Xlav vfipcGTrjs Kal ^iaios; dAA' ouS' dv avTOS 
tprjtreiev, el fir) fiovAotro Kal tovto xjjevoeodai tols 
dAAoLs dfioicos. dAA' otl errl tcov TptaKOVTa 
yevdjievos ev hvvdjxei KaKcos eiroiiqua 7toAXovs tcov 
ttoAltcov; dAAd fieTa tov vfierepov irArfdovs ecf>vyov 
els XaA/a'Sa [rr)v err* EuoiVo/], 2 Kal e^ov fioi fieT 
eKeivcov doetas rroAiTeveoOai, /xe#' v/jlcov elAourjv 

26 Kivhvveveiv dneAdcov. 3 fir) to'lvvv, to fiovArf, firjhev 
TffiapTrfKtos dfiolcov 4, vficov tvxol[jll rots' 7roAAd 
rfhtK-qKOGLV, dAAd ttjv avrr)v iftrjtfrov Oeade nept 
efiov Tats d'AAai? fiovAals, dvafivrjod evTes otl ovre 
XprffxaTa hiax^Lpiaas Trjs noAecos Si'Sco/xi Aoyov 
avTtov, ovTe dpx^v dp£as ovoefiiav evdvvas vnexco 
vvv avrrjs, dAAd rrepl ofioAov fiovov rroiodfiai tovs 

1 deiXatdraTos Markland : diKcuSraTos MS3. 

2 t))v (w' Eiplrrtf del. Froliberger. 

• airtkdwv Baeker: airavTwv mss. 

4 bjxo'nov Contius : bfxolw mss. 



us this pension, regarding the chances of evil and of 
good as the same for all alike. Surely I should be the 
most miserable of creatures if, after being deprived by 
my misfortune of the fairest and greatest things, the 
accuser should cause me the loss of that which the 
city bestowed in her thoughtful care for men in my 
situation. No, no, gentlemen ; you must not vote 
that way. And why should I find you thus inclined ? 
Because anyone has ever been brought to trial at my 
instance and lost his fortune ? There is nobody who 
can prove it. Well, is it that I am a busybody, a hot- 
head, a seeker of quarrels ? That is not the sort of 
use I happen to make of such means of subsistence as 
I have. That I am grossly insolent and savage ? 
Even he would not allege this himself, except he 
should wish to add one more to the series of his lies. 
Or that I was in power at the time of the Thirty, and 
oppressed a great number of the citizens ? But I 
went into exile with your people to Chalcis, a and 
when I was free to live secure as a citizen with those 
persons b I chose to depart and share your perils. I 
therefore ask you, gentlemen of the Council, not to 
treat me, a man who has committed no offence, in 
the same way as those who are guilty of numerous 
wrongs, but to give the same vote as the other 
Councils c did on my case, remembering that I am 
neither rendering an account of State moneys placed 
in my charge, nor undergoing now an inquiry into 
my past proceedings in any office, but that the sub- 
ject of this speech of mine is merely an obol. In 

° In Euboea, 404 b.c. 
6 i.e., the Thirty. 

e i.e., the Councils of previous years by which he had 
been certified as infirm. 



21 Xoyovs. Kai ovtoj? &fi€t S (lh> ra hlxaia yvcLoevBz 
Trawff t eyw 8e to^tojv iJ/xli/ rv X chv %a> rljv x dpiv, 
ovtos be rod Aolttov fiadijaerat ^ rols aode- 
vto-repois eTTLfiovXeveiv dXXa ra>u o^ioicov avrco 



this way you will all give the decision that is just, 
while I, in return for that, will feel duly grateful to 
you ; and this man will learn in the future not to 
scheme against those who are weaker than himself, 
but only to overreach his equals. 




The person for whom this speech was written does 
not appear, as the probably spurious title would 
indicate, to have been formally charged with treason 
against the democracy : he makes no reference to 
any definite punishment awaiting him if he should 
lose his case ; he is evidently concerned merely to 
show that he was not an active supporter of the Thirty, 
and to claim enjoyment of the full rights of a citizen 
(3, 14). We may conclude, therefore, that he is 
defending himself against information laid before an 
ordinary court, in which he is undergoing a scrutiny 
of his past conduct before qualifying for some public 

We have seen, in connexion with the speech 
Agai?ist Erastosthenes (XII.), that the Thirty and their 
oligarchical friends retired to Eleusis after the re- 
st* ration of the democracy in 403 b.c. Three years 
later the Athenian people, still haunted by suspicions 
and fears of oligarchical intrigue, attacked Eleusis, 
captured and put to death its leading officers, and 
made terms of reconciliation with the remaining 
oligarchs. It would seem that this speech was 


delivered shortly after that final consolidation of the 
democracy, about 399 B.C., and also that, in spite of 
the amnesty which had been arranged, and which was 
honourably observed on the whole, any man who had 
remained in the city during the Terror of the Thirty 
was still exposed to disparagement and the threat of 
political disability. The speaker has clearly been 
inclined to sympathize with the oligarchs, but he has 
held no office under the Thirty, and had no seat on 
their subservient Council. He maintains that it was 
not to his interest to support oligarchy (1-11) ; that 
he has served the Athenian people as a loyal citizen 
(12-13) ; and that he only stayed in the city to pre- 
serve his property (18). He returns continually to 
the point that he was innocent of any wrongdoing 
under the Thirty, and reminds the democracy of its 
hopes and professions of concord (27). He ends with 
a denunciation of scheming and revengeful persons 
who carry the methods of oligarchy into the newly 
recovered freedom of the democracy, and create 
disunion by making malicious attacks on innocent 
citizens (28-34). 

The speech is vigorously written, but not strong in 
arrangement nor specially brilliant in style. Perhaps 
Lysias, who composed his own oration Against Erato- 
sthenes with such force of argument and pathos, could 
summon only a moderate warmth for his defence 
of this time-serving citizen. The conclusion of the 
speech is missing through the loss of eight pages of 
the Palatine manuscript, which contained also a 
whole speech, Against Nicides, and the beginning of 
the next that we possess, On the Scrutiny of Evandros 



1 'Y[ilv jiev ttoXXtjv ovyyvcopaqv e^o), co dvopes 
oiKaoTai, olkovovctl tolovtcov Xoycov kcll dva- 
/jU[ivr)(jKO[i€voLs tcov yeyevrjfxevcov, 6[jlolcos diraoiv 
opyi^eoOai rolg iv dorei pLeivacri- tcov Se kolt- 
yyyopcov davfj-d^cOj ot dp.eXovvT€S tcov oIkclcov tcov 
dXXoTptcov imjilXovr ai y el 1 oacf>cos elSores tovs 


£,7]T0V(7L \_Kephalveiv rff vfi&s ireiOeiv rrepl clttolvtcov 

2 yj/jlcov Tr\v yva)fX7]v ravrrjv eyeiv. el fxev ovv olovrai, 
ocra* VTf6 tcov rpiaKovra yeyevqrai rij ttoXel, iptov 
KaTrjyoprjKevai, dhvvaTovs avTovs rjyov p,ai Xeyeiv 
ovSe yap ttoXXogtov fiepos tcov €K€ivois TTeirpay- 
fievcov elprjKatnv el Se cog ifiol tl 7Tpoo7]KOV irepl 
avTcov TTOiovvrai tovs Xoyovs, dirohei^co tovtovs 

pi€V aTTCLVTa* lfj€vSofJL€VOVS, ifiaVTOV §6 TOLOVTOV 

ovtgl otoarrep dv tcov €K Heipatcos <o> 6 ^IXtlgtos 

3 iv doT€t fjLeivas iyeveTO. Seo/xat 8' v/jlcov, co 
dvhpes hiKdOTai, ^lt] ttjv avTTJv yvcopaqv e^€tv rot? 
ovKO(j>di'Tais. tovtcov fxev yap epyov earl /cat 
tovs firjSev r^jiapTTjKOTas els aiTiav KaOiOTavai 
(eV tovtcov yap dv /xaAtcrra xP r }t JLaT ^ OLl ' TO ) > 

1 el Reiske: 01 mss. 2 [x-qdtv Reiske : ph mss. 

3 Kepdalveiv rj del. Dobree. 

4 6Va Herwerden: & mss. 

6 dnavra Stephanus : atravTas mss. 6 6 add. Reiske. 



I can find full excuse for you, gentlemen of the 
jury, if on hearing such statements and remembering 
past events you are equally incensed against all those 
who remained in the city. But I am surprised at my 
accusers : they neglect their own concerns to attend 
to those of others, and now, though they know for 
certain who are guilty of nothing and who have 
committed many offences, they seek to persuade you 
into holding this same opinion about us all. Now, if 
they conceive that they have charged me with every- 
thing that the city has suffered at the hands of the 
Thirty, I consider them to be speakers of no ability ; 
for they have not mentioned so much as a small 
fraction of what has been perpetrated by those men. 
But if their statements imply that I had any con- 
nexion with those things, I shall prove that their 
words are nothing but lies, and that on my part I 
behaved as the best citizen in the Peiraeus would 
have done, if he had remained in the city. I beg 
you, gentlemen, not to share the views of the slander- 
mongers. Their business is to inculpate even those 
who have committed no offence, — for it is out of them 
especially that they would make money, — while 

a An inoffensive, peaceable man would usually prefer 
paying an informer blackmail to undergoing the trouble 
and risk of a legal action. Cf. Xenophon, Mem. ii. 9. 1. 



VfM€T€pOV $€ TOLS pir)$€V doiKOVCTlV i£ IcjOV TTJS 

TToXireias peTaoihovai' ovtoj yap av to?? kolO- 
earrjKocn npdyp,aai irXeiOTOVs avppidxovs e^otre. 

4 d£id) Se, to avS pes hiKaarai, edvirep cbavco 1 ctu/x- 
cpopas p-ev p,7]oepiias aiTios yeyeviqpevos , 77oAAd 
he Kayadd eipyaapievos ttjv rroXtv /cat tlo otop^aTi 
kclI tois xPVI JLa<JL > TavTa yovv pioi Trap* VpLOOV 
virdpyew, tov ov piovov tovs ev 7Te7TOirjKOTas dXXa 
Kal tovs pirjhev doiKovvTas Tvyxdveiv hiKaiov eari. 

6 peya pev ovv rjyovpiai <p,oi> 2 TeKp.iqpiov elvai, 

OTl, €L7T€p iSlJVaVTO ol KOLTljyopOL l&LCL /X€ d&lKOVVTGL 

e^eXey^ai, ovk av Ta tcov TpiaKovTa dixapTijpaTa 
ep,ov KaTrjyopovv, oi)S' av coovto XPV V0LL V7T ^P T< ^v 
eKeivois 7T€7Tpaypeva>v eTepovs hiafidXXeiv, dXX 
avTOVs tovs doiKovvTas TipicopeZaOai- vvv ok 
vopLL^ovort tt]V rrpos eKeivovs 6pyr)v iKavrjv elvai 
Kal tovs pirjhev KaKov elpyaap,evovs dVoAe'cxai. 

6 eyco he ovx rjyovpiai hii<aiov elvai ovt€ el Tives ttj 
iroXei ttoXXcov dyaOcov aiTioi yeyevrjVTai, dXXovs 
rtvd? vnep tovtcov TLpirjv r) X^P lv Kopiio-aodai irap" 
vpicov, ovt el tlv€s 7ToXXa KaKa elpyaapievoi elaiv, 
eiKOTCos av oi eKeivovs tovs pirjhev doiKovvTas 
oveihovs Kal hiafioXrjs Tvyxdveiv iKavol yap ol 
V7rdpxovT€S exOpol ttj rroXei Kal peya Kephos 
vopit,ovTes elvai tovs doiKcos iv TaTs oiafioXals 

7 Ueipdcrop,ai 8' vpias hihd£ai, ovs r)yovp,ai tcov 
ttoXitlov 7rpoGT]K€iv oXiyapx^as eiriOvpelv Kal <ovs> z 
orjpoKpaTias. e.K tovtov yap Kal vpieis yvcooeode, 

1 t&virep (pai'Q Dobree iav dirocpavu) MSS. 



yours is to allow an equal enjoyment of civic rights to 
those who have done no wrong ; for in this way you 
will secure to the established constitution the greatest 
number of allies. And I claim, gentlemen, if I am 
found to have been the cause of none of our disasters, 
but rather to have performed many services to the 
State with both my person and my purse, that at any 
rate I should have that support from you which is 
the just desert, not merely of those who have served 
you well, but also of those who have done you no 
wrong. Now, I consider that I have a strong justifi- 
cation in the fact that, if my accusers were able to 
convict me of wrongdoing in private life, they would 
not charge me with the misdeeds of the Thirty : 
they would not see occasion to traduce others on the 
score of what those persons have perpetrated, but 
only to requite the actual wrongdoers. But in fact 
they conceive that your resentment against those 
men is sufficient to involve in their ruin those who 
have done no harm at all. I, however, hold that, just 
as it would be unfair, when some men have been the 
source of many benefits to the city, to let others 
carry off the reward of your honours or your thanks, 
so it is unreasonable, when some have continually 
done you harm, that their acts should bring reproach 
and slander upon those who have done no wrong. 
The city has enough enemies already existing, who 
count it a great gain to have people brought up on 
slanderous charges. 

I will now try to explain to you who of the citizens 
are inclined, in my view, to court oligarchy, and who 
democracy. This will serve as a basis both for your 

* jaoi add. Frohberger. 8 ods add. Contius. 



Kayd) rrepl ifiavTOV ttjv drroXoytav Trotrjaouat, 

dlTO(f>O.LVtOV COS OVT€ i£ COV iv SrjfJLOKpaTLCL ovre e£ 

cbv ev oAiyapxia TTerroi^Ka, ovoev uot rrpoGrJKOv 

8 kolkovovv elvat rep nX-qOei rep vp,erepco. rrpcorov 
p.ev ovv ivdujirjOrji'ai ^pr) on ovoels iamv dv- 

dpCOTTCOV (f)V(7€L OVT€ dAtyap^t/CO? OVT€ S^/XO- 

KpariKos, dAA' tJtls av eKaorco iroXireia GvpLifiepr], 
ravrrjv 7Tpo9vpL€LTai Kadeordvai 1 ' coare ovk eXd- 
yiorov ev vp.iv eon ptepos cos TrXeiarovs emOvpLelv 
rcov rrapovrcov vvvl 77 pay 'jidi cov . /cat ravra otl 
ovtcos €-X ei > °v X a ^ €7T( ^ s € ' K ' r ^ v irporepov yeye- 

9 vrjp,evcov pLaOrjtreoOe. GKei/jaade ydp, co dvhpes 
St/caorat, tovs TTpocrravras dpLcfrorepcov <rcov> 2 
TroXireicov, dad/a? St) pLerefidXovro. ov Opdvt^os" 
p,€v /cat HetcravSpos /cat ot /xer' eKeivcov hrjp,aycoyoL y 
eVetSr) 7roAAd eiV u/xds' e^yyxo.prov, rds rrepl rovrcov 
Seitravres rcpLcoplas rrjv rrporepav dAtyap^tay 
Kareorrjcrav, 7roAAot he rcoy rerpaKooicov pierd rcov 
€K rietpatcos" crvyKarrjAOov, evioi he rcov eKeivovs 
ei<j3aX6vrcov avrol cxv6ls z rcov rpidhcovra eyevovro; 

172] etcrt he otrtves" rtov 'EAeuatrdSe drroypai/japLevcov, 
e£eX66vres /xe#' vpLcov, eiroXiopKovv tovs*' /xe#' au- 
10 Ttui>. ovkovv xaXerrov yvcovai, co dvhpes St/caorat, 
ort ov rrepl rroXireias elolv at rrpos dAAryAous" 
oicufiopai, dXXd irepl rcov tSta trvpLtfiepovrcov e/cdara>. 
vpi&s ovv xpr) €K rovrcov BoKLpidCetv tovs ttoXLtcls, 
OKOirovvras pcev ottcos rjcrav ev rfj hrjpLOKparia 
TreTToXiTevpLevoij ^rjTovvras he el tls avrols eyiyvero 
wcjyeXeia rcov rrpaypidrcov pier aneoovr cov ovtcos 

1 KadeuTdisai Fuhr : Kaihardvai MSS. 
8 r&p add. Reiske. 3 avOis Brulart: avrols mss. 

4 iiro\i6pKow tovs Scheibe : £iro\i.opKovvTo >iss. 


decision and for the defence that I shall offer for 
myself ; for I shall make it evident that neither under 
the democracy nor under the oligarchy has my con- 
duct suggested any inclination to be disloyal to your 
people. Now, first of all, you should reflect that no 
human being is naturally either an oligarch or a 
democrat : whatever constitution a man finds advan- 
tageous to himself, he is eager to see that one estab- 
lished ; so it largely depends on you whether the 
present system finds an abundance of supporters. 
That this is the truth, you will have no difficulty in 
deducing from the events of the past. For consider, 
gentlemen of the jury, how many times the leaders 
of both governments changed sides. Did not 
Phrynichus, Peisander and their fellow-demagogues, 
when they had committed many offences against you, 
proceed, in fear of the requital that they deserved, 
to establish the first oligarchy ? And did not many 
of the Four Hundred, again, join in the return of the 
Peiraeus party, while some, on the other hand, who 
had helped in the expulsion of the Four Hundred, 
actually appeared among the Thirty ? Some, too, 
of those who had enlisted for Eleusis marched out 
with you to besiege their own comrades ! There 
is thus no difficulty in concluding, gentlemen, 
that the questions dividing men are concerned, not 
with politics, but with their personal advantage. 
You should therefore apply this test in the probation 
of your citizens : examine their use of the citizen- 
ship under the democracy, and inquire whether 
they stood to benefit by a change in the government. 

■ The oligarchy of the Four Hundred and the despotism 
of the Thirty. 



yap av hiKatordrr^v <r7)v> 1 Kplaiv rrepl avrcov 

11 iroiolode. iyd) rolvvv -qyov^ai, ogol p,ev iv rfj 
8r)fjLOKpa.TLa aTifioL rjcrav [evdvvag SeStoKOTes"] 2 7} 

TO)V OVTOJV a7T6OT€p7][JL€V0L 7) ClAA^ TLVi (JVfJL^Opa 
TOiaVTTj K€XpT]jJi€VOL, TTpOGT}K€lV aUTOt? erepa? 

iTTidvpLtiv rroXtrelag, iXrrl^ovrag rrjv p,era^oXrjv 
d)<j>eXeidv riva avrols eaevdai' 6001 Se rov orj/wv 
ttoAAo, KayaOa elpyaafievoi elol, kclkov ok fjaqhev 
TTcoTTore, ocj)elXerai he avrols X®-P LV KOfilcrao9aL 
irap vfxcov fjL&XXov r) hovvau SIktjv rcbv Treirpay- 
fievajv, ovk d^iov rds Kara rovrojv d7ro8e^ecr^at 
htafioXds, ovh* lav rrdvres ol ra rrjs iroXeuis 
rrparrovres oXtyapx^Kovg avrovs cfxiaKajGiv elvau. 

12 'EjLtot roivvv, a> dvhpes hiKaoral, ovr loiq ovre 
S-q/xoo-la avfi(f)opd iv eKelvcp rep xpovto ovhep,la 
7Ta>7Tor€ iyevero, avd* rjcrrcvos av npodvpLOvpievos 
rtov rrapovraxv KaKtJov a7raXXayrjvaL erepmv iw 
eOvpuovv 7Tpayfidrajv. rerpirjpdpx^Ka 3 re* yap rrev- 
raKis y /cat rerpaKis vevavjidx^Ka, Kal ela^opds 
iv rep TToXepLco rroXXas eloevrjvoxa, Kal rdAAa 

13 XeXrjrovpyrjKa ovhevos x^pov r &> v rroXircov. Kalroi 
hid rovro irXela) rdav vtto rrjs noXeajs rtpoo- 
rarropievajv eSanava) firjv, Iva Kal fieXrlajv v(f> y vfxcJov 
vopLL^olpL-qv, Kal el itov fiol rt? cru/x</>opa yevoiro, 
dpieivov ayajvi^oipaqv . cjv iv rfj oXiyapxla arrdvrcjv 
aireorepovp^v ov yap rovs ra> TTXrjdei dyadov 
rivos airiovs yeyevqp,evovs ^a/Hro? tto-P avrcov 
t)£lovv rvyxdveiv, dXXd rov? irXelora /ca/ca, vp,ag 
elpyaoperovs els ras n^d? Kadloraaav, 00s ravrr\v 

1 tt)v add. Rauchenstein. 
2 evOuvas dedundrts del. Francken. 

8 TeTpirjpdpxvxa Scheibe : irpi-qpapx^o. MSS. 



In this way you will most justly form your decision 
upon them. Now, in my opinion, all those who had 
been disfranchised under the democracy, or deprived 
of their property, or subjected to any other misfor- 
tune of the sort, were bound to desire a different 
system, in the hope that the change would be some 
benefit to themselves. But in the case of those who 
have done the people many good services, and never 
a single hurt, and who deserve your grateful favours 
instead of punishment for what they have achieved, 
it is not fair to harbour the slanders aimed at 
them, not even if all who have charge of public affairs 
allege that they favour oligarchy. 

Now I, gentlemen of the jury, never suffered 
any misfortune during that time, a either private or 
public, which could lead me, through eagerness to 
be relieved of present ills, to court a change in our 
system. I have equipped a warship five times, 
fought in four sea-battles, contributed to many war 
levies, and performed my other public services as 
amply as any citizen. But my purpose in spending 
more than was enjoined upon me by the city was to 
raise myself the higher in your opinion, so that if any 
misfortune should chance to befall me I might defend 
myself on better terms. Of all this credit I was de- 
prived under the oligarchy ; for instead of regarding 
those who had bestowed some benefit on the people 
as worthy recipients of their favours, they placed in 
positions of honour the men who had done you most 
harm, as though this were a pledge by which they 

a The six years between the restoration of the democracy 
in 410 b.c. and the tyranny of the Thirty in 404 b.c. 

4 re Gebauer : ph mss. 



Trap* rjfituv ttlotlv elAr)(j)6res . a XPV Trdvras 
evdvjJLOVjJLevovs firj rots' rovrcov Aoyois moreveiv, 
aAAa [/cat] 1 e/c rcov epyojv OKOireZv a e/caaTa> rvy- 

14 xdvet nerrpay\ieva. eyd> yap, a) dvopes St/caaTat, 
ovre [eVt] 2 rcov rerpaKooiojv eyevofirjv r) rcov 
Karrjyopcov 6 fiovAo^evos napeAOtbv eAey^drco' 
ov Tolvvv ovV eWtS?) ol rpiaKOvra? Kareorrjoav, 
ovhelg fie dTroSet^et ovre fiovAevcravra ovre apxty 
ovhe/jLLdv dp^avra. Kairoi el fiev e£6v fioi apx^w 
fir] efiovAofirjv, vcj)' vficov vvvl rifiaodai St/catd? 
eljJLL' el 8e ol rore Svvdfievoi firj r)c;iovv fioi \iera- 
StSoVai rcov rrpayfidrtov, rrcog dv cpave pdjrepov rj 
ovrtos ipevhofievovs aTrohei^aifii rovs Karrjyopovs ; 

15 "Ert tolvvv, to aVope? St/caoTat, /cat e/c rajy 
aAAaw rcov ifxol TreTrpayfievcov d£iov oKeipacrOai. 
iyd> yap roiovrov ifiavrdv cV rat? rrjg rroAeaJS 
crvfitfcopais irapeox ov d)crre, el rrdvres rrjv avrrjv 
yvcofirjv eox ov €(JLoi, p.rjSeva dv vfitov firjSefiia 
XprjoOat ovfi(f)opa. vtt* efiov yap ev rfj SAiyapxia 
ovre d-rraxOels ovoels (j>avqoerai, ovre rcov exOpcov 
ovSels rerifiojprjfievos , ovre rcov cpiAcov ev rxe-nov- 

16 0o)$ (/cat rovro {lev ovk d£iov Oavfid^eiv ev fiev 
yap rroieiv ev ei<eivcp rto x? 0V(J ? X a ^ €Tr ° v V v > 
e^afiaprdveiv he. rco fiovAofievcp pdoiov). ov roivvv 
oi)S' els tov KardAoyov 'AOrjvalcov /caraAefa? 
ovoeva cpavij crofiai, ovhe hiairav Karahiairrjod- 
fievos ovSevos, ovSe rrAovaruurepos e/c rcov vfierepcov 
yeyovdjs trvfitpopcov. Kairoi el rois rcov yeyevq- 

dcl. Emperius. * i-n-l del. Mark land. 

5 1 1- 


held us bound. You ought all to reflect on those 
facts and refuse to believe the statements of these 
men : you should rather judge each person by the 
record of his actions. 

For I, gentlemen, was not one of the Four Hundred : 
I challenge anyone who wishes amongst my accusers 
to come forward and convict me of this. Neither, 
again, will anyone prove that, when the Thirty were 
established, I sat on the Council or held any office. 
Surely, if I chose not to hold office when I could 
have done so, I deserve to be honoured by you to-day. 
If, on their part, the men who were in power at 
that time preferred not to give me a place in the 
government, could I find a more signal proof than 
this of the falsehood of my accusers ? 

Furthermore, gentlemen of the jury, you ought 
also to take account of the rest of my conduct. For 
amid the misfortunes of the city my behaviour was 
such that, if everyone had been of one mind with me, 
not one of you would have experience of a single mis- 
fortune. I had no hand during the oligarchy, you 
will find, either in the arrest of anybody, or in taking 
vengeance upon any of my enemies, or in conferring 
a favour on any of my friends, — and in that there is 
nothing to wonder at, for at that time it was difficult to 
confer favours, though an act of mischief was easy for 
anyone who wished. Again, you will find that I did 
not place the name of a single Athenian on the black 
list, a or obtain a decree of arbitration against any- 
one, or enrich myself by means of your misfortunes. 
Yet surely, if you are incensed against the authors 

a The Thirty drew up a list of citizens, other than the 
privileged 3000, who were suspected of opposing or dis- 
approving the violent measures of the cabal. 



fl€VO)V KdKtOV CLLTIOIS 6pyit,eo6e, X €LKOS KCll TOVS 

fi7]oev rjfjLaprrjKora? fieXriovs v<f> Vfidjv vo/jLL^eadat. 

17 koll [.Lev hrj, <L dvhpes SiKaorral, fieylar-qv rjyoufjLat 
rrepl ifiavrov rfj SrjfjLOKparla trior w SeSajKevai. 
dons yap rore ovoev i^ptaprov ovrco rro?<Xrjs 
oeoo[JL€vr)s i£ovolas, rj rrov vvv o<f)6opa rrpo- 
6vp,j}dr)oo}±ai xp-qaros etvat, ev elhcos dri t idv 
ololkco, Trapaxprjp-Oi Scogoj olktjv. aAAa, yap rot- 
avrr\v oia reXovs yvcofxr/V e^aj, wore iv 

173] oXiyapxla f^ev fir] imdvpLeiv rd>v dXXorplojv, iv 
<$r) jjlok par la oe to, dvra rrpoOvpiOJS els i>(.ids 

18 'Hyoujitat oe, a> avSpes SiKaoral, ovk dv olkcliojs 
vpu&s pucrelv rovs iv rfj SXtyapxla firjoev rreTrov- 
Boras KaKov y i^dv dpylt,eodai rols els rd TrXrjdos 
itjrjjjLOLpTrjKOGLv, ovSe rovs fir) <f>vydvras ixOpovs 
vofil^etv, aAAa, rovs vfids iKJ3aXdvras, ovhe. rovs 
7rpo6vfiovfievovs rd eavrcbv atuaat, aAAa, rovs ra 
rcbv dXXajv dchrjprjfievovs, ovoe ol rrjs ocberepas 
avrtbv ocoriqplas eVe/ca efieivav iv rcb dcrrei, dAA' 
olrives irepovs drroXecrai fiovXofievoi fxereaxov 
rcbv Trpaypidrcov. el Se o'leode XPWCLL, ovs iKelvoi 
TrapeXiTTov ahiKodvres , vfxels airoXeoai, ovSels rcbv 
7to\ltu)v VTToXei(f>6iqGeTai} 

19 YiKOTreZv he XP 7 ) Kai ^ K rcbvhe, to dvSpes SiKaoraL 
rrdvres yap inloraoOe ore iv rfj 7T pore pa. St^/xo- 
k par la rcbv rd rrjs rroXeojs rrparrovrcov noXXol fiev 
ra orjjjLOGLa eKXerrrov, evioi 8' iril rols vfxerepois 
iSajpoSoKovv, ol Se avKocj>avrovvres rovs orvp,- 
fidxovs acf>loraoav. Kal el fiev ol rpiaKovra 

1 dpyii'eade Aldus : dpyifoiade mss. 
2 uTro\ei<pOr]<TeTou Dobree : aTro\ci<p6r}<T€Tai mss. 



of your past troubles, it is reasonable that those who 
have done no mischief should stand the higher in 
your opinion. And indeed, gentlemen of the jury, 
I consider that I have given the democracy the 
strongest pledge of my attachment. For if I did 
no mischief at that time, when ample licence for it 
was allowed, surely I shall now make every effort to 
be a good citizen in the full knowledge that, if I 
am guilty of wrong, I shall incur immediate punish- 
ment. But in fact I have continually held to this 
resolve, — under an oligarchy, not to covet the pro- 
perty of others, and under a democracy, to spend 
my own upon you with zeal. 

I consider, gentlemen, that you would not be 
justified in hating those who have suffered nothing 
under the oligarchy, when you can indulge your 
wrath against those who have done your people 
mischief ; or in regarding as enemies those who did 
not go into exile instead of those who expelled you, 
or those who were anxious to save their own property 
instead of those who stripped others of theirs, or 
those who stayed in the city with a view to their own 
safety instead of those who took part in the govern- 
ment for the purpose of destroying others. If you 
think it your duty to destroy the men whom they 
passed over, not one of the citizens will be left to us. 

You ought also to take account of this further 
point, gentlemen of the jury : you are all aware 
that under the previous democracy there were many 
in the ministry who robbed the Treasury ; while 
some accepted bribes at your expense, and others by 
malicious informations estranged your allies. Now, 

° For this kind of mischief-making c/. Isocrates, On the 
Exchange of Property, 318. 



rovrovs fiovovs €TLf.LcopovvTO , dvSpas dyadovs kglI 
v/JLets av avrovs rjyelode' vvv Se, ore vrrep rdv 


rj^LOW, r)yavai<reire , -qyovpievoL Seivov etvac rd 
rcov oXlyatv dhiKiqpiara rrdcrr) rfj rroXei KOivd 
20 ytyveoOai. ov roivvv d^iov xprjadai rovrots, ols 
CKeivovs icopdre e^ajxaprdvovras , ouSe a rrdox oi ' T€ S 
d'Si/ca ivofJLi^ere Trdoyeiv, drav erepovs TroirJTe, 
Si/ccua -qyetodat, dXXd rr)v avrrjv KareXOovres 
rrepl tj/jlcov yvcvfirjv e^ere, r\vrxep (f)evyovres rrepl 
Vfitov avrcvv ei^ere* ear rovrojv yap koX opLovotav 

TTXeLoT7]V 7TOL7](J€T€, KO.I Tj TToXiS €<7T<U fieyiOrTJ, 

2i 'FivdvjJL-qOrjvaL Se XP 7 !' <*) dvdpes olkolotcll, koll 

TQJV €7rl TOJV TpLaKOVTOL yeyevrjfLeVOJV , LVOL rd TU)V 

ixOpd)V dpLapT-qfJiara ap^eivov vfi&s rroirjor] rrepl 
rd)v vpLerepojv avrcbv fiovXevoaodai. ore /xev yap 
aKovocre rovs ev doret n)v avr-qv yvojfi-qv ex €LV > 
puKpds iXrrloas ei^ere T7 1^ Kadooov, rjyovfxevot 
rr)v r)p,erepav opLovotav \xeyiarov KaKov elvai rfj 
22 vfierepa </>vyfj' erreior] Se errvvOdvecrde 1 rovs fiev 
rpLOX^Xlovs oraoid^ovras, rovs Se dXXovs rroXlras 
eV rod doreojs 2 eKKeK-qpvypLevovs, rovs Se rpid- 
Kovra pLTj rr)v avrrjv yvcop,rjv exovras, rrXeiovs S' 
ovras rovs vrrep VfidJv Sehcoras r) rovs 
TToXepiovvras, rdr rjSrj Kal Karievai rrpooeSoKare 
Kal rtapd rcov exdpcov Xrjxjfeodai Slktjv. ravra 
yap rols Oeols rjvx^o'Oe, drrep eKeivovs etopdre 
rroiovvras, r)yovp,evoL Std rrjv rcov rpiaxovra 

1 eirvvO&veaOe Markland : irvvddvoiaOe MS3. 
1 i< tov acrreios pone <TTa.ffLa<;ovTas hue transp. Fuhr. 



if the Thirty had kept their punishments for these 
cases, you would have held them yourselves to be 
honest men : but when in fact you found them 
deliberately oppressing the people because of the 
offences of those persons, you were indignant ; for 
you considered it monstrous that the crimes of the few 
should be spread over the whole city. It is not right, 
therefore, that you should resort to those offences 
which you saw them committing, or regard those 
deeds, which you deemed unjust when done to you, as 
just when you do them to others. No : let yourfeeling 
towards us after your restoration be the same as you 
had towards yourselves in your exile ; for by this means 
you will produce the utmost harmony amongst us, the 
power of the city will be at its highest, and you will 
vote for what will be most distressing to your enemies. 
And you should reflect, gentlemen, on the events 
that have occurred under the Thirty, in order that 
the errors of your enemies may lead you to take 
better counsel on your own affairs. For as often as 
you heard that the people in the city were all of one 
mind, you had but slight hopes of your return, 
judging that our concord was the worst of signs for 
your exile : but as soon as you had tidings that the 
Three Thousand were divided by faction, that the 
rest of the citizens had been publicly banned from 
the city, that the Thirty were not all of one mind, 
and that those who had fears for you outnumbered 
those who were making war on you, you immediately 
began to look forward to your return and the punish- 
ment of your enemies. For it was your prayer to 
the gods that those men should do the things that 
you saw them doing, since you believed that the 
villainy of the Thirty would be far more useful for 

T 549 


Trovrjptav rroXv /jl&XXov GOjdi)aeadai rj Std t^v tlov 

23 (faevyovTCDV Svvapuv /carte'vat. XPV Toivvv, a> avopes 
Si/caorat, toIs TTporepov yeyevrjfJLevois Trapaoely- 
uaax xpcoyLevovs ftovXeveodaL Trepl rtov [xeXXovTOjv 
eaeadai, /cat tovtovs rjyeloOai S^/xort/ccorarous', 
drives Sfiovoelv vpuas /?ouAo/xevot toZs opKois /cat 
Tat? GVvdiqKais e/x/xeVoucrt, vofxl^ovTes /cat rrjs 
TroXeoJS ravr-qv tKavajTanqv elvai oojTTjpiav /cat 
tujv lyQpG)v [ieylaTr\v rt/xcoptav ovhev yap dv elrj 
olvtoZs ■^aXeTTCj-epov tovtojv, rj TTwOdveoOai puev 
r)jjL&s fjL€Tex ovTa s T ^ )V Trpayixdrcov, aloddveoOai 
he ovtws hiaK.eip.evovs tovs iroXiras ojoirep fxrjhevos 

24 eyKXrjjxaros Trpos dAA'rjAoL'S' yeyevqpievov . XPV ^ 
elhevai, c5 dvhpes St/caarat, otl ol (frevyovres tlov 
dXXojv ttoXltcov cos TrXeioTovs /cat hiafjefiXrjoOai 
/cat rjTifjicbcrdai fiovXovrai, eXrri^ovTes tovs vcj> 
Vfxcov aSt/cof/xeVou? iavTols eoeodac c/fu/xa^ous", 
tovs he ovKO(j>dvras euSo/ct/xetV he^aivT* dv Trap* 
vpuv /cat fieya hvvacrdai iv tjj TroXei' ttjv yap 
tovtojv TTOvqpiav eavTtov -qyovvTai oajT-qpiav. 

25 "A£lov he pivqodrjvaL </cat> x tlov fieTa tovs rerpa- 
koolovs TrpayjiaTOJV ev yap etoeoOe otl, a fxev 
ovtol crvpiftovXevovoiv, ovherrajTTOTe vplv eXvoi- 
TeXrjcrev, a 8' eyd> rrapaiva), dp,(f)OTepais det rat? 

[174] TfoXtTeiais av/jLffxEpeL. loTe yap 'EmyeV^ /cat 
A^fiocbavrj /cat KAetafleVq tSta p.ev Kapnojoa- 
fxevovs rds ttjs iroXecos trvfxcfiopds, hrj/jLoola he 

26 SvTas pceyiOTLov koklov alriovs. Iv'ilov p,ev yap 
eireioav vjxas dxpLTOJV ddvaTov KaTatprjc^LoaoOaL, 
ttoXXlov he dhtKLos Sr^xeucrat tos ovoias, tovs 8' 
e^eXdoai /cat drt/xtDaat tlov ttoXitlov toiovtol yap 

1 Kal add. Baiter. 


your salvation than the resources of the exiles for 
your return. You ought therefore, gentlemen, to 
take the events of the past as your example in re- 
solving on the future course of things, and to account 
those men the best democrats who, desiring your 
concord, abide by their oaths and covenants, because 
they hold this to be the most effective safeguard of 
the city and the severest punishment of her enemies. 
For nothing could be more vexatious to them than 
to learn that we are taking part in the government 
and to perceive at the same time that the citizens 
are behaving as though they had never had any fault 
to find with each other. And you should know, 
gentlemen, that the exiles desire to see the greatest 
possible number of their fellow-citizens not merely 
slandered but disfranchised ; since they hope that 
the men who are wronged by you will be their 
allies, and they would gladly have the venal in- 
formers standing high in your esteem and influential 
in the city. For they judge the villainy of those 
creatures to be their own safeguard. 

You will do well to remember also the events that 
followed the rule of the Four Hundred a ; for you 
will fully realize that the measures advised by these 
men have never brought you any advantage, while 
those that I recommend have always profited both 
parties in the State. You know that Epigenes, 
Demophanes and Cleisthenes, while reaping their 
personal gains from the city's misfortunes, have 
inflicted the heaviest losses on the public weal. For 
they prevailed on you to condemn several men to 
death without trial, to confiscate unjustly the property 
of many more, and to banish and disfranchise other 

• June-September, 411 b.c. 



r)oav ware rovs fiev rjpLaprrjKoras apyvpiov Xap,- 
fiavovres acfiilvai, rovs 8e [i-qSev rjoiK-qKoras els 
Vfias eloiovres olttoXAvvoll. koI ov Trporepov eirav- 
aavro, eojs rrjv [lev ttoXlv els ordoeis koli rds 
ixeyioras ovpL<f)opas Karioriqoav, avrol 8' €K 

27 7Tevr)TQjv ttXovolol lyivovro. vfj,eis Se ovrws St- 
€Te6r)T€ ware rovs fiev <f>evyovras Kareoe£ao9e, 

TOVS 8' OLTLfMOVS iTTLTLfJLOVS €7T0ll]OaT€ t TOt? 8* aAAotS* 

7]hiov av rovs ev rfj SrjfjLOKparta avKO(f>avrovvras 
irijJLWprjcraode rj rovs ap£avras ev rfj oAtyapx 1 '?* 
/cat eLKorws, w avSoes" oiKaorai' rraoi yap 77877 
<f)avepov eoriv ore 8ta tovs /xei^ ololkws 7ToXiT€VO- 
fievovs ev rfj dAtyapxta S^/xo/coarta yiyverai, Sta, 
he rovs ev rfj hrjpLOKparla ovKO<f>avrovvras oXiyapx^ 
his Kareorrj. wore ovk a^iov rovrois iroXXaKis 
Xp^oOai crvfiPovXoLs, ots ovhe aVaf eXvoireXrjore 

28 7Ti9ofjL€voLs. OKeijjaodai Se XPV on /cat rwv e/c 
X\eipaiws ol [xeylorrjv ho£av exovres /cat fidXiora 
K€klv$vv€vkot€s /cat irXelora vpc&s dyadd elp- 
yao\iivoi ttoXXolkls rjhrj rw vpuerepw TrArJ^et St- 
e/ceAcucravTO 1 rots' opKois koI rats crvvdrJKais ep,- 
fJLev€iv,r)yovpL€voL ravrrjv hrjpLOKparlas elvai cfrvXaKiqv 
rols fJLev yap i£ dorews virep rwv TrapeXiqXvQorwv 
dheiav 7roir]oeLv t rols 8* €/c Yleipaiws ovrws 
TrXelorov <av>* x? ovov 7 V V TtoXireiav Trapapieivai. 

29 ots vpLels 7toXv av hiKaiorepov TTiorevoire 7} rov- 
rois, ol <f>evyovres fxev hi erepovs eowdiqoav, Kar- 

1 6te/ceXc vcavTO Taylor : dieXfoavro mss. 
1 tv add. Gebauer. 


citizens ; since they were capable of taking money for 
the release of offenders, and of appearing before you 
to effect the ruin of the innocent. They did not 
stop until they had involved the city in seditions and 
the gravest disasters, while raising themselves from 
poverty to wealth. But your temper moved you to 
welcome back the exiles, to reinstate the disfran- 
chised in their rights, and to bind yourselves by oaths 
to concord with the rest. At the end of it all, you 
would have been more pleased to punish those who 
traded in slander under the democracy than those 
who held office under the oligarchy. And with good 
reason, gentlemen : for it is manifest now to all 
that the unjust acts of rulers in an oligarchy produce 
democracy, whereas the trade of slanderers in the 
democracy has twice led to the establishment of 
oligarchy. It is not right, therefore, to hearken 
many times to the counsels of men whose advice 
has not even once resulted in your profit. 

And you should consider that, in the Peiraeus party, 
those who are in highest repute, who have run the 
greatest risk, and who have rendered you the most 
services, had often before exhorted your people to 
abide by their oaths and covenants, since they held 
this to be the bulwark of democracy: for they felt that 
it would give the party of the town immunity from 
the consequences of the past, a and the party of the 
Peiraeus an assurance of the most lasting permanence 
of the constitution. For these are the men whom 
you would be far more justified in trusting than those 
who, as exiles, owed their deliverance to others and, 
now that they have returned, are taking up the 

a Those who had remained in Athens under the Thirty 
were for long held in suspicion by the restored democrats. 



e\66vT€s Se (jVKO<j)avTeZv eVt^etpouotv. rjyoOfiat 
Se', d) dvSpes St/caorat, rovg uev ttjv olvttjv yvtbpLrjv 
exovrag e'uot tcov iv doTet fxeLvdvrcov <j>avepovs 
yeyevrjoOac /cat iv dAtyap^ta /cat iv Sry/xo/cpaTta, 


fjid^eLv, 6 rt dv irroirjoav, et Tt? glvtovs etacre rcov 
rpiaKovra yeveodai, ot vvv S^uo/cparta? ovorjs 
ravrd e/cetVots" TTpaTTovoi, /cat Ta^eaj? fiev 6JC 
7T€vt]T(jl>v ttXovgioi yeyeV^vrat, TToAAa? Se dp^d? 
dpxovres ouSe/xta? evdvvrjv StSoac7ti>, aAA' dvrl 
fiev opiovolas V7TO\piav 77/50? dXXrjXovs 7T£Troi~qKa(Jiv , 
dvrl Se elprjvrjs rroXepiov /car^yye'A/caot, Std tovtovs 

31 Se 6.TTKJTOI rols "EAA^at yeyevqfxeda. /cat ro- 


/cat ovhev Siacj)€povT€? tcov rpiaKovra ttXtjv otl 
e/cetvot jxkv dAtyap^tas' ovcrrjg irredvpiovv Svnep 
ovtol, ovtol Se /cat hrjpLOKparias tcov olvtcov 

U)V7T€p €K€LVOL t OpLOJ? 1 OtCH'Tat XprjVOLl OVTCOS paStOJS" 

dXXcov dhiKovvToov, aptarot Se dvSpes olvtol ye- 

32 yevrjpLevoi (/cat tovtcov p,ev ovk d£iov davpLa^ew, 
vpLcov Se', on oleode pLev SrjpLOKpaTtav etvat, yi- 
yverai Se o rt av ovtol ^ovXcovraL, /cat Slktjv St- 
Sdacrtv ou^; ot to vpL€T€pov ttXtjOos dhiKovvTes, dXX 
ol Ta o(f)6T€pa clvtcov ut) StSoVres 1 ). /cat Se^atvr' 
av pLLKpdv etvat tt)v 770/W aaAAov 77 St aAAous" 

33 pbeydXrjv /cat iXevOepav, -qyovpLtvoi vvv p,ei> Std 
rous" e'/c rietpatoj? /avSin'ou? aurot? i^elvai ttol€lv 
o rt dr fiovXtovTai , idv S' voTepov vjjllv St' erepa/v 

1 o^-co? Reiske: ofxolws mss. 


slanderer's trade. In my opinion, gentlemen of the 
jury, those among our people remaining in the city 
who shared my views have clearly proved, both 
under oligarchy and under democracy, what manner 
of citizens they are. But the men who give us good 
cause to wonder what they would have done if they 
had been allowed to join the Thirty are the men who 
now, in a democracy, imitate those rulers ; who have 
made a rapid advance from poverty to wealth, and 
who hold a number of offices without rendering an 
account of any ; who instead of concord have created 
mutual suspicion, and who have declared war instead 
of peace ; and who have caused us to be distrusted 
by the Greeks. Authors of all these troubles and of 
many more besides, and differing no whit from the 
Thirty, — save that the latter pursued the same ends 
as theirs during an oligarchy, while these men follow 
their example in a democracy, — they yet make it 
their business to maltreat in this light fashion any 
person they may wish, as though everyone else were 
guilty, and they had proved themselves men of the 
highest virtue. (Nay, it is not so much they who give 
cause for wonder as you, who suppose that there 
is a democracy, whereas things are done just as 
they please, and punishment falls, not on those who 
have injured your people, but on those who refuse to 
yield their own possessions.) And they would sooner 
have the city diminished than raised to greatness 
and freedom by others : they consider that their 
perils in the Peiraeus give them licence now to 
do just as they please, while, if later on you obtain 
deliverance through others, they themselves will be 



ocorrjpia yevqrau, avroi fxev KaraXvcreadat, 1 e/<rei- 
vovs Se fiel^ov Swrfaeadac ware to avro rrdvres 
efjLTToSwv elaiv, lav n Si' dXXa)v dyadov vplv 

34 <f>aivr]rai. rovro [xev ovv ov x^Xerrov ra> fiovXofievco 
Karavorjaai- avroi re yap ovk iTndvfJLOvai Xav- 
ddveuv, aXX alaxvvovrai /jltj SoKovvres elvai 
rrovqpoi, v/jLels re ra fiev avroi Spare ra S' erepajv 
rroXXcov aKovere. rjpLets oe, t5 dvopes oiKaorai, 
htKaiov fjiev rjyovfJLed* elvai rrpos rrdvras vpids rovs 
rroXlras rals avvdi^Kais Kal rols opKois Ififxevetv, 

35 o/jlojs $e, orav ptev 'ihtofiev rovs Ttov KaKcov alriovs 
[175] olkyjv otSovras, rcov rore rrepl vpt&s yeyevqfievajv 

fjL€fjbvr)iJL€Voi avyyvw/jLrjv exoptev, orav ok <f>avepol 
yevijaOe rovs fir/Sev alriovs i£ loov rols ololkovgi 
rifiajpovfjievoi, rfj avrfj tptfdxo rrdvras rjpas els 
V7T0<i/jiav Karaor^aere > 2 .... 

1 avroi jxkv Ka.Ta\)j<rea6ai Herwerden : avrous jikv iwiXvcrea-dait 
toijtovs fi£i> iwiXvaaadcu mss. 

* -\plav KaTaaT7]<reT€ supplevit Francken. 



swept away, and those others will be advanced in 
power. So they combine to obstruct any efforts 
that others may make for your benefit. Now, as for 
this purpose of theirs, it is not hard, for anyone who 
wishes, to detect it : for they are not anxious to hide 
themselves, but are rather ashamed not to be reputed 
villains ; while you partly see the mischief for your- 
selves, and partly hear it from many other persons. 
As for us, gentlemen, we consider that you are bound 
by your duty towards all the citizens to abide by your 
covenants and your oaths : nevertheless, when we 
see justice done upon the authors of your troubles, 
we remember your former experiences, and condone 
you ; but when you show yourselves openly chastising 
the innocent along with the guilty, by the same vote 
you will be involving us all in suspicion. b . . . 

a The text is very uncertain here. 

6 The speaker seems to be accusing the democratic leaders 
of persecuting citizens who had shown oligarchic sympathies 
and who ought now to be protected by the oaths of concord 
that had been sworn by the two parties. 

T2 557 



The first part of this speech, now lost, a contained the 
particular charges and testimonies made against 
Evandros, who is undergoing a scrutiny of his life 
and character in order to qualify for the archonship 
in the place of Leodamas, who has been rejected on 
a scrutiny by the Council. The accusation, as we 
now possess it, consists mainly of answers to state- 
ments which the speaker expects Evandros to make 
in his defence. The case is heard before the Council 
on the last day but one of the second year of the 
99th Olympiad (about the middle of 382 B.C.) ; and 
as the last day was devoted to a festival in honour of 
Zeus the Saviour, at which the king-archon and other 
archons officiated, there was no time left for an appeal, 
and one of the chief magistrates would be missing at 
the ceremony if Evandros were rejected. It would 
appear that, as an archon of his name is recorded to 
have held office in the following year, he succeeded in 
passing the scrutiny ; also that the speaker is a 
friend of Leodamas, and is actuated by bitter resent- 
ment against Evandros 's supporter, Thrasybulus of 

See above, p. 535. 
55 s 


Colly tus,° who had obtained the rejection of Leo- 
damas. This animosity is masked under a general 
appeal to the popular feeling against men of olig- 
archical sympathies who shared in the oppressions 
of the Thirty ; though it breaks out more openly at 
the end in definite charges against Thrasybulus (23). 
This very outburst tends to show that Lysias, 
although he gladly undertook to compose this accusa- 
tion of one of the oligarchs whom he detested, felt that 
the case against Evandros was not a strong one, or at 
least not definite enough to induce the Council to 
leave one of the archonships vacant for the cere- 
monies of the next day. He cannot even help 
admitting that under the democracy Evandros has 
shown himself in every way a model citizen (3-5) : 
his protestations that this should not count in his 
favour, and that scrutinies were invented principally 
for the exclusion of oligarchs from office (9), do not 
carry conviction to us, and must have carried still 
less to the Council, who were doubtless weary of the 
constant anti-oligarchical bickering which had marked 
the interval of twenty years since the amnesty. Nor 
can those of them who had been moderate oligarchs 
have been much impressed by the flattering argu- 
ment into which the speaker is hastily led, — that 
men of their persuasion have given better proof of 
their loyalty than even the democrats who fought 
their way back at Phyle and the Peiraeus (17). 

° A district in the city of Athens. This is not the Thrasy- 
bulus (of Steiria) who was prominent as leader of the 
Democrats, 411-388 b.c. 



1 . . . . Ol38' 7]y0VjX€V0S OLKpififj VVV TT)V hoKlfAdOlCLV 

avrovs Sid rov ypovov 7roir)oea9aL, errel ovvoioOa 
rroXXd /cat Setvd els avrovs e^fjLaprrjKws ', &v 
eTnXeXrjuOai Kal ouS' dvapLvrjadrjoeadai, eviovs 
olvtcov vo/xt£et?. o Stj eycoye Kal dyavaKrw, el 

TOLVTT} TTJ i\7TLOL €1? VflO-S 7]K€l 7TKJT€.V(J0V , (X)(T7T€p 

aXXa>v \iev rivcxiv b'vrtov rtov r)oiKrni£va)v , erepojv 
he. rGiv ravra Stai/o^tou/xeVcov, dAA' ovk dp,(f)6repa 
rcov avTwv Kal rrerrovOorojv Kal d/couc/oueVa)i>. 

2 atrtot he rovrajv vfiets eore' ov yap evdv pelade 

OTL OVTOL pieV t Ore Tj 7ToXiS V7TO [toV] 1 Aa/CeSat- 

fjLovLo>v r\pyero y ovoe rrjs avrrjs hovXeias vpuv 
fxerahovvai rj£ia>crav, dXXd Kal ttjs rr6Xea>s ef- 
nqXaoav' vpuels S' eXevOepav avrrjv rroLTjoavres ov 
fjiovov rrjs eXevdeplas avrols dXXd Kal rod 8t/cd£etv 
Kai rod e/c/cA^crtd^etv rrepl raJv kolvcov fierehore, 
wore euKorcog vjjlcov ravrrjv rrjv eviqdeiav /cara- 

3 yiyvtooKovoiv. cov els ovros d\v ovk dyarra el ns 
avrov ea rovrojv [iereye.iv> dAAd /cat rrplv eKeivcov 
hovvai Siktjv rrdXiv apyeiv d£ioZ. Kal wvl avrov 
aKovaj vrrep fiev 2 ra>v avrov Karrjyopovjjieva)v 3 

1 tQ)v del. Pertz. 

* 6.K0VU) vnip fxh Rauchenstein : &Kovofiev inrkp mss. 
8 twc avrov KaT7jyopovfji.€Pui> Baiter: wv avrbv Karyyopov/xev 
wv, wu avrov KCLTrryopov/xep ov MSS. 



. . . nor expecting that now, after this lapse of 
time, they will be strict in their scrutiny, since you 
are conscious of having committed many grievous 
offences against them ; but these, you believe, some 
of them have forgotten, and vail not even recall them 
to mind. Well, for my part I am quite indignant that 
he should come before you in the confidence of this 
hope, as though the persons whom he had wronged 
were different and distinct from those who are to give 
their verdict on these matters, and as though it were 
not the same people that have been his victims and 
are also to be his hearers. It is yourselves who are 
responsible for this : for you do not bear in mind that 
these men, when the city was subject to the Lacedae- 
monians, did not vouchsafe you a share even in the 
common slavery, but actually expelled you from the 
city ; while you, after setting her free, made them 
partakers, not only in that freedom, but also in 
the judicature and in the public business of the 
Assembly. They have some reason, then, for thus 
convicting you of fatuity. This man is one of 
them, and he is not content to be allowed to 
share these rights, but claims as well, before pay- 
ing the penalty for those actions, to hold office 
once more. 

I am informed that to-day he will make but a 



8td fipaxiajv aTToAoyrjcrecrdcu, eiriavpovra ra npay- 


rjyoplav, Xe^eLv oe d)$ TroXXa els rqv koXlv dv~ 
r)Aa)KCL<7i /cat ^lXotljjlojs XeXrjTovpyrjKacri /cat vt/ca? 
77oAAa? koll KaAas iv S^/zo/cparta vevLKrjKaaL, /cat 


erepoL ivravda ToAucoaty, aAAa ra eavTov irpdrreLv 
I ol£lol. iyaj Se irpos tovtovs tovs Xoyovs ov 

XO.Xe.7TOV Ot/Xat aVT€L7T€LV TTpOS fl^V TOLS XflTOVpylaS, 

otl KpeLTTtov rjv 6 7TaTr)p ai)TOV fxr) XyTOvpyrjaas 

7Tl(JT€vdels VTTO TOV OrjfJLOV KaT€.XvO€ TTjV SrjflO- 

6 r) ra €K rcbv XyTOvpyLcov avTCp dVa^/xara* irpos 
Se rrjv r^uvyLorrp-a rr)v tovtov, otl ov vvv Set 
ai)Tov ei^eToXeLv el odxjypow Igtlv, ot* clvtov ovk 
e^eoTLv doeXyaiveLv , dAA' ei<elvov tov xP ovov 

GK07T€LV, €V <J) i£6v OTTOTepOJS iftovXeTO L^TJV clXcTO 

TrapavopLajs TroXLTevdijvaL. tov p,€v yap vvv p,rjStv 
i£afJLapTav€LV ol KOjXvaavTeg oltlol, tlov Be tot€ 
yevofxevwv 6 tovtov Tponos /cat ol tovtcq eVt- 


£ea#at d^Lol, TavTa xp-q vrroXaiifidveLV , fxr) eviqOeLS 

aVTCp €LVaL SoK7JT6. 

6 Kdv Se /cat eVt tolovSe Xoyov TpaTTQjVTaL, cu? d 
Xpdvos ovk iyxwpel dXXov dVo/cA^pajcrat, dXXd 
avayKYj, idv avTov diroSoKLfjLdcrrjTe, ddvTa ra 
iraTpLa lepd yiyveoOaL, TaS' ivQvfxijdrjTe, otl 
rrdXaL 6 XP° 1 '°S V or l TTapeXiqXvOev. r) yap avpLov 

" In dramatic or athletic contests. 
6 In the temples at Athens, Delphi, etc. 


brief reply to the charges brought against him, 
skimming over the facts and shuffling off the accusa- 
tion with his defence ; and he will tell how he and 
his family have spent a great amount on the State, 
have performed public services with ardent zeal, and 
have won many brilliant victories ° under the demo- 
cracy ; that he himself is an orderly person, and is 
not seen acting as others of our people venture to 
act, but prefers to mind his own business. But I find 
no difficulty in countering those statements. As re- 
gards the public services, I say that his father would 
have done better not to perform them than to spend 
so much of his substance : for it was on account of 
this that he won the confidence of the people and 
overthrew the democracy ; and so our memory of 
these deeds must be more abiding than of the offer- 
ings he has set up b in record of those services. As to 
his love of quiet, I say that we ought not to investi- 
gate his sobriety to-day, when there is no chance for 
him to be licentious : we should rather examine that 
period in which, being free to choose either way of 
life, he preferred to mark his citizenship by illegal 
acts. For the fact of his committing no offences now 
is due to those who have prevented him ; but what 
he did then was owing to the man's character and 
to those who vouchsafed him a free hand. So that 
if he claims to pass the scrutiny on this score, you 
should form this conception of the case, if you would 
not seem fatuous in his sight. 

And if they have recourse to the further argument 
that time does not allow of your electing another man, 
and that his failure to pass your scrutiny must inevit- 
ably leave the ancestral sacrifices unperformed, you 
should reflect that the time has already long gone 



rjp,epa /jLovrj Xolttt) rov evtavrov eariv, ev he ravrrj 
TO) Att to) GcoTrjpi Ovaia yiyverai, htKaurripiov 

7 Se rrapa rovg vop,ovg ahvvarov 1 rrXrjpcudrjvai. el 
he ravra rrdvO' ovros ware yeveodai hiaireTTpaK- 
rat, tL 7Tpoa$OKfj(jai <oeT> 2 hoKipLaoBevr avrov 
TTOiiqaeiv, el rrjv e^iovcrav apxty' rrerreiKev avrov 
evexa rrapavopLrjaai ; dp* av oXiya roiavra ev 
to) evtavTO) hiaTrpd^aaOai; eych p.ev yap ovk av 

8 of/xat. ecrrt 8' vplv ov rovro jjlovov GKenreov, 
dXXd /cat rrorepov evcrefiecrrepov rov fiaoiXea Kal 
rovs ovvdpxovras rd vrrep rod p,eXXovros ap^eiv 
lepa dvcrai, cos Kal rrporepov rjhrj yeyevryrai, r) Kal 
rovrov, ov ovhe KaBapdv elvai ras ^eipa? ol elhores 
pLefiaprvprjKaaL, Kal rrorepov vfiets chpocrare els 
rrjv o.px^] v aooKLfiacrrov Karaorf]ueiv , rj hoKi- 

[176] pdcravres rov d£iov rrjs &PXVS orecbavcoaeiv. 

9 ravra yap GKorreloBe' KaKelvo <§' > 3 evOvpLelcrOe, 
on 6 dels rov rrepl rcov SoAa/xacrttOv voptov oi>x 
rjKLora [ireplf rcov ev SXiyapx^a dp^dvrcov eW/ca 
edrjKev, rjyovpLevos hecvov elvai, el 8t' ovs r) hrjpLO- 
Kparia KareXvero } ovroi ev avrfj rfj rroXireia irdXiv 
ap^ovGL, Kal Kvpioi yevr]Govrai rcov vo/juov Kal 
rrjs TToXecoSy r)v rrporepov 7rapaXa^6vres 6 ovrcos 
alaxpcos Kal hetvcog iXcufiijcravro . coor ovk a^iov 
rr\s hoKLjJLaoias oXiycopcos £X etv > ov ^ [iiKpov 
r)yov[jLevovs to rrpaypta p,r) c^povri^eiv avrrjs, dXXd 
cpvXdrretv ojs ev rep eKaorov hiKalcos dpx €Ll ' V re 

1 aSuvarov ContiuS : dvuarbv, ov dvvarbv mss. 
1 del add. Aldus. 3 6' add. Cobet. 4 irepl del. Contius. 
6 wapaXarJuirts Mnrkland: irpo\a^bvT€<> mss. 

• Apparently the law forbade any court to sit on that 


by. For to-morrow is the last remaining day of the 
year, and on that day a sacrifice is offered to Zeus the 
Saviour, when it is impossible to complete a panel of 
jurymen in defiance of the laws. If all these diffi- 
culties are the contrivance of this man, what are we to 
expect, when once he has passed the scrutiny, of the 
man who will have persuaded the outgoing magis- 
trates to commit an illegality in his interest ? Will 
he contrive just a few things of this sort in the course 
of a year ? For my part, I think not. But you have 
to consider, not this question alone, but whether 
piety is better served by the sacrifices on behalf 
of the future magistrate being offered by the king- 
archon and his fellow-magistrates, — as has in fact 
been done in the past, — or by this man, whom those 
who know about him have testified to be not even 
without stained hands b ; and whether you have 
sworn to install a magistrate who has not passed the 
scrutiny or, after holding the scrutiny, to crown the 
man who is worthy of the office ? That is what you 
have to consider. Reflect also on the fact that the 
author of the law concerning scrutinies had chiefly in 
view the magistrates of the oligarchy ; for he thought 
it monstrous that the men responsible for the over- 
throw of the democracy should regain office under 
that very constitution, and get control over the laws 
and over the city of which they had formerly taken 
charge only to maim her with such shameful and 
terrible injuries. Hence it is not right to be careless 
of the scrutiny, or to make it of so slight account as 
to ignore it : no, you should keep guard over it ; for 
on the just title of each magistrate depends the 

b Probably referring to murders committed in compliance 
with the violent measures of the Thirty. 



7roAtTeta /cat to aXXo nArjOos to vp^eTepov crco^CTai 

10 <Kal> 1 el (lev S17 fiovAevcrojv vvvl eSo/ct/zd£eTO /cat 


ev Tat? uaviuiv eveyeypovuTO, /cat aWu KaTTjyopov 
dv avTOV d'nehoKipidl.eTe' vvv Se, ore /Lt^ /jlovov 
Itt7T€VK(1>? p,rjhe fteftovAevKcus, dAAct /cat els to 
7r\f}9os i^rjiJiapT-qKOJS c^atWrat, ou/c av 6.tottov 
7T0Lijoat,T€, el /X17 T^v avTr)v yvojpuqv eypvTes rrepl 

11 auTOU <f>av€Lode 3 ; /cat p,ev S17 flovAeveiv ye So/ct- 
[.laodels rrevTaKooiOGTOs cvv jLterd tujv dXXojv evtav- 
tov dv fjiovov efiovAevaev, wgt€ /cat el Tt ev tovtoj 
to) xpovco e^ap.apTaveiv efiovAeTO, pahicos av 
7j7rd tojv d'AAojv e/cojAueTO. TavTiqs he ttjs dpx^S 
d^iovpLevos avTOs kolO* glvtov dp^ei* /cat /xera 7-779 
eV 'Apetaj irdya) fiovArjs tov dVavra ^povov tcov 

12 p,eyioTQjv Kvpios yevqoeTai* '• cootc u/xtv KadrjKecv 
Trepl TavTTjs T7Js dp)(i]s dhcpifieoTepav ttjv So/ct- 
/zaatav 7} 7rept tcov d'AAojv dp\dav TTOieloOat. el Se 
pur/, 77-60? oteaOe to dAAo ttAtjOos tujv ttoAit&v Sta- 
Keioeodaiy otolv aioQojvTai, ov 7rpocrrJKe St/cay tojv 
rjpLapTr)pLeva>v StooVat, toutov j3^>' u/zgov TOiavT-qs 
dpx^js rjiuvpLevov; /cat cj)6vou St/cas" ot/cd£ovra, 
6V e'Set aurdv U7rd tt]? eV 'Apetto irdycp /3ovAfj$ 
KpiveoQai; /cat 77-009 rourots" t'Sojcrtv eoTecfxxvoj- 
lievov, /cat eVt/cA^pojv /cat dpcjyavoJv Kvpiov yeyevt]- 
puevov, cov ivtoLS avTOs ovtos 7-779 dpcjxivias atVtos" 

13 yeyevrjTai; dp* oi)/c 6 oieode clvtovs ^aAe7ra)? 8ta- 
KeloeoOai /cat Tj/xa? aurajv oItlovs rjyTJoreaOaL, otclv 

1 /cat add. P. M tiller. 2 rovfo/xa Reiske : a/3/*a mss. 

3 cpavelade Taylor : (pavoiade mss. 

4 d£ioi//xej'os . . . ap£ei Thalheim : a£ioi p.6vos . . . ti-pxt" 


5 yevrjaeTdi Thallieim : re yevtadai, ytviadai mss. 



safety of the government and of your whole people. 
Suppose that he were now under scrutiny for ad- 
mission to the Council, and he had his name regis- 
tered on the tablets as having served in the cavalry 
under the Thirty : even without an accuser you 
would reject him. And now, when he is found, not 
merely to have served in the cavalry and on the 
Council, but to have also committed offences against 
the people, will it not be strange behaviour on your 
part not to show that you have the same feelings to- 
wards him ? Besides, had he qualified for the Coun- 
cil, he would have held his seat as one in a body of 
five hundred, for a year only ; so that, if in that 
period he had wished to commit an offence, he would 
have been easily prevented by the others. But, if he 
is approved for this office, he will hold it all by him- 
self, and as a member of the Council of the Areopagus 
he will obtain control over the most important 
matters for an unlimited time." It therefore behoves 
you to be stricter in your scrutiny for this office than 
for any other one. Else, what do you suppose will be 
the attitude of the great body of the citizens, when 
they become aware that the man who ought to have 
been punished for his offences has been approved by 
you for this high post ; when they find a man judging 
murder cases who should have been tried himself by 
the Council of the Areopagus ; and when, moreover, 
they see him crowned and established in control of 
heiresses and orphans, whose bereavement, in some 
cases, he has himself brought about ? Do you not 
think they will show a resentful temper, and will hold 

a The gravest criminal charges, and cases of sacrilege, 
were brought before the ancient court of the Areopagus. 

6 ovk Stephanus : olv mss. 



yivcovrai eV e/cetVot? -rot? xpoVoi?, ev ols avTwv ttoA- 
Xol els to SeopojTTJpiov airrjyovTO /cat d/cptrot vtto 


avTwv rjvo.yKaCovTO ; KaKelvo Trpos ev6vp,rj6a)OLV, 
ort 6 avros ovtos dvrjp [Spaav^ovXog] 1 a'lTios 
yeyevryrai AecuSa/xavra re}vaL /cat 
tovtov SoKLjjLaaQrjvai, rod p,ev KaTijyopos yevo- 
pevos, VTrep rovrov he aTToXoyrjaauB 'at rrapa- 
OKevaadpLevos, os ttojs" np6s ttjv ttoXlv 8td/cetrat 3 

14 /cat 7Toaa)v atTto? avTjj /ca/ctw yeyevrjTai ; tj 
TTidopievoi nebs o\v oleoOe oiapXrjOrjvai ; tot€ pcev 
yap lipids ojovto opyioOevTas AeajSaptavTa anoSoKt- 
/xatrat- edv Se tovtov 4, So/ct/xda^re, ev etaovrat ort 
ov St/cata yvcvpLT) irepl avTOV Kexp"qo9e. eort 8e 
tovtois jiev irpos vp&s dycov, vplv 8e irpos dmaaav 

TTjV TToXlV, Tj GK07T€L VVvl TLVCL VpLels yVO)f.LT]V 7T€pl 

15 avTrjs €^€T€. /cat [xrjSels vpLcov rjyeloda) p,e AecuSd- 
[jLavTL xapL^opievov KaTTjyopetv TLvdvSpov, ort <J)lXos 
cov Tvyxdvei, aAA' vrrep vjjlcov /cat ttjs iroXeois Trpo- 
voovfxevov. pdotov 8' i£ avTOV tov rrpdypiaTOs /xa- 
Belv. Aetohdjxai'TL yap o~vp,cf)epei tovtov So/ct/za- 
oBrjvai, ovto) yap u/xets- /xaAtara oLafiXrjBrfcreo-Be , 
/cat 8o^€T€ dvTL SrjjjLOTiKaJv avOpdjTTajv oXtyapxiKovs 
els tcls dpx&s KaBiGTavai' vplv Se ToVSe drro- 
So/ct/xacrat, Severe yap KaKelvov 8t/cata>? [ay] 5 a77o- 
So/ct/idcrar ecu; Se /LtTySe roVSe, ouS' eKelvov St/cata>?. 

16 Katrotye aurcV d/coua> Ae'^etv a>9 ou 77ept avTov 
fiovov rj So/ct/xaata eoTiv, dAAd 77ept ndvTcov twv iv 

1 9paa-i'/3oi'Xos del. Kayser. 

2 5j 7ru.s Ilude: 6'7rws, 5s ottws mss. 

3 StdKetrat Scalig'er: oiaKelaOai, BUkslto MSS. 

4 roOro^ Markland: avrbu mss. 



you responsible for it all, when they put themselves 
back in those former times, in which many of them 
were haled to prison and destroyed without trial by 
these men, or compelled to flee their own country ; 
and when they further reflect that this same person, 
who has brought about the rejection of Leodamas, 
has caused this man to qualify, by acting as accuser 
of the former and undertaking the defence of the 
latter ? And what is the attitude of Evandros to- 
wards the city ? How many troubles has he brought 
upon her ? Again, if you heed his words, what ill 
odour must you expect to incur ! For, in the former 
case, they supposed it was anger that caused you to 
reject Leodamas ; but if you approve this man, they 
will be convinced that you have given an unjust 
sentence on the other. These men are on their trial 
before you ; but you are on yours before the whole 
city, which is watching even now to see what view you 
will take of her. Let none of you imagine that I am 
accusing Evandros to oblige Leodamas, because he 
is a friend of mine : no, it is only from my solicitude 
for you and for the city. This you may easily appre- 
hend from the actual circumstances. For it is to Leo- 
damas 's interest that this man should be approved, 
since that would most surely discredit you, and give 
you the repute of placing oligarchs instead of demo- 
crats in the magistracy ; but it is to your interest to 
reject this man, for you will get the credit of having 
acted justly also in rejecting the other. But if you 
do not reject this man, you will appear to have been 
unjust in the other case also. 

And yet, I am told, he will assert that this scrutinj'- 
affects, not merely him, but all those who remained 

6 &v del. Dobree. 



aoreL fxeLvdvrcov, /cat rovs opKovs /cat ras ovv- 
drjKas vpids VTropLvqcreLv, to? €K rovrcov TrpooXrj- 
ipo/xevov avrov 8o/ct/iaaTa? rovs ev aoreL fielvavras. 
eyco 8' vrrep rod ttXtjOovs fipaxea rrpos avrov 
elrreiv povXofjLai, on 6 hrjp.os ov rrjv avrr)v yvcopLrjv 
e\eL nep\ ndvrcov rcov ev aoreL [xeivdvrcov y dX\d 
77] Trepl fiev rcov roiavra e^apiapravovrcov olav eyco 

17 (f>r)/ju SeXv, Trepl he rcov dXXcov rr)v evavriav. reK- 
p.T]piov Se* ov ydp eXarrov rovrovs 1 r) ttoXls reri- 
fir]Ke rcov enl QvXrjv eXOovrcov /cat rov Iletpata 
KaraXafiovrcov . eiKorcos' rovs fiev ydp loaoLV 
ottolol rives ev S^uo/cparta fiovr) yeyevt]vrai, 
ottolol 8' dv rLves ev oAtyap^ta yevoivro, ovttco rxei- 
pav elXrjcpaai' rrapd oe rovrcov eKarepas rrjs 
TToXireias LKavr)v fidoavov exovoLV, coot' eLKorcos 

18 TTioreveiv. /cat r)yovvra(, ye 8tct p,ev rovs roiov- 
rovs ovXXrji^devras rore drrodaveLV, Sta be rovs 
dXXovs [rovs ovXXrjtpdevras']* eK(f>vyelv, eirel el ye 
n)v avrrjv yvcofxrjv arravres eox ov > ovr dv <f>vyr) 
ovr dv Kadohos ovr dXXo ovhev dv rcov yeyevrj- 

19 fievcov rfj moXei owe fir). dXXd /cat o 3 dXoyov 8o/cet 
elvai rrapd rLOLV, ottcos rrore ttoXXol ovres vtt* 
oXiycov rcov ev Iletpatet rjmjdrjcrav, ovoafiodev 
dXXoOev r) e/c rfjs rovrcov irpovolas yeyevqrar 
ovroi yap elXovro p,era rcov Kar eXOovrcov ttoXl- 
reveodai fi&XAov r) jiera rcov rpiaKovra Aa/ce8at- 

20 fioviois SovXevetv. roiydproi dvrl rovrcov avrovs 

1 ZXaTTOv tovtovs Lipsius : Acittous TOVTUV MSS. 
2 tovs <rv\\7)(t>dei>Tas del. Halbertsma. 
3 5 Stcphanus : to mss. 

a i.e., not to cherish enmity against the party of the town. 
6 i.e. % with severity. 



in the city, and he will remind you of your oaths and 
covenants a in the hope that he will thus contrive to 
enlist the men who remained in the city to aid him 
in . this scrutiny. But I desire, on behalf of the 
people, to give him this brief reply : the people do 
not take the same view of all those who remained 
in the city, but regard those who commit offences 
like his with the feelings that I say they ought, 6 while 
towards the rest they feel the opposite. The proof 
of this is that the latter have received no less honour 
from the city than those who marched on Phyle and 
got possession of the Peiraeus. And with good reason : 
for the character of these last is known to them only 
as shown under democracy, and they have not yet 
made trial of what it would be under oligarchy ; 
whereas they have had sufficient test of those others 
under each kind of government to give grounds for 
confidence. They consider that the arrests and exe- 
cutions were due to the defendant and his like, 
whereas the escapes were owing to the other citizens : 
in fact, if all had been of the same mind as they, 
neither exile nor restoration nor any other of the 
events that have occurred would have befallen the 
city. As to the further point which some find un- 
accountable, — how it was that their large numbers 
were worsted by the little band of the Peiraeus, — 
this can only be attributed to the prudent policy of 
those citizens ; for they chose to concert a govern- 
ment with the restored exiles rather than an enslave- 
ment to the Lacedaemonians with the Thirty. It 
is therefore they, not these persons, whom the 

The more liberal-minded of the party of the town have 
been tried by the test of oligarchy as well as that of 
democracv, and deserve the full benefit of the reconciliation. 


o hrjfLOS rat? pieyioTais Tt/xat? Terlfi-qKev, Irnrap- 

yjElV KOLl OTpaT1]y€lV KOLL TTp€afj€V€LV V7T6p OLVTtOV 

alpovfievoL' /cat ovSerrore aurot? fierefieArjoev. /cat 
Std /xeV ye rous" ttoXXol 1 etjapLaprovras ra? 8o/ct- 
pLaoias elvai eip-qcfiiaavTO, hid oe tous" pi'qhev 
toiovtov rrpd^avras ras GvvdrjKas errovqoavro . 
Toaavrd aot 2 eyco UTiep rod Stjjjlov a.7ro/cptVo/xat. 

21 *YjjL€T€pov hr) epyov icrriv, to dvhpes fiovAevrai, 
OKeifjacrOai rrorepcp dv m96p.evoi rrepi rrjs So/ct- 
fiaoias ravrrjs dpieivov fjovAevaaiaOe, rrorepov 
ipiol r) QpacrvfiovAqj, os avrcp drroAoyqcreTai. 


ovhev ovtos elrreiv e^ei els fjucrohrj j.uav . oure yap 
cos dAtyap^ta? pierecrxov {vorepov yap rcov xP 0VCxJV 
tovtojv dvr)p elvai ehoKipidcrdrjv), ovO* cos 6 rxaT-qp 
(rrpo ydp rcov ordoecov rroAv ev Xt/ceAta dpxcov 

22 ereAevrrjaev) • ouo' d>s ol rrpoyovoi vrro tois rvpdv- 
vois eyevovro- araoid^ovres yap rrpds avrovs rov 
drravra xpdvov hiereXeoav. dAAa piev hr) ovhe n)v 
ovaiav T)fj,as ev rco rroXepicp cjyqcrei KTr)cracr6ai, els 
he rr)v rroXiv ovhev avijXcoKevai- rrdv ydp rovvav- 
rlovy ev elprrvr\ p,ev oyhorjKovTardXavros r)picov 6 
olkos iyevero, els he T17V rrjs rroXecos crcorr]piav ev 

23 rat TroAe/xa> arras dvrjXcodr). eyco he rrepi rovrov 
rpia etjaj elrreiv rrjXiKavra to pieyedos, coot d£iov 
elvai eKactTov epyov davdrov rrpcorov piev on rr)v 
ev Botwrot? rroXireiav xPW iara Xaflcbv piereo-Trjoe 
/cat rrjs 0-Vf.ifjiaxias rj/xas ravr-qs arreoTepiqcrev, 
erreira otl ras vavs rrpovhcoKe /cat rr)v rroXiv rrepl 

1 7roXXd Reiske : iroWovs mss. 
2 Toaavra. col Reiske : rotai'-ras oi'a? MSS. 

In his eighteenth year. b Tlirasybulus. 



people have distinguished with the highest honours, 
appointing them to cavalry commands, generalships 
and embassies in their service ; and they have never 
repented of it. Those who had committed numer- 
ous offences caused them to decree the institution of 
scrutinies ; those who had done nothing of the sort, 
to make their covenants. So much for my reply to 
you on behalf of the people. 

It is your business, gentlemen of the Council, to 
inquire whether you will reach a better decision in 
the matter of this scrutiny by listening to me or to 
Thrasybulus, who will defend this man. Well, con- 
cerning myself or my father or my ancestors he will 
have nothing to allege that points to hatred of the 
people. For he cannot say that I took part in the 
oligarchy, as I underwent the scrutiny for manhood a 
at a later date than that ; or that my father did 
either, since he died while holding command in Sicily, 
long before those seditions ; or that my ancestors 
were subject to the despots, for they continually 
persisted in raising rebellion against them. Nor yet 
will he assert that we acquired our fortune in the 
war, and have spent nothing on the city : quite the 
contrary, our estate during the peace amounted to 
eighty talents, and the whole of it was spent in the 
war on the deliverance of the city. But on my part 
I shall be able to tell of this person 6 three things so 
grave in their enormity that each deed is worthy of 
death. First, for payment received, he raised a 
revolution in Boeotia, and deprived us of that alli- 
ance 6 ; second, he surrendered our ships d and con- 

c For the influence which this Thrasybulus attained at 
Thebes cf. Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 138. 

"Ina tight at the Hellespont, 387 b.c. Cf. Xenophon, 
Hellenica, v. 1. 27. 



24 ucjrrjpias ^ovXeveadai 7T€TroirjKev y eireiTa on napa 
rtov alxfJid^coTCov , ovs avros a.7rcoAecre, rpiaKovra 
p,vds €<JVKo<f)dvTr)<j€v, ov (f)dorKo>v clvtovs XvaeaOat, 
el jxrf tovto avrtp napa v<\>G)V olvtcov napdaypiev . 
ovveihores ovv rjfjLtov eKarepaj 1 rov fiiov } rrpog 
ravra fiovXevecrde oTrorepco XP^] TTiarevtiv nepl ttjs 
EudVSpou SoKLfiacrias, koli ovtcos ovk i^a/jLaprrj- 

1 eKCLTepu) Reiske : exaTtpwv mss. 



fronted the city with the problem of its safety ; and 
last, from the prisoners of war, whose loss he him- 
self had caused, he extracted a bribe of thirty minae, 
by declaring that he would not obtain their release 
unless they supplied him with this sum from their 
own pockets. So now you are acquainted with the 
life of each of us : decide accordingly which of us 
two you ought to believe regarding the scrutiny of 
Evandros, and by so doing you will avoid mistake. 




This short speech is designed as a supplement to the 
main accusation, which has already been delivered. 
Its title, Against Epicrates, appears to have been 
wrongly amplified by a grammarian, Theodorus, who 
added the words " and his Fellow-envoys " ; for there 
is no mention of an embassy anywhere in the speech, 
except in the first sentence, where the same addition 
has probably been made in order to justify the title. 
And as we read on, it becomes clear that the accused 
man was an important Treasury official who was 
charged with embezzlement, either when he had to 
render his account of his tenure of office, or by means 
of a public impeachment. It has been plausibly 
suggested that Theodorus had in mind the decree 
of the people which, we learn from Demosthenes, 
condemned to death Epicrates (perhaps the same 
man as the subject of this speech) and his fellow- 
envoys for not following their instructions. 

We gather from the general terms in which this 
accusation is couched that a public man of wealth 

c De Falsa Legations, 276-277. 


and influence, who is known as an able speaker, has 
been accused of embezzling State funds and of taking 
bribes : if convicted, he can be sentenced to death, 
and this extreme penalty is demanded by the prose- 
cution. The date of the trial or inquiry is probably 
about 390 b.c, during the Corinthian War. The 
speech has a terse and business-like vigour. 



symiipezbeyton EniAoros ps 


Karrjyop-qraL jiev, w av$p€s 'AdrjvaloL, 'Em- 
Kpdrovs iKava /cat tcov ovparpeo^evTcJov ivOvfieiadai 
Se XPV ° TL ttoXAolkls TjKovGare tovtcov XeyovTcov , 
oirore PovXolvto tlvol olSlkqjs OLTToXeaaL, otl, el fir) 
KaraiJjr)(f)L€La6e cov olvtol KeXevovoLV, €7TtAeti/f€t 8 

2 vfids r) fjuodo(f>opd. /cat vvv ovhev rjrrov eVSet* 
[ 178 J ajare to pLev 7rddos 3 /cat r) oXayxnrt\ 8td tovtcov vplv 

yt'yverat, r) 8' a>0e'Aeta tovtols' ireTTeipavTai yap 


atrtot ctvai ifjr](f)ielcrdaL vfias irapd to 8t/catot>, 
pahicos Trapd tcov clolkovvtcov ^pr\p,aTO. Xafx^dvovoL. 

3 /catrot rtVa xprj eAm'Sa e^etv ocoTTjpias, ottotglv 
cv ^p^aaatv 77 Ktti ocoOrjvai ttj 77-dAet /cat U77, 
raura 8e ovtol, (f>vXa.K€s vcf)' vjjlcov KaTaoTavTes , 
ol tcov doLKovvTCov /coAaorat, kX£tttcool t€ /cat 
KGLTahcopoooKwcrL; /cat ou vw irpcoTOV co<f>dr]oav 
o&lkovvt€s, dAAa /cat npoTepov rjor) hcopcov e/cpt- 

4 Orjoav. <o> 1 /cat uuty e^oj en-t/caAeaat ort tolJ 
aurou dSt/c^/xaTO? 'OyoudaavTOS' /xev Ka.T€ifir)(f)L- 
aaode, tovtov Se aTTeiprj^ioaode, tov clvtov dvhpos 

1 cis 0e65wpos om. index, del. Bekker. 

8 tTri\el\f/€t. Reiske : viro\e i\pei MSS. 

• irddos Foertsch : ttXtjOos mss. * 5 add. Halbertsma. 

The allusion is to the three obols paid daily to each 
juryman. The expenses of the judicature were usually 


The accusations that have been made, men of 
Athens, against Epicrates and his fellow-envoys are 
sufficient : but you should bear in mind the assertion 
that you have often heard from the mouths of these 
men, whenever they sought to ruin somebody un- 
justly, — that, unless you make the convictions that 
they demand, your stipends will not be forthcoming. ° 
They are none the less deficient to-day ; so that 
through their act the suffering and the disgrace fall 
to you, and the profit to them. 6 For they have 
found by experiment that, whenever they and their 
speeches seem likely to induce you to give your votes 
against justice, they easily obtain money from the 
guilty parties. Yet what hope of safety can be ours, 
when the preservation or the ruin of the city depends 
on money, and when these men, — the guardians 
that you have set up, your chastisers of the guilty, — 
both rob you and do anything for bribes ? And this 
is not the first time that they have been caught in 
criminal acts : they have been tried before now for 
taking bribes. And here I have to reproach you 
for having convicted Onomasas c and acquitted this 
man of the same crime, although it was the same 

covered by the income from fines and confiscations, and in a 
time of financial stress this evil alarm might plausibly be 
raised. Cf. Aristophanes, Knights, 1359. 

* The text here is very uncertain. 

Nothing is known of this person. 



arravrcov KarrjyopovvTOS /cat tcqv avrdjv Kara- 
fxaprvpovvrajv , ol oi>x erepcov rJKovcrav, aAA' avrov 
rjaav ol rrepl rtov x? y ][ L ^ JTOiV /cat tojv Scopcov rrpos 

5 tovtovs Trpdrrovres. /catVot rovro drravres eTTL- 
oraode, on oi>x OTOLV TOVS {JLT) $VVapL€VOVS Xiyeiv 
KoXd^-qre, rore carat TrapdheiypLa rod (jlt) v/jl&s 
dSt/cetV, aAA' onorav Trapd rtov hvva\iiva)v SIktjv 
XafjL^dvrjre , rore Trdvres Travoovrai i-mx^ipovvres 

6 els UjLta? i^apLaprdveiv. vvv 8' dcrcfraXcos avrolg 
k'xeu rd vjJLerepa /cAeVretv. idv uev yap Xddcocnv, 
doeajs avTots etjovai ^p^a^at* idv 8e 6(f)9d)criv y r] 
fjLepet rwv doLKrjpLdrcvv rov klvSvvov i^eTrplavro, r) 
els dywva Karaoravres rr\ avrdjv hvvdjiei iacodrj- 
oav. vvv roivvv, <L dvSpeg 8t/caarat, TrapaSeiyfia 
TTOtrjaare rots d'AAot? St/catot? etrat, Trapd tovtoov 

7 hiKriv XaBovres. tikovol oe rrdvres ol rd rrjs 
TToAeaJS Trparrovres ovx rjixwv aKpoaoopievoi, aAA 
Vfias eloopLevoL rjvrLva yvoiprqv Trepi tojv ahiKovvrayv 
e^ere. wot* el [xev aTroifjrjcfrie'iode tovtujv, ovhev 
Setvov 8dfet avroZs etvat vfias i^aTrarrjaavras e/c 
rtov vpLerepcov to^eAetCTtfar idv Se /cara0r]</)tad/xevot 
Oavdrov TLjjiriorjre, rfj avrfj </^</>a) rous" Te d'AAous" 
KocrpLiajrepovs Trorfcrere tj vvv etat, /cat Trapd tovtojv 

8 Slktjv elXrjcf) ore ? eoeoOe. -qyovaai 8', a> dvSpes* 
'A^vatot, ouS' et /xt) Trpodivres avrols Kpioiv, r) 
d-TToXoyov fxivcov pur] ideXrjoavres dhcovoai, Kara- 
ifj-q(f)iodiJL€voL tojv ioxdrtov TifirjcraiTe , ovk dv 
aKpirovs avrovs aTroXwXivai, dXXd rr)v Trpoo- 
TjKovoav SIkt]v ScSaweVat. ov yap ovroi aKpirol 
etat, TTepi (Lv dv vfiels elSores rd TrpaxOevra 
^jfjcjiLorjode, aAA' oinves dv vtto tcov ix@pd>v Sta- 



person who accused them all, and they were opposed 
by the same witnesses ; who had not been told by 
others, but were the very persons who arranged with 
these men about the money and the gifts. Yet you 
are all aware that it is not by chastising men who 
are not able to speak that you will make an example 
to deter men from wronging you, but that by doing 
justice upon those who are able you will cause every- 
one to cease attempting to commit offences against 
you. But at present they find it quite safe to rob you. 
For if they are not detected, they will be able to 
enjoy their booty without fear ; while if they are 
caught, they either buy off the prosecution with part 
of their ill-gotten gains, or save themselves, on being 
brought to trial, by their own ability. So this is 
the moment, gentlemen of the jury, for you to make 
an example that will ensure the honesty of the rest, 
by doing justice upon these men. All who are in the